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Número de publicaciónCN102096156 A
Tipo de publicaciónSolicitud
Número de solicitudCN 201110001942
Fecha de publicación15 Jun 2011
Fecha de presentación6 Ene 2011
Fecha de prioridad6 Ene 2011
Número de publicación201110001942.8, CN 102096156 A, CN 102096156A, CN 201110001942, CN-A-102096156, CN102096156 A, CN102096156A, CN201110001942, CN201110001942.8
Inventores冯婧, 徐飞, 胡伟, 赵云, 陆延青
Solicitante南京大学
Exportar citaBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
Enlaces externos:  SIPO, Espacenet
Online light polarization controller based on optical fiber end face metal wire grating and manufacturing method thereof
CN 102096156 A
Resumen
The invention discloses an online light polarization controller based on an optical fiber end face metal wire grating. The end face of an optical fiber is provided with a metal wire grating; the metal wire grating has a period of 0.05 to 5 microns; the metal wire grating consists of metal films; the metal film has the thickness of 0.01 to 2 microns; and the duty ratio x is an optional value between 0 and 1. The optical fiber is provided with a flat end face and comprises a single-mode optical fiber, a multi-mode optical fiber and a polarization maintaining optical fiber. The method for preparing the metal wire grating is divided into a direct method and an indirect method, wherein the direct method comprises a step of directly preparing a metal wire grating structure on the flat optical fiber end face by utilizing a micro-nano processing technology; and the indirect method comprises the steps of: preparing a nonmetallic structure barrier layer by utilizing the micro-nano processing technology, preparing the metal wire grating structure by utilizing the structure barrier layer, and removing the structure barrier layer. Due to the specific micro-nano processing technology, the metal wire grating is prepared on the flat optical fiber end face, and the polarization of transmission light or reflected light is controlled by the wire grating structure.
Reclamaciones(9)  traducido del chino
1.基于光纤端面金属线栅的在线式光偏振控制器,其特征是光纤端面设有金属线栅, 金属线栅的周期为0. 05-5微米,组成金属线栅是金属膜,金属膜厚为0. 01-2微米,占空比χ为0 < χ < 1之间的任意值。 1. Based on the fiber end face of the metal wire grid polarization controller light line, characterized in that the end face of an optical fiber with a metal wire grid, a wire grid cycle 0. 05-5 m, the composition of the metal wire grid is a metal film, a metal film thickness of 0. 01-2 m, the duty ratio χ is 0 <χ any value between 1 <.
2.根据权利要求1所述的基于光纤端面金属线栅的在线式光偏振控制器,其特征是光纤具有平整的光纤端面,光纤包括单模光纤、多模光纤、保偏光纤。 The fiber ends based on the metal wire grid line optical polarization controller as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that the fiber has a flat end face of an optical fiber, the optical fiber including single-mode fiber, multimode fiber, polarization maintaining fiber.
3.根据权利要求1所述的基于光纤端面金属线栅的在线式光偏振控制器,其特征是金属线栅的材质包括金、银、铝、铜、钼、铬等金属,线栅结构周期为0. 1-3微米,占空比χ为0.3 至0. 7之间的任意值,线栅的金属膜厚为0. 05-1微米,线栅结构区域覆盖光纤纤芯。 3. Based on the fiber end face of the metal wire grid line optical polarization controller as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that the metal wire grid material include gold, silver, aluminum, copper, molybdenum, chromium and other metals, the wire grid structure period 0. 1-3 microns, the duty χ any value between 0.3 to 0.7, the metal thickness of the wire grid 0. 05-1 m, the wire grid structure of the regional coverage of the fiber core.
4. 一种基于光纤端面金属线栅的在线式光偏振控制器的制备方法,其特征为:金属线栅制备方法分为直接法和间接法两类,直接法为在平整的光纤端面利用微纳加工技术直接制备金属线栅结构;间接法为先利用微纳加工技术制备非金属结构挡层,利用结构挡层制备金属线栅结构,然后去掉结构挡层。 4. A method of preparing the fiber end face of the metal wire grid line based on light polarization controller, wherein: the metal wire grid preparation method is divided into two direct and indirect method, the direct method is the use of micro-fiber end flat nanofabrication technology directly into the preparation of metal wire grid structure; indirect method for the first use of micro-nanofabrication technology to prepare non-metallic barrier layer structure, prepared using a wire structure blocking layer gate structure, and then remove the barrier layer structure.
5.根据权利要求4所述的基于光纤端面金属线栅的在线式光偏振控制器的制备方法, 其特征为:微纳加工技术包括对金属膜层以聚焦离子束刻蚀(FIB)形成金属线栅,微纳遮挡板定向沉积技术,及软模板打印金属线栅;间接法包括纳米压印、光刻技术、全息干涉及电子束直写(EBL)。 According to claim 4, wherein the preparation of the fiber end face of the metal wire grid line based on light polarization controller, wherein: the micro nanofabrication techniques including metal films to focused ion beam etching (FIB) forming a metal The wire grid, directional deposition shielding plate micro-nano technology, and soft templates to print metal wire grid; indirect method including nano-imprint lithography technology, holographic interferometry and electron beam direct writing (EBL). 直接法包括聚焦离子束刻蚀(FIB),微纳遮挡板定向沉积技术,及软模板打印金属线栅;间接法包括纳米压印、光刻技术、全息干涉及电子束直写(EBL)。 Direct methods include focused ion beam etching (FIB), the blocking plate directional deposition of micro-nano technology, and soft templates to print metal wire grid; indirect method including nano-imprint lithography technology, holographic interferometry and electron beam direct writing (EBL).
6.根据权利要求4所述的基于光纤端面金属线栅的在线式光偏振控制器的制备方法, 其特征为:直接法中的聚焦离子束刻蚀技术为利用聚焦镓离子束溅射掉光纤端面目标区域的金属膜层,得到金属线栅结构;微纳遮挡板定向沉积技术为利用遮挡板的空间遮挡效应, 直接在光纤端面定向沉积金属线栅;软模板打印技术为在软模板的微纳结构表面沉积金属膜层,打印转移金属线栅至光纤端面。 According to claim 4, wherein the preparation of the fiber end face of the metal wire grid line based on light polarization controller, wherein: the direct method of focused ion beam etching technique using a focused gallium ion beam sputtering out fiber the end face of the metal film layer of the target area, to obtain a metal wire grid structure; Micronanoelectronic shielding plate oriented deposition techniques for the use of the shielding effect of the shielding plate space, directly depositing a metal wire grid orientation of the fiber end faces; soft template printing technology to micro soft template nanostructured metal film deposited on the surface, print transfer metal wire grid to the fiber ends.
7.根据权利要求4所述的基于光纤端面金属线栅的在线式光偏振控制器的制备方法, 其特征为:间接法是在光纤端面沉积的金属膜层上利用微纳加工技术制备结构挡层,并以此为阻挡利用湿法刻蚀或干法刻蚀刻蚀掉凹槽处的金属,最终洗脱掉挡层,得到金属线栅结构;所述的基于光纤端面金属线栅的在线式光偏振控制器的间接法的具体操作步骤如下:(a)在光纤端面沉积一层金属膜(膜厚0. 01-1微米)。 7. Based on the fiber end face preparation of metal wire grid line optical polarization controller as claimed in claim 4, wherein: the indirect method is the use of micro-nanofabrication technology to prepare the structure of the block on the fiber end face of the metal film deposition layer, and as a barrier by wet etching or dry etching recess etching away the metal and eventually wash off barrier layer, to obtain a metal wire grid structure; based on the fiber end face of the metal wire grid line Specific steps indirect light polarization controller as follows: (a) in the end face of the optical fiber is deposited a metal film (thickness of 0.5 01-1 m). (b)在该光纤端面涂上光刻胶或抗蚀层(c)利用微纳加工技术对光刻胶或抗蚀层图案化(d)显影去胶或去除残留(e)利用湿法刻蚀或干法刻蚀刻蚀掉上方没有光刻胶覆盖的金属(f)用溶剂溶解去除剩余的光刻胶层,即可获得所需的光栅结构 (B) coated with a photoresist or resist layer (c) the use of micro-fiber end nanofabrication technology or resist layer is patterned photoresist (d) developed to remove residual adhesive or (e) use of wet etching or Dry etching not covered by the photoresist is etched away above a metal (f) dissolved in a solvent to remove the remaining photoresist layer, to obtain a desired grating structure
8.根据权利要求4所述的基于光纤端面金属线栅的在线式光偏振控制器的制备方法, 其特征为先制备微结构挡层,再沉积金属,然后洗脱掉挡层及沉积其上的金属,即得到目标金属线栅结构,所述的基于光纤端面金属线栅的在线式光偏振控制器间接法的制备步骤包括;(a)在光纤端面涂上光刻胶或抗蚀层,(b)利用微纳加工技术对光刻胶或抗蚀层图案化,(C)显影去胶或去除残留,(d)在图案表面沉积特定厚度的金属膜,(e)用溶剂溶解去除光刻胶层,即可获得所需的光栅结构。 According to claim 4, wherein the preparation of the fiber end face of the metal wire grid line based on light polarization controller, wherein the first barrier layer prepared microstructure, and then depositing a metal, and then eluted barrier layer deposited thereon metal, i.e. the metal wire grid structure to give the object, based on said step of preparing the fiber end face of the metal wire grid line optical polarization controller indirect method comprising; (a) at the end face of the optical fiber coated with a photoresist or resist layer, (b ) use of micro-nanofabrication technology to resist or resist layer is patterned, (C) developer to remove residual adhesive or, (d) the patterned metal film deposited on the surface of a specific thickness, (e) dissolved in a solvent to remove the photoresist layer, you can get the desired grating structure.
9.该基于光纤端面金属线栅的在线式光偏振控制器在光纤通信、光信息处理系统、光纤传感及精密光学测量系统中的应用。 9. The line of light polarization controller based on the fiber end face of the metal wire grid used in optical fiber communications, optical information processing systems, fiber optic sensing and precision optical measurement system. 在线式光偏振控制器的结构设置为将制备好的具有金属线栅结构的光纤熔接进入光路,如图1(a)所示,光路中包括:偏振控制器、环形器和端面具有金属线栅结构的光纤。 Structure of light polarization controller setting line will be prepared for the gate structure having a metal wire fused into the optical fiber, as shown in Figure 1 (a), the optical path comprises: a polarization controller, the annular end face, and having a metal wire grid fiber structure.
Descripción  traducido del chino

一种基于光纤端面金属线栅的在线式光偏振控制器及其制 Based on the fiber end face of the metal wire grid line optical polarization controller and system

France

技术领域: Technology area:

[0001] 本发明属于光电子技术领域,具体涉及金属线栅的偏振选择特性,及基于此的一种新型在线式光偏振控制器的制备及应用。 [0001] The present invention belongs to the polarization selecting characteristic field of photonics technology, particularly to the metal wire grid, and based on this a new on-line preparation and application of light polarization controller. 利用光纤端面金属线栅结构控制反射光或透射光的偏振性,从而设计出的一种新型的在线式光偏振控制器,在光纤通信、光信息处理、光纤传感及精密光学测量等方面具有重要应用。 The use of the fiber end face metal wire grid structure control reflected or transmitted light polarization, thus designed a new line of light polarization controller, with regard to optical fiber communication, optical information processing, optical sensing and precision optical measurement Important applications.

背景技术 Background

[0002] 进入21世纪以来,由于信息量的骤增,对通信技术提出了更高的要求。 [0002] In the 21st century, due to the surge in the amount of information, communication technology has put forward higher requirements. 光通信因其带宽大、可靠性高、成本低、传输速度快等优点而占据了市场的主导地位。 Because optical communication bandwidth, high reliability, low cost, transmission speed, etc. and dominate the market. 光通信系统和光网络的飞速发展带来了信息时代的革命。 The rapid development of optical communication systems and optical networks has brought a revolution in the information age. 其中光纤通信技术凭借其通信容量大、传输距离远,信号串扰小、保密性能好,抗电磁干扰、传输质量高、作为载体的光纤尺寸小、材料来源丰富等优点,在众多的光通信技术中脱颖而出,成为现代通信的主要支柱之一。 Wherein the optical fiber communication technology to communicate with its large capacity, transmission distance, small-signal crosstalk, good security performance, anti-electromagnetic interference, high transmission quality, small size as a carrier fiber, rich sources of material, etc., in a large number of optical communication technology It emerged as one of the main pillars of modern communications.

[0003] 随着通信技术的飞速发展,系统中单信道的传输速率正在不断提高,以满足人们对通信带宽的需求。 [0003] With the rapid development of communication technology, the transmission rate of the system in a single channel is increasing to meet the demand for communication bandwidth. 在传输速率提高的同时,通信系统对光纤中的偏振模色散(PMD)、电光调制器中的偏振相关调制(PDM),以及光放大器中的偏振相关增益(PDG)等一系列由偏振引起的损害也越来越敏感。 In the transfer rate at the same time, the communication system of the optical fiber polarization mode dispersion (PMD), electro-optical modulator polarization-dependent modulation (PDM), as well as optical amplifier polarization dependent gain (PDG) caused by the polarization series damage is also more sensitive. 用于PMD补偿的动态偏振控制器是克服这些损害的最重要的器件,它能够将任意给定的偏振态转变为任何希望得到的偏振态。 Dynamic polarization controller for PMD compensation is to overcome the damage of the most important components, which can be any given polarization state into any desired polarization state.

[0004] 目前,商用的偏振控制器根据其技术原理可分为三类:一种是由多个延迟固定、方位角可变的波片组成的;另一种由单个延迟可调、方位角可变的波片组成;还有一种由多个方位角固定、延迟可调的波片组成。 [0004] At present, commercially available polarization controller according to the technical principles can be divided into three categories: one is fixed by a plurality of delay, azimuth variable wave plate thereof; another delay by a single adjustable azimuth variable waveplate composition; there is a plurality of azimuth by a fixed, adjustable delayed wave slices. 典型的偏振控制器由三个可旋转的波片组成(如图2),一个λ/2波片处于两个λ/4波片中间,每个波片都可沿着光轴相对于其它波片自由转动。 A typical wave plate polarization controller consists of three rotatable composition (FIG. 2), a λ / 2 wave plate in the middle of two λ / 4 wave plate, wave plate each relative to the other along the optical axis can wave pieces free to rotate. 第一个λ/4波片的作用是将任意输入偏振光转变为线偏振光,然后λ/2波片将此线偏振光旋转到任一希望得到的偏振方向,于是第二个λ /4波片就能将该偏振光转变为任何希望得到的输出偏振态。 The first λ / 4 wave plate effect is arbitrary input polarization into linearly polarized light, and λ / 2 waveplate this linearly polarized light of a desired polarization direction of rotation either obtained, then the second λ / 4 The polarized wave plate can be converted to any desired output polarization state. 在这种实现方法中,波片的延迟是固定的,但波片的相对角度是可变的。 In this implementation, the delay-wave plate is fixed, but the relative angle of the wave plate is variable.

[0005] 虽然,这种方法应用在商用化的产品中已经颇见成效,但该项技术仍然存在许多不足。 [0005] Although this method is used in commercial products have been quite effective, but the technology is still many deficiencies. 第一,光线的准直、对轴、聚焦费时费力。 First, light collimation, shaft, focus time and effort. 第二,波片、微透镜等元件都价格不菲,并且还需要镀增透膜、抛磨斜角以减少背向反射。 Second, the wave plate, a microlens and other components are expensive, and also requires AR-coated, polishing beveled to reduce back reflections. 第三,由于不可避免的要将光从一根光纤中耦合输出,然后再将其聚焦进入另一根光纤,造成插入损耗大。 Third, because of the inevitable optically coupled to the output from an optical fiber, and then focus it into another fiber, resulting in large insertion loss. 第四,波片是对波长敏感的(任何分数波片的确定都是针对某个固定波长的),从而使得相应的偏振控制器也对波长敏感。 Fourth, the wave plate is sensitive to the wavelength (determining any fraction of a wave plate is fixed against wavelength), so that the respective polarization controller is also sensitive to the wavelength. 第五,使用电动机或其它机械器件旋转波片,都会限制偏振控制器的控制速度。 Fifth, the use of a motor or other mechanical device rotating wave plates, will be speed limit control polarization controller.

[0006] 与此同时,基于金属线栅技术的体块型偏振器发展已经日趋成熟。 [0006] At the same time, the development of body mass based polarizer metal wire grid technology has matured. 金属线栅偏振器是一种宽带的偏振器,借助一定的结构设计,工作波长可覆盖宽波段。 The wire grid polarizer is a broadband polarizer, with a certain design, it can cover a wide operating wavelength band. 到目前为止,在无线电波、微波和远红外波段,亚波长金属线栅偏振器均已得到了广泛应用。 So far, the radio waves, microwaves and far infrared wavelengths, sub-wavelength wire grid polarizers have been widely used. 随着纳米加工技术的发展,制备出结构更小,应用于近红外、可见、甚至紫外波段的金属线栅偏振器也已经成为可能。 With the development of nano-processing technology to prepare the structure of a smaller, used in the near-infrared, visible, ultraviolet and even a metal wire grid polarizer has become possible. 发明内容 DISCLOSURE

[0007] 本发明目的是:提出一种基于光纤端面金属线栅的在线式光偏振控制器及其制法,从金属线栅技术出发,把金属线栅偏振器与光纤相结合,制备新型在线式光偏振控制 [0007] The present invention is: Presented line Jiqizhifa light polarization controller based on the fiber end face of the metal wire grid, starting from the metal wire grid technology, the wire grid polarizer and fiber combination, preparation of new online optical polarization control

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[0008] 本发明的技术方案是:基于光纤端面金属线栅的在线式光偏振控制器,光纤端面设有金属线栅,金属线栅周期为0. 05-5微米,组成金属线栅是金属膜,金属膜厚为0. 01-2 微米,占空比χ为0 < χ < 1之间的任意值。 [0008] The technical solution of the present invention are: on-line with the metal wire grid type polarization controller, the fiber end face of the fiber end face metal wire grid, a metal wire grid cycle 0. 05-5 m, is composed of a metal wire grid film, metal film thickness 0.5 01-2 m, the duty ratio χ is 0 <χ any value between 1 <.

[0009] 光纤具有平整的光纤端面,光纤包括单模光纤、多模光纤、保偏光纤。 [0009] The fiber has a flat fiber end face, fiber comprises a single mode fiber, multimode fiber, polarization maintaining fiber.

[0010] 金属线栅的材质包括金、银、铝、铜、钼、铬等金属,线栅结构周期尤其为0. 1-3微米,占空比X为0. 3至0. 7之间的任意值,线栅的金属膜厚为0. 05-1微米,线栅结构区域覆盖光纤纤芯。 [0010] The metal wire grid material include gold, silver, aluminum, copper, molybdenum, chromium and other metals, in particular wire grid structure period 0. 1-3 microns, the duty ratio X is between 0.3 to 0.7 any value, the metal thickness of the wire grid 0. 05-1 m, the wire grid structure of the regional coverage of the fiber core.

[0011] 结构区域覆盖光纤纤芯。 [0011] construction area covers the fiber core. 本发明是利用微纳加工技术直接或间接地在光纤端面制备金属线栅,利用金属线栅对特定偏振光的选择性反射或透射效应,实现对特定光波段的反射光或透射光的偏振性控制。 The present invention is the use of micro-nanofabrication technology, directly or indirectly, in the manufacture of metal wire grid optical fiber end face, the use of selective reflection or transmission effect of metal wire grid for a particular polarization and achieve reflected or transmitted light of a specific wavelength of light polarization control.

[0012] 基于光纤端面金属线栅的在线式光偏振控制器的制备方法,包括: [0012] The preparation of the fiber end face of the metal wire grid line polarization controller based, including:

[0013] (1)光纤端面金属线栅的制作。 [0013] (1) metal wire grid fiber end production. 利用微纳加工技术,通过直接或间接的方法在光纤表面制作金属线栅。 Use of micro-nanofabrication technology, through direct or indirect method of making metal wire grid in the fiber surface. 直接法包括聚焦离子束刻蚀(FIB),微纳遮挡板定向沉积技术,及软模板打印金属;间接法包括纳米压印、光刻技术、全息干涉及电子束直写(EBL)。 Direct methods include focused ion beam etching (FIB), the blocking plate directional deposition of micro-nano technology, and soft templates to print metal; indirect method including nano-imprint lithography technology, holographic interferometry and electron beam direct writing (EBL). 具体说明:直接法中的聚焦离子束刻蚀技术为利用聚焦镓离子束溅射掉光纤端面目标区域的金属膜层, 得到金属线栅结构;微纳遮挡板定向沉积技术为利用遮挡板的空间遮挡效应,直接在光纤端面定向沉积金属线栅;软模板打印技术为在软模板的微纳结构表面沉积金属膜层,打印转移金属线栅至光纤端面。 Specifying: the direct method of focused ion beam etching technique using a focused gallium ion beam sputtering metal film off the fiber end face of the target area, to obtain a metal wire grid structure; Micronanoelectronic directional deposition technique for the shielding plate shielding plate of the use of space shielding effect, directly at the fiber end face directional deposition of metal wire grid; soft template printing technology in micro-nano structure of the surface of the deposited metal layer soft template, print transfer metal wire grid to the fiber ends. 间接法还可以分为两类,一是在光纤端面沉积的金属膜层上利用微纳加工技术制备结构挡层,并以此为阻挡利用湿法刻蚀或干法刻蚀刻蚀掉凹槽处的金属,最终洗脱掉挡层,得到金属线栅结构;另一种方案是先制备微结构挡层,再沉积金属,然后洗脱掉挡层及沉积其上的金属,即得到目标金属线栅结构。 The indirect method can be divided into two categories, one use of micro-nanofabrication technology to prepare structural barrier layer deposited on the fiber end face of the metal film, and as a barrier by wet etching or dry etching etching away recess metal, finally eluted barrier layer, to obtain a metal wire grid structure; Alternatively microstructured barrier layer is first prepared, and then depositing a metal, barrier layer, and then washed off the metal deposited thereon, i.e., to obtain the target wire gate structure.

[0014] 间接法第一种方案的一般操作步骤如下: [0014] The indirect method is generally the first option, follow these steps:

[0015] (g)在光纤端面沉积一层金属膜(膜厚0. 01-1微米)。 [0015] (g) in the end face of the optical fiber is deposited a metal film (thickness of 0.5 01-1 m).

[0016] (h)在该光纤端面涂上光刻胶或抗蚀层 [0016] (h) coated with a photoresist or resist the fiber end face

[0017] (i)利用微纳加工技术对光刻胶或抗蚀层图案化 [0017] (i) use of micro-nanofabrication technology or resist layer is patterned photoresist

[0018] (j)显影去胶或去除残留 [0018] (j) a developing to remove residual gum or

[0019] (k)利用湿法刻蚀或干法刻蚀刻蚀掉上方没有光刻胶覆盖的金属 [0019] (k) use of wet etching or dry etching not covered by the photoresist is etched away over the metal

[0020] (1)用溶剂溶解去除剩余的光刻胶层,即可获得所需的光栅结构 [0020] (1) was dissolved with a solvent to remove the remaining photoresist layer, to obtain a desired grating structure

[0021] 第二种方案的操作步骤包括; Procedure [0021] A second program include;

[0022] (f)在光纤端面涂上光刻胶或抗蚀层 [0022] (f) at the end face of the optical fiber coated with a photoresist or resist layer

[0023] (g)利用微纳加工技术对光刻胶或抗蚀层图案化 [0023] (g) use of micro-nanofabrication technology or resist layer is patterned photoresist

[0024] (h)显影去胶或去除残留 [0024] (h) developing to remove residual gum or

[0025] (i)在图案表面沉积特定厚度(0. 01-1微米)的金属膜 [0025] (i) deposited on the surface in a pattern specific thickness (0.5 01-1 m) of the metallic film

5[0026] (j)用溶剂溶解去除光刻胶层,即可获得所需的光栅结构 5 [0026] (j) the photoresist layer is dissolved and removed with a solvent, to obtain a desired grating structure

[0027] 金属线栅周期为0. 05-5微米,占空比χ为0 < χ < 1之间的任意值,金属膜厚为0. 01-1 微米。 [0027] The metal wire grid cycle 0. 05-5 m, the duty ratio χ is 0 <χ <any value between 1, the metal thickness of 0.5 01-1 m.

[0028] (2)在线式光偏振控制器的结构设置。 [0028] (2) line of light polarization controller configuration settings. 将制备好的具有金属线栅结构的光纤熔接进入光路。 The prepared having a metal wire grid structure of the fiber splice into the optical path. 如图1(a)所示,光路中包括:偏振控制器、环形器和端面具有金属线栅结构的光纤。 FIG. 1 (a), the optical path comprises: a polarization controller, the annular end face of an optical fiber, and a metal wire grid structure.

[0029] 对于周期远小于入射光波长的金属线栅,入射的横磁模TM偏振光(平行于光栅矢量)和横电模TE偏振光(垂直于光栅矢量)(如图3)边界条件不同,等效折射率也不同。 [0029] For a period much smaller than the wavelength of incident light metal wire grid, transverse magnetic mode TM incident polarized light (parallel to the grating vector) and the transverse electric mode TE polarization (perpendicular to the grating vector) (Fig. 3) different boundary conditions , different from the equivalent refractive index. 如图3所示,金属线对于TE偏振呈现出金属性,使得TE偏振光反射;而对于TM偏振光,由于空气间隙将金属线隔离而表现出介电性,此时TM光会发生透射。 3, the wire for the TE polarization exhibit metallic, so that the reflected TE polarized light; for TM polarization, since the air gap and the spacer wires exhibiting dielectric properties, then the TM light transmission occurs. 基于严格耦合波理论的计算结果(如图4)也表明,在一定的前述周期、占空比条件下,波长在1.5-1.6微米范围内TE偏振光几乎完全被反射,而TM偏振光几乎完全透射。 Based on the results of rigorous coupled wave theory (Figure 4) also shows that under certain preceding period, duty cycle conditions, the wavelength TE-polarized light is reflected almost completely within the range of 1.5 to 1.6 microns, and TM-polarized light is almost completely transmission.

[0030] 在图1(a)所示的光路中,一束光经过偏振控制器后即获得特定的偏振性,TM光分量经过金属线栅后发生透射,可在金属线栅结构的光纤后耦合一段光纤引出TM透射光;TE 光则被金属线栅完全反射,反射的TE光可在环形器末端测得。 [0030] In FIG. 1 (a) shown in the optical path, a beam of light through a polarization controller obtained after specific polarization, TM light component transmitted through the wire grid occurs after the metal, the metal wire grid in the fiber structure after coupling length of optical fiber leads TM transmitted light; TE light metal wire grid were fully reflected, the reflected light in TE circulator measured at the end. 因此,利用该装置可以有效地控制透射或反射光的偏振态。 Therefore, the use of the device can effectively control the transmitted or reflected light polarization. 图1(a)中所示的偏振控制器可以是传统的偏振控制器,也可以是另一具有金属线栅结构的光纤(如图1(b),(c)),且通过调节两段光纤上线栅的夹角,即可调节两个偏振器的相对关系,从而控制透射或反射光的特性:在图1(b)中,光路中前后的线栅相互平行,则只有TM光透射,无反射光;在图1(c)中,光路中前后的线栅相互垂直,则只有相对于后面线栅的TE光反射,无透射光。 Figure 1 polarization controller (a) shown may be a conventional polarization controller, or may be another optical fiber wire having a gate structure (FIG. 1 (b), (c)), and by regulating the two the angle between the wire grid, the optical fiber can adjust the relative relationship between the two polarizers to control light transmission or reflection characteristic: in Figure 1 (b), the wire grid optical path parallel to each other before and after, only the TM light transmission, no reflected light; in FIG. 1 (c), the wire grid optical path perpendicular to each other before and after, only the wire with respect to the back gate of the TE light reflection, no transmitted light.

[0031] (3)可以利用该光偏振控制器对偏振态的敏感性制备传感器。 [0031] (3) can take advantage of the polarization state of light polarization controller sensitivity sensor preparation. 两个偏振器之间的光纤受外界影响后,光纤中传输光的偏振态会发生变化,则透射光或反射光的光强会相应地发生变化。 After the fiber between two polarizers outside influence, fiber transmission polarization state of light will change, the transmitted or reflected light intensity changes will occur accordingly. 基于该原理,此装置可用作监测影响光偏振态的物理量如压力、电场、磁场等的传感器。 Based on this principle, this device can be used to monitor the impact of light polarization quantities such as pressure, electric field, magnetic field sensors.

[0032] 本发明的有益效果是:本发明提出的在线式光偏振控制器与传统产品相比,具有显著优点: [0032] The beneficial effects of the present invention are: The present invention provides a line of light polarization controller compared with conventional products, has significant advantages:

[0033] (1)该偏振控制器兼容了现有产品的全部功能,且具有宽带工作的能力。 [0033] (1) The polarization controller is compatible with the full functionality of existing products, and the ability to work with a broadband. 这对于密集波分复用(DWDM)系统至关重要。 This dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) system is essential. 宽工作带宽使偏振控制器在不同信道具有相同的工作性能,这样不仅简化了系统设计,降低了制造成本,而且使系统带宽扩展成为可能。 Wide operating bandwidth of the polarization controllers in different channels have the same performance, so that not only simplifies the system design and reduce manufacturing costs, and make it possible to expand the system bandwidth.

[0034] (2)该偏振控制器,相对于传统器件,结构大为简化,提高了系统的稳定性和可靠性,并可根据需要灵活实现透射光和反射光偏振性的分别控制。 [0034] (2) The polarization controller, as opposed to conventional devices, greatly simplifying the structure, improve the stability and reliability of the system, and the flexibility to achieve polarization of transmitted light and reflected light are controlled according to need.

[0035] (3)该偏振控制器,由于采用了全光纤结构,反应速度快,能够对快速变化的偏振态进行实时跟踪。 [0035] (3) The polarization controller, the use of all-fiber structure, fast response, capable of rapid changes in the polarization state of real-time tracking. 由于光纤中偏振态对于外界环境因素的敏感性,该偏振控制器适用于偏振相关物理量的实时传感。 Since the optical fiber polarization sensitivity to environmental factors, the polarization controller for real-time sensing the polarization dependence of physical quantities.

[0036] (4)该偏振控制器结构简单,制作成本低,适用于大批量生产,能够广泛应于科学研究和生产生活。 [0036] (4) The polarization controller structure is simple, low production cost, suitable for mass production, it can be widely applied scientific research and production and living.

附图说明 Brief Description

[0037] 图1基于光纤端面金属线栅的在线式光偏振控制器的光路设置。 Optical path [0037] FIG. 1 is based on the fiber end face metal wire grid line optical polarization controller settings. 图1(a)由一个偏振控制器,一个环形器和末端具有金属线栅结构的光纤组成;图1(b)光路中有两段具有结构的光纤,其末端金属线栅相互平行时的情况;图1(c)光路中有两段具有结构的光纤, 其末端金属线栅相互垂直时的情况。 The case of FIG. 1 (b) there are two optical fiber having a structure that a metal end parallel to each other when the wire grid; Fig. 1 (a) consists of a polarization controller, and a terminal having an annular optical fiber grating structure composed of a metal wire ; Figure 1 (c) there are two optical fiber having a structure of its end a metal wire grid of mutually perpendicular.

[0038] 图2典型偏振控制器的组成:三个可旋转的波片,一个λ/2波片处于两个λ/4波片中间。 Composition [0038] Figure 2 Typical polarization controller: three rotatable wave plate, a λ / 2 wave plate in the middle of two λ / 4 wave plate.

[0039] 图3金属线栅偏振器的工作原理:入射的TE光大部分被反射,TM光大部分透射。 [0039] metal wire grid polarizer 3 works: most of the incident light is reflected TE, TM most light transmission.

[0040] 图4利用严格耦合波(RCWA)方法计算的在一定的前述周期、占空比条件下, 1. 5-1. 6微米范围内TE和TM偏振态光的透射和反射光谱。 [0040] FIG. 4 using rigorous coupled wave in a certain preceding period, duty cycle conditions, the transmission and reflection spectra within 1 5-1 6 microns TE and TM polarization state of light (RCWA) method of calculation. 图4 (a) TE和TM偏振态光的透射光谱;图4(b) TE和TM偏振态光的反射光谱。 Figure 4 transmission spectra (a) TE and TM polarization state of light; reflection spectra 4 (b) TE and TM polarization state of light.

[0041] 图5利用FIB方式,在光纤截面纤芯处得到的金属线栅结构。 [0041] FIG. 5 uses the FIB way to get at the core of the fiber cross-section of a metal wire grid structure. 图5(a)为金属线栅的照片;图5(b)为纤芯处有线栅结构的光纤截面照片。 Figure 5 (a) is a metal wire grid pictures; FIG. 5 (b) is a cross-sectional core of the optical fiber cable photo-gate structure.

[0042] 图6(a)利用纳米压印技术在光纤端面获得的抗蚀剂线栅结构SEM照片;图6(b) 沉积金属银后洗脱掉抗蚀剂结构得到的银纳米线栅。 [0042] FIG. 6 (a) gate structure utilizing nanoimprint resist lines SEM photograph obtained fiber end face; Figure 6 (b) deposition of metallic silver eluted resist structure obtained silver nanowire grid.

[0043] 图7在两个偏振控制器之间施加压力的光路图。 [0043] FIG. 7 optical path diagram of pressure between the two polarization controllers.

[0044] 图8实施例2中随两个偏振控制器之间所施加的压力变化,反射光强的变化。 8 cases with pressure changes between two polarization controller 2 is applied, the reflected light intensity changes being implemented [0044] FIG. 具体实施方式 DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0045] 下面通过实施例来进一步阐明本发明方法及应用,而不是要用这些实施例来限制本发明。 [0045] The following Examples further illustrate the method and application of the present invention, but not to limit the use of these embodiments of the present invention.

[0046] 实施例1 [0046] Example 1

[0047] 用光纤切割刀切割单模光纤以获得平整的光纤端面,并用溅射法在光纤端面镀0.07微米厚的金膜。 [0047] The fiber cleaver cutting singlemode fiber to obtain a flat fiber end face and the fiber end face by sputtering in 0.07 micron thick gold plating film. 利用聚焦离子束刻蚀系统(Strata FIB 201,FEI公司,30keV镓离子源),7pA束流的条件下,用聚焦镓离子束溅射掉光纤端面目标区域的金属膜层,从而在光纤的纤芯处获得面积为10微米X 10微米,周期为0. 2微米,占空比为0. 5的金线栅。 The use of focused ion beam etching systems (Strata FIB 201, FEI Company, 30keV gallium ion source), under the conditions 7pA beam, a focused gallium ion beam sputtering off the target area metal layer of the fiber end face, so that the fibers in the fiber obtained at the core area of 10 m X 10 m and a period of 0.2 micron, gold wire grid duty cycle of 0.5. 把该金线栅光纤接入图1(a)所示光路,测得该在线式光偏振器对TE反射光的偏振对比度为14dB。 To the gold wire grid optical access Figure 1 (a) shown in the optical path, the line measured optical polarizer contrast TE polarization of the reflected light is 14dB.

[0048] 如果镀银、铝0. 15微米的膜效果相同。 [0048] If the silver, the same aluminum 0.15 micron membrane effect.

[0049] 占空比χ分别取0.4或0.7,光偏振器对TE反射光的偏振对比度为15dB。 [0049] the duty cycle of 0.4 or 0.7 χ were taken, the contrast of light polarization is TE polarization of the reflected light is 15dB. 假如线栅结构周期为2微米,占空比χ分别取0. 4或0. 7,光偏振器对TE反射光的偏振对比度为分别为9dB和IldB0 If the wire grid structure period of 2 m, duty cycle χ were taken 0.4 or 0.7, the contrast of light polarization is TE polarization of the reflected light is respectively 9dB and IldB0

[0050] 实施例2 [0050] Example 2

[0051] 用光纤切割刀切割多模光纤以获得平整的光纤端面,将光纤端面与紫外固化的抗蚀剂材料接触,使该光纤端面附着一层厚度约为0. 2微米的抗蚀剂薄膜。 [0051] The optical fiber cutting blade for cutting the multimode fiber flat fiber end, the fiber end face resist material in contact with the UV curing, so that the fiber ends are attached to a layer thickness of approximately 0.2 microns resist film . 将该光纤固定在夹具上,使粘有紫外固化胶的一头朝下,操控夹具缓慢向下移动,调节光纤的位置使光纤端面与平铺的软模板的光栅结构表面保持完全接触,但又不压得过紧。 The optical fiber is fixed in the fixture, so stick with a UV curing adhesive upside down, control jig slowly moving down, adjust the position of the optical fiber so that the fiber end face of the grating structure of the surface of the tile soft template remain completely in contact, but not overextended. 然后将整个装置置于N2环境下保持进行紫外曝光(功率20mW/cm2,时间IOmin)。 The entire apparatus is then placed under N2 atmosphere maintained UV exposure (Power 20mW / cm2, time IOmin). 待曝光完成后将光纤与软模板分离,并用反应离子束刻蚀掉凹槽处的残留层(约0. 06微米)后,即在光纤端面获得抗蚀剂线栅结构(如图6(a))。 After completion of the fiber to be exposed and the soft template separated and after using the residual layer (approximately 0.06 micron), reactive ion beam etching away recess, that is obtained in the fiber end face resist the wire grid structure (Figure 6 (a )).

[0052] 控制光纤端面朝向蒸发源,且光纤端面与金属沉积方向垂直,热蒸发沉积0. 12微米的银膜;然后利用丙酮溶剂将剩余的抗蚀剂线栅结构及沉积于其上金属银一起洗脱掉。 [0052] Control fiber end toward the evaporation source, and the fiber end face perpendicular to the direction of metal deposition, thermal evaporation deposited silver film 0.12 m; solvent acetone and then the remaining resist and the wire grid structure of metallic silver deposited thereon Wash off together. 这样即利用纳米压印技术通过间接法在光纤端面制备了金属线栅结构。 So that is a metal wire grid structure by the indirect method in the preparation of the fiber end face using nanoimprint technology. (如图6(b))结构特征为:银纳米线栅结构,周期0. 2微米、高度0. 12微米、占空比为0. 5。 (FIG. 6 (b)) structure characterized by: Silver nanowires gate structure, cycle 0.2 microns, the height of 0.12 m, the duty ratio is 0.5.

[0053] 使用热蒸发沉积铜或铬、厚度0. 6-1微米的金属膜,金属线栅周期为2微米,占空比χ为0. 6,亦可获得类似线栅结构。 [0053] using a thermal evaporation deposition of copper or chromium, the thickness of 0. 6-1 microns metal film, a metal wire grid period of 2 microns, the duty ratio χ is 0.6, similar to the wire grid structure can also be obtained.

[0054] 实施例3 [0054] Example 3

[0055](光经过两个正交的偏振器后,其输出光强I = sin2 (δ/2),其中δ为相位差。根据弹光效应:透明的各向同性介质在机械应力的作用下,会变成各向异性,压力越大,则各向异性越强,即Δ η越大,而δ - Δ η,因此随着施加应力的变化,输出光强也会发生相应变化。对于光纤而言,应力所导致的相位差δ =8CF/λ r,其中F为应力,C为光弹性系数, λ为光波长,r为光纤半径。因此,随压力变化,输出光强I = sin2 (4CF/λ r),随着压力呈sin函数的形式变化。) [0055] (light passes two orthogonal polarizers, the output light intensity I = sin2 (δ / 2), where δ is a phase difference according to the photoelastic effect: The transparent isotropic medium mechanical stress next, will become anisotropy, the greater the pressure, the stronger the anisotropy, namely Δ greater η, and δ - Δ η, so as the change of the stress is applied, the output intensity will change accordingly for. an optical fiber, the stress caused by the phase difference δ = 8CF / λ r, where F is the stress, C is a photoelastic coefficient, λ is the wavelength of light, r is the radius of the fiber. Thus, with the pressure changes, the output light intensity I = sin2 (4CF / λ r), as a function of pressure change in the form of sin.)

[0056] 利用实施例1所示的测试光路,以1. 55微米的激光(Santec TSL-210)作为光源, 在两个偏振器之间的一段光纤上施加压力(如图7),随着所加压力的变化(0-9kg),在反射端用一光探测器(HP8153A)监测TE模光强的变化。 [0056] The use of the optical path test as shown in Example 1, to 1.55 micron laser (Santec TSL-210) as a light source, applying a pressure (Fig. 7) on the length of optical fiber between two polarizers, as applied pressure changes (0-9kg), in reflecting end with a light detector (HP8153A) monitoring the TE mode light intensity changes. 反射光强伴随压力的增加而变化(如图8),谱线和理论预期相似,从而完成了一种压力传感器的制备。 The reflected light intensity varies with the increase in pressure (Figure 8), spectral and theoretical predictions similar to complete the preparation of a pressure sensor. 通过外差分析的方法,可以进一步提高传感的精度和稳定性。 Heterodyne analysis by the method can further improve the accuracy and stability of the sensing.

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Clasificación internacionalB81C1/00, G02B6/27
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