Field of the Invention
Background of the Invention
The present invention relates to sheets of material preferably wet wipes
which are provided with an improved perforation configuration, which is easily
visible to the consumer and which allows the wet wipes to be easily separated
from oneanother whilst not compromising on strength.
Wet wipes are typically premoistened, disposable towelettes which may be
utilised in a variety of applications both domestic and industrial and perform a
variety of functions. Wet wipes are typically used to wipe surfaces both animate
and inanimate, and may provide numerous benefits such as cleaning, cleansing,
disinfecting, and skin care benefits.
One particular application is the use of wet wipes for wiping parts of the
human body particularly when wash water is not available, for example when
travelling. Wipes are commonly used for human cleansing and wiping such as
face and hand cleansing and anal, perineal and genital cleansing for example as
intimate hygiene wipes such as feminine wet wipes. Wet wipes may also be used
for application of substances to the body including removing and applying of
make-up, skin conditioners and medications. Another application of wipes is
during diaper changes and also for the treatment of adult and baby dermatitis
partly caused by the use of diapers and incontinence devices. In addition wet
wipes are also applicable for wiping and or cleaning other surfaces or for the
application of compositions to surfaces, for example kitchen and bathroom
surfaces, eyeglasses, shoes and surfaces which require cleaning in industry for
example surfaces of machinery or automobiles. Wet wipes also include articles
used for the cleaning or grooming of pets.
Wet wipes are commonly constructed from combinations of synthetic and
natural fibres, such as polyolefin fibres, viscose fibres and cotton fibres, which are
generally moistened with an aqueous composition which contains amongst others
surfactants, preservatives, oils and scents. The wet wipes are then typically
provided in a folded stacked configuration within a covered container such as a
tub-like container having a lid. Alternatively, the wipes may be provided in tub
containers having a dispensing aperture. In both cases this allows easy
transportation and storage of the wipes. Typically the wipes are packaged in a
plastic foil in order to protect the wet wipes prior to use.
In order to aid dispensing and to allow the consumer to select the desired
size of wipe it is highly desirable to provide the wipes with perforations. The use
of perforations is well known in the field of paper, tissue and towels. For example,
US 5 704 566 discloses a roll of paper towelling to be dispensed from a dispenser
which may be separated into towelling segments by pulling along perforated tear
lines. The perforated tear lines comprise a plurality of slits which are longer
towards the side edges of the paper than in the middle, to aid dispensing.
Similarly DE 27 06 234 discloses the use of perforated lines of variegated
holes formed in a paper sheet, the diameter of which increases towards the edge
of the paper so as to facilitate tearing of the paper by one hand.
The use of perforations for wet wipes is particularly advantageous not only in
terms of dispensing, but also in allowing the consumer to select the length or
amount of wet wipe material required to carry out a particular clearing activity.
Thus for small and easy cleaning activities just one wipe can be selected, whilst
for larger and dirty cleaning activities a number of wipes can be used. Thus it is
not only important that the consumer can easily dispense the size of wipe that is
required, it is also equally important that the perforations are strong enough such
that they do not break or tear within a larger wipe during the cleaning process.
This problem of perforation strength is further exacerbated upon storage of the
wet wipes which has been found to generally weaken the perforation.
In addition another important factor with respect to the convenient usage of
such wipes, is that the consumer can readily identify the location of the
perforations in the wipe substrate. The visibility of the perforations is related to the
length of the perforation or slit in the substrate; larger perforations or slits
providing easy recognition by the consumer. However a problem with such larger
perforations is that the strength of the perforations is further reduced, which is as
discussed above highly undesirable. This problem is yet further exacerbated by
certain dispensing methods. For example methods which result in continuous
dispensing through a container orifice whereby mechanical friction is utilised to
dispense and separate the wipes.
Summary of the Invention
It is therefore desirable to provide a wet wipe stacking configuration which is
suitable for multiple applications such as baby wipes and hard surface cleaning
wipes which are strong, soft, absorbent and provide improved cleaning. It is
further desirable to provide wet wipes whereby the wipe substrate is provide with
perforated tear lines that are readily visible so that the consumer can select the
desired length of wipe required and easily separate the wipes from oneanother,
whilst providing sufficient strength so that the perforation within the wipe does not
tear or break during use.
Detailed Description of the Invention
Brief description of the figures
The present invention hence relates to a sheet of material, preferably a wet
wipe for wiping parts of the human body such as baby wipes and other inanimate
surfaces. In particular, the present invention relates to a sheet of material (1) such
as a wet wipe, wherein said sheet of material comprises at least one transverse
perforation line (20), said transverse perforation line (20), having at least one
repeating perforation pattern (21), characterised in that each of said repeating
patterns (21) has at least one primary perforation slit (22), at least one secondary
perforation slit (23) and at least two bonded areas (24), wherein the length ratio of
one of said primary perforation slits (22) to one of said secondary perforation slits
(23) is from 100:1 to 1.5:1 and wherein the ratio of the total length of said bonded
areas (24) to the total length of said primary (22) and secondary (23) perforation
slits of said perforation line is from 1:1 to 1:6.
- Figure 1a:
- Is a plan view of a sheet material, e.g. a wet wipe showing
the perforation line of the present invention.
- Figure 1b:
- Is a cross sectional side view of the sheet material of figure
1, comprising perforation line according to the present
- Figure 2:
- Is a partial plan view of a sheet of material having the
preferred perforation line of the present invention.
According to the present invention the sheet of material comprises a
substrate which is preferably coated or impregnated with a liquid composition.
The sheet of material may be woven or nonwoven, foam, sponge, battings, balls,
puffs, films, or tissue paper, most preferably a nonwoven and may be composed
or natural or synthetic fibres or mixtures thereof. Preferably, the fibre
compositions are a mixed of hydrophilic fibre material such as viscose, cotton, or
flax and a hydrophobic fibre material such as polyethylene tetraphthalate (PET) or
polypropylene (PP) in a ratio of 10%-90% hydrophilic and 90%-10% hydrophobic
material by weight. Particularly preferred compositions are 50% viscose, 50%PP;
and 50% viscose, 50 % PET; and 70% cellulose, 15% PET and 15% latex. The
sheet of material preferably has a basis weight of at least 20 gm-2 and preferably
less than 150gm-2, and most preferably the base weight is in the range of 20 gm-2
to 100 gm-2, more preferably from 50 gm-2 to 95 gm-2. The sheet of material
may have any caliper. Typically, when the sheet of material is made by an air
laying process, the average sheet of material caliper is less than 1.0 mm. More
preferably the average caliper of the sheet of material is from 0.1 mm to 0.9 mm.
The sheet of material caliper is measured according to standard EDANA non
woven industry methodology, reference method # 30.4-89.
In addition to the fibers used to make the sheet of material, the sheet of
material can have other components or materials added thereto as known in the
art. The types of additives desirable will be dependent upon the particular end
use of the substrate contemplated. For example, in wet wipe products such as
moist toilet paper, paper towels, facial tissues, baby wipes and other similar air
laid products, high wet strength is a desirable attribute. Thus, it is often desirable
particularly for cellulose based materials to add chemical substances known in the
art as wet strength resins. A general dissertation on the types of wet strength
resins utilised in the paper art can be found in TAPPI monograph series No. 29,
Wet Strength in Paper and Paperboard, Technical Association of the Pulp and
Paper Industry (New York, 1965). Particularly preferred resins are polyamide-epichlorohydrin,
polyacrylamides, styrene-butiene latexes, dialdehyde starch and
mixtures thereof. In addition to wet strength additives, it can also be desirable to
include certain dry strength and lint control additives known in the art such as
starch binders. Furthermore, the material may also comprise agents to improve
the optical characteristics of the material such as opacifying agents, for example
According to the present invention the sheet may be produced by any
methods known in the art. For example nonwoven material substrates can be
formed by dry forming techniques such as air-laying or wet laying such as on a
paper making machine. Other nonwoven manufacturing techniques such as melt
blown, spun bonded, needle punched and spun laced methods may also be used.
A preferred method is air laying.
According to the present invention, the sheets of material are provided in a
stacked configuration which may comprise any number of sheets. Typically, the
stack comprises from 3 to 150, more preferably from 5 to 100, most preferably
from 10 to 60 of sheets of material. Moreover the sheets may be provide in any
configuration folded or unfolded. Most preferably the wipes are stacked in a
folded configuration. In an alternative embodiment the sheet of material may be
provided as a roll, which comprises a continuous material providing individual
sheets connected end to end by perforation lines according to the present
invention. The present invention will now be described with reference to the
preferred embodiment of the present invention namely wet wipes. However the
description is equally applicable to the alternative sheet materials and
Each folded wipe 1 extends lengthwise in the machine direction from a first,
leading end edge 2, to a second, trailing end edge 3. The folded webs also have
side edges 4 and 5 which extend lengthwise from the first leading end edge 2 to
the second trailing end edge 3. Each folded wipe 1 can include a first panel fold 6
which is generally parallel to the leading edge 2, and which is generally
perpendicular to the side edges 4, 5. The first panel fold 6 is spaced lengthwise
from the leading edge 2 to provide a leading edge panel 9 extending between the
first panel fold 6 and the leading edge 2. As used herein a panel is a portion of
the wipe extending between two folds, or between a fold and an edge end.
The folded wipe can also include a second panel fold 7, and a first central
panel 8, and a trailing edge panel 10. The second panel fold 7 is generally
parallel to, and spaced lengthwise from, the first panel fold 6. The first central
panel 8 is joined to the leading edge panel 9, at the first panel fold 6, and extends
between the first panel fold 6 and the second panel fold 7.
The trailing edge panel 10 is joined to the first central panel 8 at the second
panel fold 7. The trailing edge panel 10 extends between the second panel fold 7
and the trailing end edge 3. The wipe is folded at the first and second panel folds
6 and 7 to provide the leading edge panel 9, first central panel 8, and trailing
edge panel 10, in a Z-fold configuration, as best seen in Figure 3a. In the Z-fold
configuration, panel 9 is adjacent to and overlies a portion of panel 8, and panel
10 is adjacent to and underlies a portion of panel 8. However, other folding
configurations such as C folds or J folds configurations having more or less
panels are equally applicable.
Furthermore in addition to the panels described herein above, the wipe may
have additional panels. In particular, the leading edge panel and or the trailing
edge panel may also be provided with an additional fold so as to provide a
leading edge panel lip or a trailing edge panel lip. Such a lip is formed by
providing the leading edge panel or the trailing edge panel with a panel lip fold
which is adjacent to and spaced from the leading or trailing edge of the folded
substrate to provide a lip extending between the panel lip fold and the end edge.
The panel lip fold may be folded onto the lower surface of the leading edge panel
such that the leading end edge is below the leading edge end panel. This
configuration is particularly beneficial in facilitating grasping of the edge.
Alternatively, the leading edge panel may be folded such that the leading end
edge rests on the upper surface of the leading edge panel. The lip may also be
positioned on the upper or lower surface of the trailing edge panel.
According to the present invention, the overall dimensions of the substrate
material is dependent on the intended application of the wipe and can be selected
accordingly. In one non limiting, illustrative example wherein the wipe may be
utilised as a hard surface cleaning wipe, each folded wipe 1 can have an unfolded
length of from 10 cm to 40 cm as measured lengthwise from the leading end edge
2 to the trailing end edge 3 and a width of from 10cm to 25cm. For each folded
wipe 1, the lengths of the leading edge panel 9 and trailing edge panel 10 can be
from 2 cm to 7 cm. In a preferred embodiment the spacing between the first panel
fold 6 and the leading end edge 2 and the second panel fold 7 and the trailing
edge 3, is preferably from 3 cm to 6. The spacing between the first panel fold 6
and the third panel fold 12 and the second panel fold 7 and the third panel fold 12
are preferably from 3 cm to 12 cm, and more preferably between about 8 cm and
According to the present invention the wet wipes are provided, with at least
one transverse perforation lines (20). The perforation lines comprise perforated
slits or cuts joined by wet substrate material in-between each perforated slit,
herein after referred to as bonded area. The transverse perforation lines are
provided typically at regular intervals. For the unlimiting example described
hereinabove this will be from 9 cm to 20 cm, preferably from 12 cm to 16 cm.
It has now been found that the provision of the perforation line (20) with at
least one repeating pattern (21) as defined herein provides the wet wipe stack
with easily visible perforations which are strong.
Accordingly, the perforation lines (20) comprise at least one repeat pattern
(21). According to the preferred embodiment of the present invention the
perforation line (20) comprises at least one repeating pattern (21). However the
perforation line (20) may comprise any number of repeating patterns. Each of said
repeating pattern (21) comprises at least one primary perforation slit (22) and at
least one, preferably from 1 to 20, more preferably from 2 to 10, secondary
perforation slits (23). The exact number utilised can be readily selected by the
skilled person depending on the material substrate type and use intended
provided that certain parameters are meet. The length ratio between the primary
(22) and the secondary (23) perforations slits from 100:1 to 1.5:1, preferably from
50:1 to 2:1, more preferably from 25:1 to 2:1, most preferably from 10:1 to 3:1.
The presence of a primary slit (22) which is substantially longer than the
secondary slit (23) provides an easily recognisable means for the consumer to
locate the perforation line along the wipe. The perforation slits whether primary
(22) or secondary (23) are separated from one another by the wet wipe substrate
material. This substrate material is referred to as bonded area (24). Typically the
ratio of the length of one of the bonded areas (24) to the length of one of the
secondary perforation slits (23) is from 10:1 to 1:10 preferably from 5:1 to 1:5,
most preferably 1:2 to 1:1. The exact number utilised can be readily selected by
the skilled person depending on the material substrate type and use intended
provided that certain parameters are meet. Typically each perforation line (20)
comprises at least one repeating pattern (21), which is repeated at least once,
preferably from 1 to 50, more preferably from 5 to 25, most preferably from 10 to
20 times, depending upon the length of the repeating pattern and the width of the
It has been identified that in order to ensure the desired tensile strength of
the wet wipes, the ratio of the total length of the bonded area (24) to the total
length of the primary (22) and secondary (23) perforation slit along the perforation
line (20) is from 1:1 to 1:6, preferably from 1:1.5 to 1:4, more preferably from 1:2
Typically the ratio of the width of the wipe to the length of the total bonded
area (24) along the perforation line (20) is from 10:1 to 1:10, preferably from 5:1
For the wet wipe of the unlimited example described herein above the length
of each primary perforation slit (22) is from 3 mm to 10 mm, preferably from 3 mm
to 8 mm, more preferably from 3.5 mm to 6.5 mm. The length of each secondary
perforation slit (23) is from 0.5 mm to 2.5 mm, preferably from 1 mm to 2 mm. The
length of each bonded area (24) is from 0.5 mm to 10 mm, preferably from 0.5 mm
to 3 mm, more preferably from 0.5 mm to 1.5 mm.
In order to provide the desired tensile strength, the perforation lines should
preferably exhibit a tensile strength of at least 0.7N/inch (0.28N/cm) to 5N/inch
(1.97N/cm), more preferably from 1N/inch (0.39N/cm) to 4.5N/inch (1.77N/cm),
most preferably from 1.8N/inch (0.70N/cm) to 4.0N/inch (1.57N/cm) as described
in the EDANA 30 test method camed out on the material within 24 hours of
According to the present invention, the substrate material of the wipes is
typically impregnated or coated with a liquid composition. The composition may
be aqueous, alcohol based or an emulsion, either a water-in-oil or a oil-in-water or
a multiple emulsion, preferably the emulsion is a oil-in-water emulsion.
Typically, the composition will comprise from 2% to 50% by weight of said
composition of actives and from 50% to 98% water, preferably de-ionised or
distilled. Of the active component, preferably 2% to 20% are present in the oil
phase and the remainder are present in the aqueous phase.
The liquid composition can provide a number of different benefits when
released. For example, in wet-like cleaning wipes for perianal cleaning the water
component is released and thereby provides the primary cleansing action for
In a preferred embodiment of the present invention the liquid composition
(preferably comprising water as a major constituent) comprises a disinfecting
component comprising an antimicrobial compound, preferably an essential oil or
an active thereof, and a bleach, preferably a peroxygen bleach. Disinfecting wipes
comprising such a liquid composition provide effective disinfecting performance
on a surface while being safe to the surface treated.
By "effective disinfecting performance" it is meant herein that the disinfecting
wipes of the present invention allow significant reduction in the amount of bacteria
on an infected surface. Indeed, effective disinfecting may be obtained on various
micro-organisms including Gram positive bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus,
and Gram negative bacteria like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as well as on more
resistant micro-organisms like fungi (e.g., Candida albicans) present on infected
Another advantage of the disinfecting wipes according to the present
invention is that besides the disinfecting properties delivered, good cleaning is
also provided as the disinfecting polar phase may further comprise surfactants
An essential element of such disinfecting liquid compositions is an
antimicrobial compound typically selected from the group consisting of an
essential oil and an active thereof, paraben (e.g., methyl paraben, ethyl paraben),
glutaraldehyde and mixtures thereof. Essential oils or actives thereof are the
preferred antimicrobial compounds to be used herein.
Suitable essential oils or actives thereof to be used herein are those
essential oils which exhibit antimicrobial activity and more particularly
antibacterial activity. By "actives of essential oils" it is meant herein any ingredient
of essential oils that exhibits antimicrobial/antibacterial activity. A further
advantage of said essential oils and actives hereof is that they impart pleasant
odour to the disinfecting wipes according to the present invention without the
need of adding a perfume. Indeed, the disinfecting wipes according to the present
invention deliver not only excellent disinfecting performance on infected surfaces
but also good scent.
Such essential oils include, but are not limited to, those obtained from
thyme, lemongrass, citrus, lemons, oranges, anise, clove, aniseed, cinnamon,
geranium, roses, mint, lavender, citronella, eucalyptus, peppermint, camphor,
sandalwood and cedar and mixtures thereof. Actives of essential oils to be used
herein include, but are not limited to, thymol (present for example in thyme),
eugenol (present for example in cinnamon and clove), menthol (present for
example in mint), geraniol (present for example in geranium and rose), verbenone
(present for example in vervain), eucalyptol and pinocarvone (present in
eucalyptus), cedrol (present for example in cedar), anethol (present for example
in anise), carvacrol, hinokitiol, berberine, terpineol, limonene, methyl salycilate
and mixtures thereof. Preferred actives of essential oils to be used herein are
thymol, eugenol, verbenone, eucalyptol, carvacrol, limonene and/or geraniol.
Thymol may be commercially available for example from Aldrich, eugenol may be
commercially available for example from Sigma, Systems - Bioindustries (SBI) -
Typically, the antimicrobial compound or mixtures thereof will be present in
the liquid composition at a level of from 0.001 % to 5%, preferably from 0.001 % to
3%, more preferably from 0.005% to 1 %, by weight of liquid composition.
An important element of the internal disinfecting polar phase is a bleach or
mixtures thereof. Any bleach known to those skilled in the art may be suitable to
be used herein including any chlorine bleach as well as any peroxygen bleach.
The presence of the bleach, preferably the peroxygen bleach, in the disinfecting
wipes of the present invention contribute to the disinfecting properties of the
Suitable chlorine bleaches to be used herein include any compound capable
of releasing chlorine when said compound is in contact with water. Suitable
chlorine bleaches include alkali metal dichloroisocyanurates as well as alkali
metal hypohalites like hypochlorite and/or hypobromite. Preferred chlorine
bleaches are alkali metal hypochlorites. Various forms of alkali metal hypochlorite
are commercially available, for instance sodium hypochlorite.
Preferred bleaches for use herein are peroxygen bleaches, more particularly
hydrogen peroxide, or a water soluble source thereof, or mixtures thereof.
Hydrogen peroxide is particularly preferred.
Peroxygen bleaches like hydrogen peroxide are preferred herein as they are
generally well accepted from an environmental point of view. For example the
decomposition products of hydrogen peroxide are oxygen and water.
As used herein, a hydrogen peroxide source refers to any compound which
produces perhydroxyl ions when said compound is in contact with water. Suitable
water-soluble sources of hydrogen peroxide for use herein include percarbonates,
persilicates, persulphates such as monopersulfate, perborates, peroxyacids such
as diperoxydodecandioic acid (DPDA), magnesium perphthalic acid,
dialkylperoxides, diacylperoxides, performed percarboxylic acids, organic and
inorganic peroxides and/or hydroperoxides and mixtures thereof.
Typically, the bleach or mixtures thereof is present at a level of from 0.001%
to 15% by weight of the liquid composition, preferably from 0.001% to 5%, and
more preferably from 0.005% to 2%.
The liquid composition may further comprise a detersive surfactant or a
mixture thereof. Typically, the surfactant or mixtures thereof is present at a level
of from 0.001 % to 40% by weight of the total internal polar phase, preferably from
0.01 % to 10% and more preferably from 0.05% to 2%.
Suitable detersive surfactants to be used in the present invention include
any surfactant known to those skilled in the art like nonionic, anionic, cationic,
amphoteric and/or zwitterionic surfactants. Preferred detersive surfactants to be
used herein are the amphoteric and/or zwitterionic surfactants.
Suitable amphoteric detersive surfactants to be used herein include amine
oxides of the formula R1R2R3NO, wherein each of R1, R2 and R3 is
independently a saturated, substituted or unsubstituted, linear or branched
hydrocarbon chain having from 1 to 30 carbon atoms. Preferred amine oxide
surfactants to be used according to the present invention are amine oxides of the
formula R1R2R3NO, wherein R1 is an hydrocarbon chain having from 1 to 30
carbon atoms, preferably from 6 to 20, more preferably from 8 to 16, most
preferably from 8 to 12, and wherein R2 and R3 are independently substituted or
unsubstituted, linear or branched hydrocarbon chains having from 1 to 4 carbon
atoms, preferably from 1 to 3 carbon atoms, and more preferably are methyl
groups. R1 may be a saturated, substituted or unsubstituted, linear or branched
hydrocarbon chain. Suitable amine oxides for use herein are for instance natural
blend C8-C10 amine oxides as well as C12-C16 amine oxides commercially
available from Hoechst. Amine oxides are preferred herein as they deliver
effective cleaning performance and further participate to the disinfecting
properties of the disinfecting wipes herein.
Suitable zwitterionic surfactants to be used herein contain both cationic and
anionic hydrophilic groups on the same molecule at a relatively wide range of
pH's. The typical cationic group is a quaternary ammonium group, although other
positively charged groups like phosphonium, imidazolinium and sulfonium groups
can be used. The typical anionic hydrophilic groups are carboxylates and
sulfonates, although other groups such as sulfates, phosphonates, and the like
can be used. A generic formula for some zwitterionic surfactants to be used
wherein R1 is a hydrophobic group; R2 and R3 are each C1-C4 alkyl, hydroxy
alkyl or other substituted alkyl group which can also be joined to form ring
structures with the N; R4 is a moiety joining the cationic nitrogen atom to the
hydrophilic group and is typically an alkylene, hydroxy alkylene, or polyalkoxy
group containing from 1 to 10 carbon atoms; and X is the hydrophilic group which
is preferably a carboxylate or sulfonate group. Preferred hydrophobic groups R1
are alkyl groups containing from 1 to 24, preferably less than 18, more preferably
less than 16 carbon atoms. The hydrophobic group can contain unsaturation
and/or substituents and/or linking groups such as aryl groups, amido groups,
ester groups and the like. In general, the simple alkyl groups are preferred for
cost and stability reasons.
Highly preferred zwitterionic surfactants include betaine and sulphobetaine
surfactants, derivatives thereof or mixtures thereof. Said betaine or sulphobetaine
surfactants are preferred herein as they help disinfecting by increasing the
permeability of the bacterial cell wall, thus allowing other active ingredients to
enter the cell.
Furthermore, due to the mild action profile of said betaine or sulphobetaine
surfactants, they are particularly suitable for the cleaning of delicate surfaces,
e.g., hard surfaces in contact with food and/or babies. Betaine and sulphobetaine
surfactants are also extremely mild to the skin and/or surfaces to be treated.
Suitable betaine and sulphobetaine surfactants to be used herein are the
betaine/sulphobetaine and betaine-like detergents wherein the molecule contains
both basic and acidic groups which form an inner salt giving the molecule both
cationic and anionic hydrophilic groups over a broad range of pH values. Some
common examples of these detergents are described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 2,082,275,
2,702,279 and 2,255,082, incorporated herein by reference. Preferred betaine
and sulphobetaine surfactants herein are according to the formula
is a hydrocarbon chain containing from 1 to 24 carbon atoms,
preferably from 8 to 18, more preferably from 12 to 14, wherein R2
hydrocarbon chains containing from 1 to 3 carbon atoms, preferably 1 carbon
atom, wherein n is an integer from 1 to 10, preferably from 1 to 6, more preferably
is 1, Y is selected from the group consisting of carboxyl and sulfonyl radicals and
wherein the sum of R1
hydrocarbon chains is from 14 to 24 carbon
atoms, or mixtures thereof.
Examples of particularly suitable betaine surfactants include C12-C18 alkyl
dimethyl betaine such as coconut-betaine and C10-C16 alkyl dimethyl betaine
such as laurylbetaine. Coconutbetaine is commercially available from Seppic
under the trade name of Amonyl 265". Laurylbetaine is commercially available
from Albright & Wilson under the trade name Empigen BB/L".
Other specific zwitterionic surfactants have the generic formulas:
R1-C(O)-N(R2)-(C(R3)2)n-N(R2)2 (+)-(C(R3)2)n-SO3 (-);
wherein each R1 is a hydrocarbon, e.g. an alkyl group containing from 8 up to 20,
preferably up to 18, more preferably up to 16 carbon atoms, each R2 is either a
hydrogen (when attached to the amido nitrogen), short chain alkyl or substituted
alkyl containing from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, preferably groups selected from the
group consisting of methyl, ethyl, propyl, hydroxy substituted ethyl or propyl and
mixtures thereof, preferably methyl, each R3 is selected from the group consisting
of hydrogen and hydroxy groups and each n is a number from 1 to 4, preferably
from 2 to 3, more preferably 3, with no more than one hydroxy group in any
(C(R3)2) moiety. The R1 groups can be branched and/or unsaturated. The R2
groups can also be connected to form ring structures. A surfactant of this type is a
C10-C14 fatty acylamidopropylene-(hydroxypropylene)sulfobetaine that is
available from the Sherex Company under the trade name "Varion CAS
Suitable nonionic surfactants to be used herein are fatty alcohol ethoxylates
and/or propoxylates which are commercially available with a variety of fatty
alcohol chain lengths and a variety of ethoxylation degrees. Indeed, the HLB
values of such alkoxylated nonionic surfactants depend essentially on the chain
length of the fatty alcohol, the nature of the alkoxylation and the degree of
alkoxylation. Surfactant catalogues are available which list a number of
surfactants, including nonionics, together with their respective HLB values.
Particularly suitable for use herein as nonionic surfactants are the
hydrophobic nonionic surfactants having an HLB (hydrophilic-lipophilic balance)
below 16 and more preferably below 15. Those hydrophobic nonionic surfactants
have been found to provide good grease cutting properties.
Preferred nonionic surfactants for use herein are nonionic surfactants
according to the formula RO-(C2H4O)n(C3H6O)mH, wherein R is a C6 to C22
alkyl chain or a C6 to C28 alkyl benzene chain, and wherein n+m is from 0 to 20
and n is from 0 to 15 and m is from 0 to 20, preferably n+m is from 1 to 15 and, n
and m are from 0.5 to 15, more preferably n+m is from 1 to 10 and, n and m are
from 0 to 10. The preferred R chains for use herein are the C8 to C22 alkyl
chains. Accordingly, suitable hydrophobic nonionic surfactants for use herein are
Dobanol R 91-2.5 (HLB= 8.1; R is a mixture of C9 and C11 alkyl chains, n is 2.5
and m is 0), or Lutensol R T03 (HLB=8; R is a C13 alkyl chains, n is 3 and m is
0), or Lutensol R A03 (HLB=8; R is a mixture of C13 and C15 alkyl chains, n is 3
and m is 0), or Tergitol R 25L3 (HLB= 7.7; R is in the range of C12 to C15 alkyl
chain length, n is 3 and m is 0), or Dobanol R 23-3 (HLB=8.1; R is a mixture of
C12 and C13 alkyl chains, n is 3 and m is 0), or Dobanol R 23-2 (HLB=6.2; R is a
mixture of C12 and C13 alkyl chains, n is 2 and m is 0), or Dobanol R 45-7
(HLB=11.6; R is a mixture of C14 and C15 alkyl chains, n is 7 and m is 0) Dobanol
R 23-6.5 (HLB=11.9; R is a mixture of C12 and C13 alkyl chains, n is 6.5 and m is
0), or Dobanol R 25-7 (HLB=12; R is a mixture of C12 and C15 alkyl chains, n is 7
and m is 0), or Dobanol R 91-5 (HLB=11.6; R is a mixture of C9 and C11 alkyl
chains, n is 5 and m is 0), or Dobanol R 91-6 (HLB=12.5; R is a mixture of C9 and
C11 alkyl chains, n is 6 and m is 0), or Dobanol R 91-8 (HLB=13.7; R is a mixture
of C9 and C11 alkyl chains, n is 8 and m is 0), Dobanol R 91-10 (HLB=14.2; R is
a mixture of C9 to C11 alkyl chains, n is 10 and m is 0), or mixtures thereof.
Preferred herein are Dobanol R 91-2.5, or Lutensol R TO3, or Lutensol R AO3, or
Tergitol R 25L3, or Dobanol R 23-3, or Dobanol R 23-2, or Dobanol R 23-10, or
mixtures thereof. DobanolR surfactants are commercially available from SHELL.
LutensolR surfactants are commercially available from BASF and the Tergitol R
surfactants are commercially available from UNION CARBIDE.
Suitable anionic surfactants to be used herein include water soluble salts or
acids of the formula ROSO3M wherein R is preferably a C6-C24 hydrocarbyl,
preferably an alkyl or hydroxyalkyl having a C8-C20 alkyl component, more
preferably a C8-C18 alkyl or hydroxyalkyl, and M is H or a cation, e.g., an alkali
metal cation (e.g., sodium, potassium, lithium), or ammonium or substituted
ammonium (e.g., methyl-, dimethyl-, and trimethyl ammonium cations and
quaternary ammonium cations, such as tetramethyl-ammonium and dimethyl
piperdinium cations and quaternary ammonium cations derived from alkylamines
such as ethylamine, diethylamine, triethylamine, and mixtures thereof, and the
Other suitable anionic surfactants to be used herein include alkyl-diphenylether-sulphonates
and alkyl-carboxylates. Other anionic surfactants can include
salts (including, for example, sodium, potassium, ammonium, and substituted
ammonium salts such as mono-, di- and triethanolamine salts) of soap, C9-C20
linear alkylbenzenesulfonates, C8-C22 primary or secondary alkanesulfonates,
C8-C24 olefinsulfonates, sulfonated polycarboxylic acids prepared by sulfonation
of the pyrolyzed product of alkaline earth metal citrates, e.g., as described in
British patent specification No. 1,082,179, C8-C24 alkylpolyglycolethersulfates
(containing up to 10 moles of ethylene oxide); alkyl ester sulfonates such as C14-16
methyl ester sulfonates; acyl glycerol sulfonates, fatty oleyl glycerol sulfates,
alkyl phenol ethylene oxide ether sulfates, paraffin sulfonates, alkyl phosphates,
isethionates such as the acyl isethionates, N-acyl taurates, alkyl succinamates
and sulfosuccinates, monoesters of sulfosuccinate (especially saturated and
unsaturated C12-C18 monoesters) diesters of sulfosuccinate (especially
saturated and unsaturated C6-C14 diesters), acyl sarcosinates, sulfates of
alkylpolysaccharides such as the sulfates of alkylpolyglucoside (the nonionic
nonsulfated compounds being described below), branched primary alkyl sulfates,
alkyl polyethoxy carboxylates such as those of the formula
RO(CH2CH2O)kCH2COO-M+ wherein R is a C8-C22 alkyl, k is an integer from 0
to 10, and M is a soluble salt-forming cation. Resin acids and hydrogenated resin
acids are also suitable, such as rosin, hydrogenated rosin, and resin acids and
hydrogenated resin acids present in or derived from tall oil. Further examples are
given in "Surface Active Agents and Detergents" (Vol. I and II by Schwartz, Perry
and Berch). A variety of such surfactants are also generally disclosed in U.S.
Patent 3,929,678, issued December 30, 1975 to Laughlin, et al. at Column 23,
line 58 through Column 29, line 23 (herein incorporated by reference).
Preferred anionic surfactants for use herein are the alkyl benzene
sulfonates, alkyl sulfates, alkyl alkoxylated sulfates, paraffin sulfonates and
The internal disinfecting polar phase according to the present invention has
a pH of from 1 to 12, preferably from 1.5 to 10, and more preferably from 2 to 9.
The pH can be adjusted by using alkalinizing agents or acidifying agents.
Examples of alkalinizing agents are alkali metal hydroxides, such as potassium
and/or sodium hydroxide, or alkali metal oxides such as sodium and/or potassium
oxide. Examples of acidifying agents are organic or inorganic acids such as citric
or sulfuric acid.
Solvents may be present in the liquid composition according to the present
invention. These solvents will, advantageously, give an enhanced cleaning to the
disinfecting wipes of the present invention. Suitable solvents for incorporation
herein include propylene glycol derivatives such as n-butoxypropanol or n-butoxypropoxypropanol,
water-soluble CARBITOL, solvents or water-soluble
CELLOSOLVE, solvents. Water-soluble CARBITOL, solvents are compounds of
the 2-(2-alkoxyethoxy)ethanol class wherein the alkoxy group is derived from
ethyl, propyl or butyl. A preferred water-soluble carbitol is 2-(2-butoxyethoxy)ethanol
also known as butyl carbitol. Water-soluble CELLOSOLVE,
solvents are compounds of the 2-alkoxyethoxyethanol class, with 2-butoxyethoxyethanol
being preferred. Other suitable solvents are benzyl alcohol,
methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol and diols such as 2-ethyl-1,3-hexanediol and
2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol and mixture thereof. Preferred solvents for use
herein are n-butoxypropoxypropanol, butyl carbitol, and mixtures thereof. A most
preferred solvent for use herein is butyl carbitol.
The liquid composition may further comprise other optional ingredients
including radical scavengers, chelating agents, thickeners, builders, buffers,
stabilizers, bleach activators, soil suspenders, dye transfer agents, brighteners,
anti dusting agents, enzymes, dispersant, dye transfer inhibitors, pigments,
perfumes, and dyes and the like.
Suitable radical scavengers for use herein include the well-known
substituted mono and di hydroxy benzenes and derivatives thereof, alkyl- and aryl
carboxylates and mixtures thereof. Preferred radical scavengers for use herein
include di-tert-butyl hydroxy toluene (BHT), p-hydroxy-toluene, hydroquinone
(HQ), di-tert-butyl hydroquinone (DTBHQ), mono-tert-butyl hydroquinone
(MTBHQ), tert-butyl-hydroxy anysole, p-hydroxy-anysol, benzoic acid, 2,5-dihydroxy
benzoic acid, 2,5-dihydroxyterephtalic acid, toluic acid, catechol, t-butyl
catechol, 4-allyl-catechol, 4-acetyl catechol, 2-methoxy-phenol, 2-ethoxy-phenol,
2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)phenol, 3,4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde, 2,3-dihydroxy
benzaldehyde, benzylamine, 1,1,3-tris(2-methyl-4-hydroxy-5-t-butylphenyl)
butane, tert-butyl-hydroxy-anyline, p-hydroxy anyline as well as n-propyl-gallate.
Highly preferred for use herein is di-tert-butyl hydroxy toluene, which is for
example commercially available from SHELL under the trade name IONOL CP".
Typically, the radical scavenger, or a mixture thereof, is present in the liquid
composition up to a level of 5% by weight, preferably from 0.001 % to 3% by
weight, and more preferably from 0.001% to 1.5%.
Suitable chelating agents to be used herein may be any chelating agent
known to those skilled in the art such as the ones selected from the group
consisting of phosphonate chelating agents, amino carboxylate chelating agents
or other carboxylate chelating agents, or polyfunctionally-substituted aromatic
chelating agents and mixtures thereof.
Such phosphonate chelating agents may include etidronic acid (1-hydroxyethylidene-bisphosphonic
acid or HEDP) as well as amino phosphonate
compounds, including amino alkylene poly (alkylene phosphonate), alkali metal
ethane 1-hydroxy diphosphonates, nitrilo trimethylene phosphonates, ethylene
diamine tetra methylene phosphonates, and diethylene triamine penta methylene
phosphonates. The phosphonate compounds may be present either in their acid
form or as salts of different cations on some or all of their acid functionalities.
Preferred phosphonate chelating agents to be used herein are diethylene triamine
penta methylene phosphonates. Such phosphonate chelating agents are
commercially available from Monsanto under the trade name DEQUEST.
Polyfunctionally-substituted aromatic chelating agents may also be useful
herein. See U.S. Patent 3,812,044, issued May 21, 1974, to Connor et al.
Preferred compounds of this type in acid form are dihydroxydisulfobenzenes such
as 1,2-dihydroxy -3,5-disulfobenzene.
A preferred biodegradable chelating agent for use herein is ethylene diamine
N,N'- disuccinic acid, or alkali metal, or alkaline earth, ammonium or substitutes
ammonium salts thereof or mixtures thereof. Ethylenediamine N,N'- disuccinic
acids, especially the (S,S) isomer have been extensively described in US patent
4, 704, 233, November 3, 1987 to Hartman and Perkins. Ethylenediamine N,N'-disuccinic
acid is, for instance, commercially available under the tradename
ssEDDS, from Palmer Research Laboratories.
Suitable amino carboxylate chelating agents useful herein include ethylene
diamine tetra acetate, diethylene triamine pentaacetate, diethylene triamine
pentaacetate (DTPA), N-hydroxyethylethylenediamine triacetate, nitrilotri-acetate,
ethylenediamine tetraproprionate, triethylenetetraaminehexa-acetate,
ethanoldiglycine, propylene diamine tetracetic acid (PDTA) and methyl glycine di-acetic
acid (MGDA), both in their acid form, or in their alkali metal, ammonium,
and substituted ammonium salt forms. Particularly suitable to be used herein are
diethylene triamine penta acetic acid (DTPA), propylene diamine tetracetic acid
(PDTA) which is, for instance, commercially available from BASF under the trade
name Trilon FS, and methyl glycine di-acetic acid (MGDA).
Further carboxylate chelating agents to be used herein includes malonic
acid, salicylic acid, glycine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, dipicolinic acid and
derivatives thereof, or mixtures thereof.
Typically, the chelating agent, or a mixture thereof, is present in the liquid
composition at a level of from 0.001 % to 5% by weight, preferably from 0.001% to
3% by weight and more preferably from 0.001 % to 1.5%.
The disinfecting wipes according to the present invention are suitable for
disinfecting various surfaces including animate surfaces (e.g. human skin) as well
as inanimate surfaces including any hard-surfaces.
Other water-soluble or dispersible materials that can be present in the liquid
composition include thickeners and viscosity modifiers. Suitable thickeners and
viscosity modifiers include polyacrylic and hydrophobically modified polyacrylic
resins such as Carbopol and Pemulen, starches such as corn starch, potato
starch, tapioca, gums such as guar gum, gum arabic, cellulose ethers such as
hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose, and the
like. These thickeners and viscosity modifiers will typically be included in a
concentration in the range of from about 0.05 to about 0.5% of the liquid
Again, where water is a major constituent of the liquid composition, water-soluble
or dispersible materials that can be present in the internal phase include
polycationic polymers to provide steric stabilization at the polar phase-lipid phase
interface and nonionic polymers that also stabilize the emulsion. Suitable
polycationic polymers include Reten 201, Kymene® 557H and Acco 711. Suitable
nonionic polymers include polyethylene glycols (PEG) such as Carbowax and
poly(propylene glycol) butyl ether. These polycationic and nonionic polymers will
typically be included in a concentration in the range of from about 0.05 to about
1.0% of the liquid composition.
According to the present invention, for wet wipe application designed
specifically for use on the human skin such as baby wipes, the composition may
be aqueous, alcohol based or an emulsion, either a water-in-oil or an oil-in-water
or a multiple emulsion, preferably the emulsion is a oil-in-water emulsion.
Typically, the composition will comprise from 2% to 50% by weight of said
composition of actives and from 50% to 98% water, preferably de-ionised or
distilled. Of the active component, preferably 2% to 20% are present in the oil
phase and the remainder are present in the aqueous phase.
According to the present invention the wet wipes are provided with an
emulsion composition comprising a oil phase in the range of 1% to 20%,
preferably 2% to 10%, by weight of the composition. Advantageously, the oil
based phase is derived from natural resources such as from vegetable or animal
oils or may be synthetic or any mixtures thereof. Suitable vegetable and animal
oils for use herein include waxes such as beeswax, lanolin, candelilla, and oils
such as glycerine esters and glycerine ethers, fatty acid alcohols, fatty acid esters
and fatty acid ethers such as caprylic and capric triglycerides and octylpalmitate.
Suitable mineral oils include petroleum based oils such as paraffin and petroleum
jelly. Synthetic oils for use herein include ethylenic polymers for example
polyethylene wax or silicone based oils. Suitable silicon oils include
polydimethylsiloxanes, volatile cyclomethicones, dimethiconols, siloxysilicates
and amino- and phenyl derivatives of siloxanes and mixtures thereof. Examples
include dimethicone (Dow Corning 200 Fluids), cyclomethicone and dimethiconol
(Dow Corning 1401 Fluid), cetyl dimethicone (Dow Corning 2502 Fluid),
dimethicone and trimethylsiloxysilicate (Dow Corning 593 Fluid), cyclomethicone
(Dow Corning 244, 245, 344 or 345 Fluid), phenyl trimethicone (Dow Corning 556
Fluid), or combinations thereof.
The oil-in-water emulsions typically require emulsifying agents. The
emulsifying agents which may be used in the present invention are preferably
capable of primary emulsification of oil-in-water emulsions. The emulsifying agent
is present in the range of 0.02% to 5.0%, preferably 0.02% to 3.0%, by weight of
In a preferred embodiment the emulsifying agent is a polymeric type of
emulsifying agent such as a copolymer of C10-C30 alkyl acrylates and one or
more monomers of acrylic acid, methylacrylic acid or one of their simple esters
cross linked with an allyl ether of sucrose or an allyl ether of pentaerythritol. The
emulsifying agents which are thus useful in the present invention include
Ceteareth-12, Ceteareth-20 or Pemulen TR1 and TR2 which are available from
B.F. Goodrich company of the USA. However, other known emulsifying agents
such as ethoxylated fatty alcohols, glycerine esters of fatty acids, soaps, sugar
derived agents are also suitable for use herein. Other useful emulsifying agents
include those disclosed in detail in EP-A-328 355.
According to the present invention the composition may comprise a stability
agent or preservative. Stability agents suitable for use herein include
phenoxyethanol preferably present in the range of from 0.1 to 1.0%, sodium
benzoate, potassium sorbate, methylparaben, propylparaben, ethylparaben,
butylparaben, sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, benzalkonium chloride, and
disodium salt ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (hereinafter referred to as EDTA)
or other EDTA salts (sequestrenes). Sequestrene is a series of complexing
agents and metal complexes general of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and salts.
The total quantity of stability agents should be in the range of 0.1% to 4.0% by
weight of the composition.
The composition of the present invention may further comprise from 0.02%
to 5.0% by weight of said composition of an emollient or moisturiser. Preferably
the emollient is water soluble and includes polyhydric alcohols, such as propylene
glycol, glycerin, and also water soluble lanolin derivatives.
In preparing wet wipe products according to the present invention, the
composition is applied to at least one surface of the substrate material. The
composition can be applied at any time during the manufacture of the wet wipe.
Preferably the composition can be applied to the substrate after the substrate has
been dried. Any variety of application methods that evenly distribute lubricious
materials having a molten or liquid consistency can be used. Suitable methods
include spraying, printing, (e.g. flexographic printing), coating (e.g. gravure
coating or flood coating) extrusion whereby the composition is forced through
tubes in contact with the substrate whilst the substrate passes across the tube or
combinations of these application techniques. For example spraying the
composition on a rotating surface such as calender roll that then transfers the
composition to the surface of the substrate. The composition can be applied either
to one surface of the substrate or both surfaces, preferably both surfaces. The
preferred application method is extrusion coating.
The composition can also be applied uniformly or non uniformly to the
surfaces of the substrate. By non uniform it is meant that for example the amount,
pattern of distribution of the composition can vary over the surface of the
substrate. For example some of the surface of the substrate can have greater or
lesser amounts of composition, including portions of the surface that do not have
any composition on it. Preferably however the composition is uniformly applied to
the surfaces of the wipes. The composition is typically applied in an amount of
from about 0.5 g to 10 g per gram of substrate, preferably from 1.0 g to 5 g per
gram of substrate, most preferably from 2 g to 4 g per gram of dry substrate.
A) Carrier Preparation
Preferably, the composition can be applied to the substrate at any point after
it has been dried. For example the composition can be applied to the substrate
prior to calendering or after calendering and prior to being wound up onto a
parent roll. Typically, the application will be carried out on a substrate unwound
from a roll having a width equal to a substantial number of wipes it is intended to
produce. The substrate with the composition applied thereto is then subsequently
perforated utilizing standard techniques such as in order to produce the desired
- B) Liquid composition Preparation
The carrier is a air laid nonwoven substrate comprising 70% pulp, 15%
PET and 15% latex. The substrate has a basis weight of 73g/m2.
A liquid composition is prepared from the ingredients shown in Table I.
|Ingredients: ||Percentage |
|Distilled Water ||87 |
|Salicylic acid ||0.03 |
|Hydrogen Peroxide ||1.0 |
|Ethanol ||9.4 |
|C-12 Amine Oxide ||0.4 |
|Geraniol ||0.04 |
|Thymol ||0.025 |
|Citric acid ||0.07 |
|Glycol butyl ether ||1.4 |
- C) Applying the liquid composition to the Carrier
To formulate the composition all the components are mixed together and
then heated to 140°F (45.8°C).
The liquid composition prepared in step B is applied to the carrier by
spraying. 3.25g of lotion per gram of substrate material is applied to the
The coated carrier is then perforated, folded and stacked. The stack is then
sealed to yield finished product wipe.
| Examples |
| Sample ||REF ||REF ||9 ||4 ||1 ||3 |
|Bonded area length (mm) ||0.8 ||1.0 ||0.8 ||0.8 ||0.8 ||0.8 |
|Primary slit length (mm) ||4 ||3 ||4 ||6.4 ||3.9 ||6.5 |
|Secondary slit length (mm) ||- ||- ||1.3 ||1.5 ||1.4 ||1.3 |
|No. bonded areas ||1 ||1 ||5 ||5 ||2 ||4 |
|No. primary slits ||1 ||1 ||1 ||1 ||1 ||1 |
|No. secondary slits ||- ||- ||4 ||4 ||1 ||3 |
|Ratio of total slit length ||5 ||3 ||9.2:4 ||3.1 ||3.3 ||3.25 |
|Tensile strength (N/inch) ||1.8 ||2.5 ||2.9 ||2.3 ||1.6 ||1.65 |
|No. of patterns ||1 ||1 ||1 ||1 ||1 ||1 |
|No. of repeat patterns per perforation line ||35 ||42 ||13 ||10 ||25 ||12 |