US 1507454 A
Descripción (El texto procesado por OCR puede contener errores)
Sept, 2, i924. LSS
MCMASTER s. BLACKBURN AUTOMATIC PUMP CONTROL Filed April 3o. was 4 sheets-shew 1 witness 4 5 4, 7 0 5, l N R u B K c A L B s R E T S A M C M 4 2 9 l 2 L P e S AUTOMATI C PUMP CONTROL Filed April so, 192s' 4 sheets-sham 4/ a/af/ wf @@Ow witness Vea . @bro/wma@ 4 sheds-sheet 4.
IVA l@ Snom/Hoz @WO1/nalga MMASTER s. BLACKBURN AUTOMATIC PUMP CONTROL Filed April so.
Q1@ @5f @TMm/M Sept. 2 1924.
Patented Sept. 2, 1924.
UNITED STATES 1,501,454 PATENT OFFICE.
MCMASTER SYLVESTER BLACKBURN, 0F SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS, ASSIGNOB TO MU- MASTER SYLVESTER BLACKBURN AND J'. S. .A RRINGTON, TRUSTEES FOB.. THE
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING COMPANY,
A COMMON-LAW TRUST COMPANY.
AUTOMATIC PUMP CONTROL.
To all whom it may concern.
Be it known that I, MGMASTER SYLVESTER BLACKBURN, a citizen of the United States, residing at San Antonio, in the county of Bexar and Stateof Texas, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Automatic Pump Controls; and I do declare the following to be a full, clear, and exact description of the invention, such as will enable others skilled in the art to which it appertains to make and use the same.
My invention relates to improvements in devices and. methods for controlling well pumps and more particularly to controls for oil wel] pumps, one object of the invention heilig to provide meaiis controlled by the quantity of liquid in the well, for automatically throwing the pump out of operation when the liquid level has descended to a predetermined extent, and for automatically restoring the pump to an operative condition when the liquid lever has been restored.
A further object of the invention is to throw the pump out of or into operation by unseating its standing valve or permitting it to seat, as occasion may be, without interfering with stroking of the traveling valve.
A still further object of the invention is to provide an automatic control which is controlled by the hydrostatic pressure in the well, normally acting to hold a standing valve opening stem in a balanced inoperative position, but acting also to shift said stem to an operative position when the balance is overcome by lowering of the liquid level to a predetermined extent.
A still further object is to provide novel means for holding the valve opening stem against movement until a, predetermined time and for then permitting movement of said stem, insuring rapid motion thereof. v
A still further' object is to provide a controlling means which may be readily attached to the working barrel of an ordinary oil well pump without .making alterations in the pump structure. A.
Yet another object is to provide a construction which will reduce resistance to the oil entering the well and will consequently obtain the same result as those now obtained by well packing, namely,increased production.
lVith the foregoing and numerous minor objects in view, the invention resides in the novel subject matter hereinafter described and claimed, the description being supplemented by the-.accompanying drawings.
Figure 1 is a vertical sectional view showing the preferred form of my invention connected with the working barrel of an oil well pump, disclosing the normal relation of parts.
Figure 2 is a duplicate of Fig. 1 with the exception that it illus-trates the manner in which the control device automaticall unseats the standing valve when the iquid level in the wellhas lowered to a predeter-A mined extent.
Figures 3, 4 and 5 are horizontal sectional views on lines 3 3, 4-4 and 5-5 of Fi l. Figures 6 and 7 are views similar to igs.
Figures 8, 9 and 10 are horizontal seetional views on the lines 8-8, 9-9 and VFigs. 1 to 5, the numeral l designates the usual working barrel of anoil well pump, said barrel being provided with the usual standing valve 2 and standing valve seat 3 at its lower end. The numeral 4 designates a coupling which ordinarily connects the working barrel with a perforated tube, this tube being indicated in the drawings by the numeral 5, butbeing disposed at a lower point than usual, due to the fact that the controlling means for the standing valve 2 is interposed between the working barrel 1 and said tube 5.
The numeral 6 designates a body whose upper end is threaded into the coupling 4, while its lower end is threaded upon the tube 5, said body containing a chamber 7 across which a movable partition 8 extends, said V1 and 2 but illustrating a different form of diaphragm as showi'i.
y,operate in the usual manner.
partition being preferably in the form of a This diaphragm is connected with an upright stem 9 which extends into closely spaced relation with the standing valve 2 as shown in Fig. 1, and the arrangement of parts is'such that the partition 8 normally stands in the position shown in'Fig. 1 so that said standing valve 2 may When however, the quantity of liquid in the well reaches a predetermined degree, the party tion 8 is automatically forced upwardly as indicated in Fig. 2 and hence the standing vtate the liquid in the well, thereby preventing paraliining. This automatic unseating of the standingvalve also possesses numerous other advantages which will be hereinafter entered into more fully. The valve remains open until the quantity of liquid in' the well has again increased to such an extent as to make it advisable to again throw the pump into play. Then, the partition 8 is automatically forced down, permitting the standing valve 2 to operate and consequently again restoring the pump to an operative condition.
The portion, of the chamber 7 below the partition 8, is in communication with the liquid containing space within the usual well casing 10, while the portion of said chamber above said partition, communicateswith the liquid intake of the working barrel l and also communicates with the interior of a liquid containing sleeve 11 which rises from the body 6 around the working barrel 1 and is preferably of approximately twenty feet in length. The upper end of the sleeve 11 is open to receive liquid from the well and it will be seen from Fig. 1 that as long as the liquid level is above the sleeve, the hydrostatic pressure above and below the partition 8, is substantially' balanced so that the stein 9 may be held down under the influence of a weight 12 or other desired means with which it may be provided. When the liquid level in the well, reaches the upper end of the sleeve 11 and this sleeve can no longer fill with liquid, the level of liquid within the sleeve will of course lower as seen in Fig.'2, thus decreasing the downward pressure on the partition 8 with the result that it is overbalanced by the upward pressure below said partition, causing upward movement of the partition and the stem 9 to effect an opening of the standing valve 2. The valve will remain open until the liquid levelin the well vber 7 within this section of the body, comhas again risen to such extent as to fill the space within the sleeve 11, whereupon the balance of pressure at opposite sides of the artition 8 is restored and the stem 9 will In the preferred form of construction, the body 6 includes a cup-likelower section 13 having a depending flange-14 into which the tubing 5 is threaded, said section having an 7.
internal shoulder 8 spaced above its bottom, against which the edge portion of the diaphragm 8 is clamped by an upper dome-likel body section 15 which is threaded into the ower section 13. The upper end of thebody section 15 is formed with ports 16 and a guide opening for the stem 9 andv the side` wall of this section has additional ports 17 by means of which the portion of the chammunicates with the sleeve 11, this sleeve being threaded around the upper end of the section 13, as indicated at 18.
To place the lower end of the chamber 7 in communication with the liquid containing space of the well, I have shown vertical ports 19 formed through its bottom 20. This bottom yis also formed with a central opening receiving a sleeve 21 on the stem 9. This lowered under the influence of the weight sleeve is connected at its upper end to the diaphragm or. partitionl and the stem 9 may be adjusted through said sleeve and held in adjusted position, by means of nuts or the like 22. The sleeve is preferably formed with a stop shoulder 23 to strike the bottom 2O ofthe body section 13 and limit the downward movement of the stem under the in- Huence of the weight 12, thereby preventingl possible injury to the diaphragm. I also prefer to provide the lower end of the sleeve 21 with a nut 24 or other projecting shoulder to strike the lower side of the bottom 20 and limit the upward movement of the stem 9 and associated parts.
It is desirable that the stem 9 shall be held 1U' against movement until the pressure at one side or the other of the partition or diaphragm 8, has been reduced to a predetermined extent, and I have shown thepieferred means of carrying out this end, in the form 'of spring-pressed balls 25 mounted within bores 26 in the bottom 20, said balls. being engageable with grooves or notches 27 in the sleeve 21. Plugs 28 are preferably threaded 'in the outer ends of the bores 26 120 for the purpose of adjusting the tension of the springs 29 which force the balls 25 normally inward. Byv this arrangement, the balls may be made to hold the sleeve 21 and associated parts against movement until the force acting to ino-ve them has reached a predetermined strength, whereupon the springs 29 will be immediately overcome and a quick operation of` parts will take place.
In the form of construction shown in Figs.
ber 7 a in the body 6", by means of a plurality of vertically positioned ports 17a formed in the periphera portion of the body 6, while the upper portion of said chamber 7", which communicates with the coupling 4" is in communication with the liquid space around the sleeve 11", by means of ports 19". A suitably weighted and guided stem 9" is mounted within the body 6" and is connected with a movable partition or diaphragm 8a which extends across the chamber 7" below the ports 19". Springpressed balls orthe like 25" are shown for yieldably holding the stem 9a in either position, and I-have shown these balls mounted in bores formed -in a. web 20 which extends across the chamber 7" and is formed with suitable ports 30 by means of which the upper and lower ends of the chamber 7" communicate with each other.
The construction just described, operates reversely from that illustrated in Figs. 1
' to 5. As long as the liquid in the well is above the upper end of the sleeve 11", this sleeve willbe filled and consequently the portion of the chamber 7a below the diaphragm or partition 8" will also be filled and the liquid will exert an upward pressure on said diaphragm ory partition. Similarly, the
liquid around the sleeve llawhich enters the upper portion of the chamber 7"1 willexert a corresponding downward pressure Yon the partition or diaphragm and will thus substantially count-erbalance the same soV that the weight ,12" of the stem 9" may normally lower the latter away from the standing valve 2",this relation of parts being shown 1n Fig. 6. As soon as the liquid level lowers below the upper end of the sleeve 11" and recedes beyond this level `as shownin Fig. 7,the downwardly ac ting `pressure on the diaphragmor partition 8" is decreased, withfthe result .that thel upwardlyl acting pressure will'raise said diaphragm or, partition and cause the stem 9", to open the valve l2pas shown clearly in the figure' last referred to'.l Inv the construction .last considered, the body 6a preferably consists of `a main upper` section 15 whichis threaded into the` conpling 4a and carries a sleeve 11", anda lower tubular section 13a threadedinto thelower end of the section 15".` fThe lower end ofthe section 13"is closedby a cap 31-`so thatthe lower fend of the chamber 7*? cannot communi` catewith the liquidl space around the sleeve 11a and body 6, and if desired this ca'pl may` be provided withrneans to connectit with a tubirig such as that above referred to by the numeral 5.I
The construction illustrated in Fig. 11 is very smllar to that shown in Figs. 1 to 5. In this View, 1" designates the working barrel, 2" indicates the standing valve, 4" has reference to the' coupling by means of which the body 6" is connected to said working barrel, 13" designates the lower section of this body, and 15" has reference to the u per section whichis threaded into the coup ing 4". The body 6" carries a sleeve 11" risin therefrom around the working barrel 1.",an
contains a standing valve opening stem 9" i which is connected with a movable partition 8" in the liquid containing chamber 7" of the body 6". This partition 1s in the form of a piston operating in a cylindrical extension 14" which depends from the body section 13", the lower end of this extension being threaded upon the usual perforated tube 5". Spring-pressed balls or other detents 25" are provided for holdin the stem 9" either raisedy or lowered an these spring-pressed devices are mounted in a web 20" which extends across the body 6" and is formed with ports 19" establishing communication between the upper and lower ends of thechamber 7". By means of these ports 19" and ports 17" in the body section 15", the portion of the chamber 7" above the piston or movable partition 8" communicates with the interior of the sleeve 11", while lthe portion of said chamber below the piston is in communication with the portion of the well around said sleeve and vassociated parts by4 the upwardk ressure thereof will move saidpiston and t e stem 9" to unseat the standing valve 2", as shown inFig; 11.
In Figs. 1 to 16, a form of construction has been shown which relies on spring pressure for openingthe standing valve 2". At 6, I have shown' a body consisting of a lower section 13", closedlat its sides and ends withthe ,exception of ports 32 in its side wall, and an upper section 15 threaded on said;V lower section and'having an adjustable threadedconnectionb33 with the coupling 4 .atjthe''lower end' of theJ working barrel 1, thek sidey wallof said sectionl 15e having liquid Vinlet ports 34. stem 9c rises from thediaphragmSV through'v a suitable guide opening in the Aup er 'endrvof the body section 13" and exten s into' ,operative relation with the'standi'ng lvalve 2".Y` This stem is provided within the body section 15c with a collar 35 against which a coiled spring 36 thrusts upwardly,'but the pressure of liquid .Y acting downwardly upon the diaphragm 8c normally prevents this spring from operating, as will -be seen by reference to Fig. 12, but when this pressure decreases by lowering of the liquid level in the well, as indicated in Fig.13,the spring 36 comes into play. Spring-pressed balls or other detents 25c however are employed to hold the stem 9 either raised or lowered until the force tend- .ing 'to move the same has become strong enoughA to effect a quick movement. Thus, as with the other forms of construction, it is insured that the standing valve shall not be held at a partially opened position. ,i
While the ports 32 might communicate directly with the liquid space of the well, I prefer to provide the upper bodyu section 15c with a depending sleeve 37 spaced outwardlg7 from the lower section 13 and coupled at'its Y lower end toa erforated tube 5c by a suitable coupling ring 38.
, As illustrated the construction shown in this view, a ported tubular body section- 15d is threaded into the coupling 41 at' the lower end oi the working barrel 1d and carries a lower bod; section 13d through which a stein 9*l extends for openin ,the standing valve 2d, the lower end of this stem having a weight 12d, The body section 13d contains spring-pressed detents 25d for yieldably holding the stem either raised or lowered and I prefer that this body section shall connect with a perforated tubed. A pair Aof suitable levers 40 have been shown suitablyconnected at their inner ends with the stem 9d as indicated at 41 lwhile their outer ends have eyes 42 slidably receiving rods 43 which depend from a tubular float 44 which surrounds the lower end of theV working barrel 1d, said float in. practice, beingco'nsiderably longer than shown,
levers'40 and the stem 9d will be lowered out of engagement with the standing valve 2d. When the liquid level in the well recedes however, the upper stops 45 will strike the eyes 42 and will thus rock the levers 40 and shift vthe stein' 9d upwardly, thereby opening the valve 2d as depicted in Fig. 17.
Allforms of .my invention are automatic in all respects and are very desirable,- and' although -the numerous advantages will be apparent to those skilled in the art, it may in Fig. 17, it is possible td` effect an opening of the standing valve by: means of a oat or a plurality of fioats. Inr
be well to briefly set forth some of these advantages, reference being made more particularlyto oil well pumps, in the following.
The invention will automaticallycontrol the stopping and starting of the pumip andwill absolutely prevent the oil from being cut by keeping a few feet of oil always over the standing valve, the controlling means being set to stop the operation of the pump when there remains from three to six feet of oil over the standing valve. The invention will increase the production of the an oil well by relieving the pressure therein, by keeping the head pumped oil', and it will be seenthat paraiiining or corroding is retarded, as' the standing valve is dpened before the oil recedes below the traveling valve and thus the oil is continually agitated, as long as the standing valve reniains open. The life of the cup leathersof the pump is greatly prolonged by keeping them constantly immersed and the possibility of pumping air with its lconsequent loss by volatilizatiu is overcome. The device pre- ",vents the losI ."of a vtubing' of oil when the pump is being removed from the well, as the standing valve is then held open and the contents of the working barrel and the tubing can bleed therethrough.` It lessens the labor of looking after the wells and relying upon such labor to stop and start the pumps and permits continual balanced operation of the central power plant which carnot be obtained when the pumps are cut off or on when necessary. Also, attention may be directed to the fact that if desired, the movement of the stem 9, 9, etc., may be used to "control an electrical switch for any desired purpose.
Attention is directed to the fact that the i'orms of the invention embodying the spillover tube 11, 11a and 11b, provide .for increased production froin wells previously yielding poorly., This result is due to the fact that the colunin of oil between the tube 11, 11 or 11" and the well casing, which column must be lifted by the oil entering the well, is much smaller in horizontal area and consequently lighter than the column to be lifted would be, if it filled the entire space between the well casing and Working barrel 1. Thus, by enlarging the pump adjacent the producing strata, I diminish resistance to the incoming oil'and the'latter may enter the well more easily and rapidly, hence increasing production and getting the same result as now obtained by the expensive and laborious well packing methods.
Excellent results have been obtained from the use of the invention and the details ,dis-
closed are therefore preferably followed, but it is to be understood that the present disclosure is principally for purpose of illustration and that within the scope of the invention as claimed, numerous changes may be made.
1. The combination with a well pump having a. standing valve; of means controlled by the quantity of liquid in the well for automatically holding said standing valve open when the liquid level has lowered to a predetermined extent.
2. The combination with a well pump having a standing valve; of means controlled by the quantity of liquid in the well for automatically'holding said standing valve open when the liquid level has lowered to a predetermined extent, and for automatically releasing said valve when the liquid level is restored.
3. Controlling means for a well pumpl having a standlng valve, comprising a vertical stem whose upper end is adapted to be vnormally spaced below the standlng valve,
guiding means for said stem, and means controlled by the quantity ofA liquid in the well for automatically raising said stem andy holding the standing valve open when the liquid has lowered to a predetermined extent, and for automatically lowering said stem when the liquid level has been restored.
4. A structure as specified in claim 3; together with yielding means for resisting movement of said stem! to a predetermined degree and for then suddenly releasing the same.
5. The combination with a well pump having a standing valve; of hydrostatically controlled means for automatically holding said standing valve open when the liquid level lowers to a predetermined extent and for again releasing said standing valve when the liquid level is restored. y
6. The combination with a well pump having a standing valve; of hydrostatically balanced means for automatically holding said standing valve open when its balance is impaired by lowering of the liquid.
7. The combination with a well pump; of means including a movable member for automatically throwing the pump out of operation, and means for holding said throw-out means normally against movement, comprising means controlled by the liquid level in the well into which the pump extends, for maintaining substantially balanced hydrostatic pressure at opposite sides of said member until the liquid in the well lowers to a predetermined extent.
8. In combination with means for throwing a well pump out of action including a movable member; means for normally holding said throw-out means against operation, comprisin means controlled by the liquid level in t e well into which the ump extends, for maintaining a substantlally balanced hydrostatic pressure at opposite sides of saidmovable member until the liquid in the well lowers a predeterminedv extent.
9. Controlling means for a. well pump hav- 1ng a standmg valve, comprising an opening 'device for the valve, a liquid chamber hav- 1ng a movable partition connected with said opening dev1ce, and means for maintaining substantlally uniform hydrostatic pressure 1n said chamber at opposite sides of said partltlon until the liquid level has lowered to a predetermined extent in the well and for then effecting a reduction of pressure at one side of said partition to move the latter and open the standing valve.
10. Controlling means for a well pump having a standing valve, comprising an opening device for the valve, a liquid chamber having a Imovable partition connected with sa1d opening device, and a liquid container 'filled from the liquid in the well and communicating with said chamber at one side of said partition, said chamber being adapted for communication with the liquid space of the well at the other side of the partition to maintain a substantiall uniform hydrostatic pressure at both si es of said partition, the action of the pump serving to destroy the uniformity of pressure after the liquid level in the well has reached the inlet of said container, thereby el'ecting movement of said partition and said valve opening device to open the standing valve.
11. Controlling means for a well pump having a standing valve at the lower end of its working barrel, comprising a body adapted for connection to the lower end of the working barrel and formed with a liquid chamber, one end of saidchamber being adapted for communication with the liquid space around the body, a liquid containing sleeve rising from said body to surround the working barrel and open at its upper end to be filled with liquid from the well, one end of said chamber being in communication with said sleeve, a movable partition .across said chamber, and a standing valve opening stem rising from said partition for close relation with the standing valve, one end of said chamber being adapted for comllO munication with the liquid inlet of the working barrel.
12. Controlling means for a well pum having a standing valve at the lower end of its working barrel, comprising a body adapted for connection to the lower end of the working barrel and formed with a liquid chamber, the lower end of said chamber being adapted for communication with the liquid space around the body, a liquid contaming sleeve rising from said body to surround the working barrel and open at its upper end to be filled with liquid from lthe well, the upper end of said chamber being in communication with said sleeve and adapted 'to communicate with the liquid inlet of t e pump, a movable partition aoross said chamber, and a' standing valve opening stem movable member controlling' its operation,
rising from said partition for close relation with the standing valve. 1 1
13. The method of manipulating a WellA vpump having a travelingvalveand a stand'-, i Aing valve, consisting in opening thestanding valve when the liquid in the Well has lowered .to a predetermined extent, operating the traveling Valve and holding the standing valve open until the liquidlevel in the Well rises to a; predetermlned extent,
.closing the standing valve and 'continually operating the traveling'valve.
14. The combinati-on with a vvell pump; ofcontrol means for said pump. havlng a maintaining a substantie and means controlled by` the-liquid level in the well in which the pump 1s used, for
ly balanced hydrostatic pressure at opposite sides of said movpump is used, for.maitaining, a substam y' tially balanced hydrostatic pressure' at op' posite sides of said movable member until .the liquid in the well lowers to a predeter-y mined extent.
.In testimony whereof I have hereunto aixed my signature.
' .MCMASTER SYLVESTER BLACKBURN.