US 1237734 A
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R. WOOD STANDARD OF POSITION FOR AIRCRAFT.
APPLTCATION FILED MAY 17. 19I5- Putented Aug. 21, 1917.
iii In BUSHMORE W601), 012 BROOKLYN, NEW YORK.
STANDARD 0]? POSITION FOR AIRGRAFT.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Aug. 21, 191 '2.
Application filed. May 17, 1915. 1 Serial No. 28,719.
- and maintain it in its normal or standard position. The controlling member comprises what; may be termed a balloon structure which is suitably mounted upon the craft so as to permit relative movement between the craft and balloon structure, suitable connections and agencies being provided whereby the standard may exert its controlling influence upon the balancing devices of the craft.
The principal objects of the present invention are to increase the buoyant effect of the balloon; to provide for protecting the balloon from the disturbing influence of air currents and variations in pressure of the atmosphere through which the craft passes; and 'to provide for the indication upon the outside of the protecting casing or envelop, of the position and movement of the standard within said envelop or the relative movement of the envelop with respect to the standard. These and other objects and advantages of my invention will more fully appear from the following description considered in connection with the accompanying drawing.
The invention consists in the novel construction, arrangement and relation of parts hereinafter described and claimed, and illustrated in the accompanying drawings in which- Figure 1 is a central longitudinal section through the inclosing casing. or envelop,
' the operativ parts within the same being shown in fu line. is
Fig. 2 is a transverse section of the same taken on the line 22 of Fig 1.
Fig. 3 is a top plan view of the inclosing casing.
The balancing standard, its mounting and connections herein described and illustrated are substantially the same as shown in my Patent No. 1,142,218, granted June 8, 1915, wherein they are-broadly claimed, and although these features are herein described they are not claimed per 88 in the present application.
Referring to the drawings, the actuating or buoyant member of the standard is shown as balloon 10 mounted upon rod 11 which is connected with the air craft by means of a gimbal or universal joint 12, which comprises two pivotal axes 13 and 14 at right angles to each other, the axis l l'being sup ported on beams 15 fixed to-the craft, and through ring 16 is pivotally connected with the other axis 13 pivotally mounted in the ring itself at right angles to the axis 14. Such joints are well known. Below universal joint 12 red 11 is provided with an adjustable counterweight 17 secured in a, desired position upon the rod by nuts 17, one above and one below; the counterweight. By means of this counterweight the pivotal center of support or inertia may be made the centroid of the structure, so that a sudden change in the direction of movement'of the craft, or pitching or rocking, will be applied to the structure at the centroid 18 and move the same bodily in a given direction and will not destroy the equilibrium of the device.
For the purpose of illustration the standard is shown as controlling electric circuits two of which 19 and 19 control the lateral balance of the craft, and another two of which 20 and 20 control the longitudinal balance of the craft. Controlling magnetsL and L are located respectively in circuits 19 and 19 while controlling magnets O and O are connected respectively in circuits 20 and 20. Circuits 19 and 19 terminate respectively in fixed contacts 0, 0 adapted to cooperate with slotted switch lever Z which is pivotally connected at 21 to a fixed point "and connects with rod 1].- through its slot whereby it may be moved right and left to engage contacts 0 and 0 when the craft moves with respect to the standard 10, 11 and 17. Similarly the circuits 20 and 20' are connected respectively to contacts t and t cooperating with slotted switch lever e the craft control operating lever 23 connected either directly to the balancing devices or indirectly through an interposed power operated balancing mechanism, the operations of which are governed through the energization of magnets L, L. Similarly the magnets O, 0 control an operating lever 24 similarly associatedwith the elevating rudders. 4
Inasmuch as the parts above described are the same as those forming the subject matter of my hereinbefore mentioned application, they are shown partly in diagram in order to avoid complication of the drawings. For instance, no supporting connection is shown for the parts 6 and Z and their cooperating fixed contacts.
The standard is mounted within an inclosing casing 25, the beams 15 extending inwardly from ring 15 secured to the wall of the casing. Conductors 19, 19, 20, 20 and 20 comprising the controlling circuits are led out in the form of a cable m through stuiling box on which is air-tight.
In the lower portion of the casing a rim 28 is provided for limiting the movement of the rod 11 and its attached parts by engagement of weight 17 therewith.
The inclosing casing 25 is preferably a sheet metal or light wood housing of proportions suflicient to permit free movement of the standard, and this housing is preferably made air tight so that air or gas may be compressed therein. The charging valve is indi cated at 29, and the pressure gage for showing the amount of pressure within the casing as indicated at 30.
WVhen air or gas within the casing is com pletely sealed'in, this may be at atmospheric pressure or any other desired pressure and the standard of position will then operate free from disturbances due to change in altitude of the craft, and when it is desired to provide higher pressures within the casing for the. purpose of increasing the buoyant action of the balloon 10 the outer casing of the balloon should be inelastic and non-compressible, such as very light sheet metal, to avoid the correspondin compression of the air or gas within the balloon. I have shown the elastic or inner envelop of the balloon at 26, and the inelastic outer casing at 27.
In order to indicate upon the outside of the inclosing casing the movements of the standard of position therein, I provide any suitable form of indicator such as that.
is placed adjacent glass insert 38 which is suitably graduated and mounted in the wall of the inclosing casing or tank. This will indicate the movement of the standard, or of the tank relatively thereto, in a given plane, and in order to show the movement in the transverse plane a second fork 39 is provided which in a similar manner operates indicator arm 40 adjacent glass insert 41.
The inclosing casing or tank being suitably mounted upon the craft, the operation of the standard will be readily understood from the foregoing, but may be briefly outlined as follows, reference being made to my above mentioned application for a more complete description of the parts therein set forth. In the normal position of the craft, 'where the same is on an even keel both laterally and longitudinally, the switch levers Z and e do not engage any of the contacts a, 0 and t, t. Assumin a lateral unbalancing of the craft, the craft with the casing 25 and the fixed points 21, 22, changes its angular position with respect to the standard 10, 11, 17, with the result that circuit 19 or 19 is closed depending upon whether the unbalancing is to right or to left, and the corresponding magnet L, L is energized, rocking the armature lever 23 one way-or the other i0 effect the proper movement of the balancing lrudders to correct the unbalancing.
The cir- ,cuits 20, 20 are similarly closed upon unbalancing in a longitudinal direction either fore or aft. Obviously due to the universal pivoting of the standard 10, 11, 17, and the independently affected switch levers e and Z, correction for both longitudinal and lateral balance may be effected at the same time and Without the one interfering in any manner with the other. During the entire series of unbalancing movement of the craft, the standard 10, 11, 17, which ispivoted at its centroid, is not operated irregularly or vibrated from its proper normal position, so that its governing action is accurate, positive, and eflicient.
It will be understood that in order to increase the buoyant action of the balloon which forms the actuating portion of the standard, the pressure within the inclosing casing or tank 25 may be increased to any amount found desirable' and practicable.- For each additional atmosphere of pressure 116 within the tank the density of the confined air or gas therein will be greatly increased, and a corresponding additional buoyancy of the balloon obtained, the density of the air or gas within the balloon remaining the 12. same owing to the rigid envelo 27 Thus in addition to protecting the stan ard'from disturbing air currents and from the effects of changes in atmospheric pressure owing to the varying altitude of the craft, the inclos- 126 ing casing or tank makes it possible to greatly increase the effective action of the standard by increasing the buoyancy of the balloon.
At all times during the operation of the 180 standard the exact position of the craft, both fore and aft and laterally, may be read upon the scales 38 and 41, so that the operator may at any time inform himself as to the degree of list or inclination fore and aft, which is particularly desirable at great distances above the earth. These conditions are therefore not left to guess Work or calculation, but are positively and accurately shown upon the scales of the indicator.
While I have described by way of illustration a particular embodiment of my invention, it will be understood that numerous changes in construction and arrangement of parts may be made without departing from the invention, and all such changes I contemplate as within the scope and purview of the invention;
What I claim is: v
1. In an air craft, an inclosing casing containing compressed gas, a standard of position within said casing comprising a balloon mounted to permit relative movement of the craft and casing with respect to said balloon, and operating connections for balancing devices connected therewith and adapted to effect operation of balancing devices to correct unbalancing of the craft.
2. In an air craft, an inclosing casing containing compressed gas. and a standard of position within said casing comprising a balloon mounted to permit relative movement of the craft and casing with respect thereto.
3.'-In an air craft, a standard of position comprising a balloon, means for mounting the same to permit relative movement of the craft with respect to said balloon, an inclosing casing for said standard of position, and a charging valve through which the pressure of gas within said casing may be increased and thereby increasing the buoyant action of said balloon.
4. In an air craft, a standard of position comprising a balloon, means for mounting.
the same to permit relative movement of the craft with respect to said balloon, and an inclosing casing for said standard of position containing gas under pressure, whereby the buoyancy relation of the as contained in said balloon to the gas in said casing may be changed at will. v
5. In an air craft, a standard of position comprising'a balloon, an inclosing caslng therefor capable of containing gas under pressure, a rod upon which said balloon is mounted, a universal joint upon which said rod is supported with respect to said casing, and a limit stop for limiting the movement of said rod in any direction with respect to its normal position.
6. In an air craft, an inclosing casing containing compressed gas, and a standard of position within said casing comprising a balloon mounted to permit relative movement of the craft and casing with respect thereto and having a rigid envelop to prevent changes in volume of said balloon due to changes of pressure Within'said casing.
7. A standard of position for air craft comprising a balloon having a rigid-noncompressible envelop, and an inclosing casing containing gas under pressure.
8. A standard of position for air craft comprising a balloon having a rigid noncompressible envelop. and an inclosing casing containing gas under pressure greater than atmospheric pressure.
9. A standard of position for air craft comprising a balloon, means for mounting the same to permit relative movement of the craft with respect to said balloon, an inclosing casing for said standard of position, and means for indicating upon the outside of said casing therelative position of said casing with respect to said standard;
In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand in presence of two subscribing witnesses.
, RUSHMORE WOOD.
CAROLINE K NNEDY, LILLIAN L. HAGEMILLER.