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Número de publicaciónUS1622104 A
Tipo de publicaciónConcesión
Fecha de publicación22 Mar 1927
Fecha de presentación6 Nov 1926
Fecha de prioridad6 Nov 1926
Número de publicaciónUS 1622104 A, US 1622104A, US-A-1622104, US1622104 A, US1622104A
InventoresOrr Fulton James
Cesionario originalJohn C King Lumber Company
Exportar citaBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
Enlaces externos: USPTO, Cesión de USPTO, Espacenet
Block flooring and process of making the same
US 1622104 A
Resumen  disponible en
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Marsh 22 p W2K. LZEL l J. o. FULTON BLOCK FLOORNG AND PROCESS OF' MAKING THE SAME PW nu. `212, im.

.TAKES OBB'IULTOH; 0l* TORONTO, CANADA, LSSIGNOR TO THE JOEE' O. m6 Lum" conm, Ol CLEVELAND, OHIO, A. CORPORATIOI Ol m.

m FLOORING AND PROCESS 0l' m6 m Application led November 6, 1926. Serial lo. 14ml.

This invention relates' to a flooring composed of blocks and to the method of makin or laying the same.

eretofore many forms of block floors have been devised. As far as I am aware,

none of these have ever been used where they would be subjected to more than pedestrian or similar lighttrailic. None were capable of maintaining a smooth even surface 1o when subjected to extremely heavy loads hard and continuous wear and other extremely severe conditions such, for instance, .as are experienced in modern industrial plants. l5 Due to the manner in which prior floors were laid, using a relatively thick layer of mastic or the like there was considerable occluded air between either the block and the mastic or the mastic and the base. This l 2o of course prevented the production of a firm continuous bond between the entire bottom surface of the block and the base, and hence the blocks werenot held down firmly. The thickness of thelayer of mastic permitted the blocks to tilt and to be pressed down under loads, -producing an uneven surface. Many forms of pins, tongues and grooves, keys and the like were used between blocks in attempts to overcome these diiiiculties as well as screws and similar anchoring means engaging the base.

l have produced a block ilooring which may be frml held down by adhesive alone, adherin to e entire surface of the bottom of each lock and of the base therebeneath, which flooring will maintain a smooth even surface, which will withstand the hardest use and abuseto which it may be subjected in factories and the like, and which does not wear appreciably. No elaborate tongueand-grooved, dowelinned, or similar connection is necessary etween the blocks. No bolts, screws or the like'with their accompanying anchors are needed to hold the blocks upon their Supporting base and the blocks are easily made, easily laid and do not loosen, tilt, or settle.

The invention will be better understood from the description of a few practical embodiments thereof illustrated in the accompanying drawing in Which- Flg. 1, is a plan view of a fragmentary section of iloormg embodying the invention.

Fig. 2, is a sectional view of the iioor shown in Fig. 1, taken on the line 2-2 threof.

`ig. 3, is a perspective view of the form of plane block used in constructing the flooring above illustrated.

Figs. 4 and 5 are tive views .of modiiied forms of b provided with treads or top surfaces, designed to prevent or minimize slipping of the feet of persons standing thereon.

As shown in Figs. 1 and 2, the block flooring is laid above a supporting base y1, which iksI illustratld as f bise concrete floor.

owever, t e sup ortlng' ma be of an material, it being?l unn toy cover thye same with any particular substance to lay the block flooring directlythereon. 1f the upper surface of the base is rough or irreguar, as is generally the case with cement or coxflsree iloorslvhich lhave been stllilbjected to ar usage, egin cove e same with a thin layer 2 of {emenis'ndg the like, which is smoothed oft' to provide an even upper surface to which the blocks may be secured. After this has set, its Surface may be suitably cleaned or treated to mit the adhesive used in laying the bl to hond itself tightly thereto.

The blocks 3 are shape, having fiat top and bottom surfaces 4 and 5 and flat vertical sides 6 and ends?.

Along the lower side edges are grooves Vor rebates 8 for the reception of excess adhesive.

The blocks may be laid in any desired pattern. The herringbone design illustrated in Fig. 1, is particularly well adapted to withstand long and heavy wear, is readily laid, and is pleasing in appearance, and l. therefore prefer this arrangement.

The blocks are secured to the supporting base by a thin layer 9 of adhesive which adheres tightly tothe surface of the Sup yrte ing base vand to the bottom of each lo ock. The adhesive also enters the grooves or recesses in the bottom of the blocks.

Any suitable adhesive may be used for this purpose. I have found, however, that for producing a iooring which will endure for a long time under severe service, it is' necessary touse an adhesive which does not become hard and brittle but which retains its plasticity and adhesive qualities throughout the life of the flooring. Should the adhepreferably rectangular in I sive become hardened after the flooring has .A

been laid, severe shocks are apt to crack the same. away from the surface of the blocks and permit these to work up and to tilt and otherwise become displaced. Moreover a hard and brittle adhesive prevents the movement of the blocks on the base upon expansion or contraction as when same are sub jected to temperature or other changes, While a somewhat plastic adhesive acts as a lubricant, permitting said movement.

I find that certain bituminous substances are particularly Well adapted to serve as an adhesive for my improvedfloor, particularly certain compositions containing asphaltum, as these retain their plasticity and adhesive characteristics for many years and are readily rendered fluid for application to the flooring by heating.

The method of laying the flooring is as follows:

The base 1, is if necessary, covered with a thin layer of cement or other suitable material 2, to fill depressions andto smooth and even the surface. After this has hardened or set, the surface is suitably cleaned or treated to receive the adhesive.

The :door layer then lays the blocks as follows: He heats a quantity ot' adhesive until it is quite fluid. He then picks up one block and applies to the bottom thereof a coating of Huid adhesive, taking care that the coating extends no further up the block than the tops of the grooves. He next places this block upon the supporting base, a few inches from the position which it is intended to permanently occupy and, pressing it down, he nieves it into its intended position. This rubbing of the block upon the base, expels any air that might be entrapped between the block and the base, and causes the adhesive to thoroughly cover and hence adhere tightly to the entire bottom surface of the block and the base therebelow. Moreover all excess adhesive is extruded or eX- pelled leaving only a very thin film, which, due to its thinness, is capable of supporting great loads without being ruptured, the adhesive carrying compressive forces to the base rather than flowing out from under the block. lIhe blocks are thus held down very securely, the adherence of the adhesive probably being due to the formation of a film of adhesive between the blocks and the base which is of capillary thickness between the substantially contacting portions of the blocks and base. The blocks are slid into place preferably without hammering or subjecting them to any such sharp impact as would injure or destroy the bond of the adhesive to the base and block. In ractice I find that if sufficient force is applied to a. block to lift it from the base, that the adhesive joint is not broken but that pieces of the floor are torn out with the block. Tests show that the strength of the joint is often molre than twenty-live pounds per square me 1. Y

The Hoor layer repeats the above operation with each ci' the successive blocks, moving each up tothe previously laid blocks while pressing it upon the base. Thus a very firm flooring is produced While at the same time, the material, remaining plastic or semi-fluid, never loses its yproperties of adhering to the block and base, nor does it crack under load or upon expansion of the fiooring.

Any excess otl adhesive which is present while the blocks are being placed upon the base or moved into poslition, is forced into the grooves at the bottom of-the blocks and serves to unite adjacent blocks as well as secure them on the base. The space provided in these grooves also prevents the adhcsive from being. squeezed up between the vertical faces of the blocks and thus preventing them from coming together to make a tight seam. l l

The `blocks are preferably made of hard wood, maple being particularly suitable, but

`may be made of any desired material. The

length is preferably but not necessarily, a multiple of the width, the size I prefer being 2% inches by IO inches. This size is small enough that warping or cupping of the blocks will not take place, while it is large enough to provide a suiiicient bottom surface to support loads and be iirmly held by the adhesive. tIhe flooring may be applied dlrectly to any flat supporting base, whether of wood, brick, concrete, metal, or any other material, without the use of a subflooring or any intermediate structure. The broad bottom surfaces of the blocks transmit the loads imposed thereon directly to the base through the thin film of adhesive, the unit pressure between the block and base being very small.

The blocks can be quickly and economically manufactured by grooving boards of suitable size along two edges to form the adhesive-receiving grooves, and then sawing off pieces of the length desired.

Figs. 4 and 5 are two modifications of the block above described, these being especially constructed to provide a rm foothold for a person standing thereon. In lthe form shown in Fig. 4, two grooves 12 of rectangular cross section are provided longitudinally of the block and the upper side edges are cut away at 13. The parts removed are replaced with a frictional composition 14. In the block shown in Fig. 5 three V-shaped grooves 15 are provided longitudinally of the upper or tread face of the block for holding the persons feet from slipping. In either or both cases the upper surface of the block is preferably not planed, but is left roughened as the material comes from the saw.

While I have described the illustrated embodiments of my invention with some particularity, obviously many. other embodiments thereof will occur to those skilled in the art to which it appertains and I do not therefore limit myself to the precise details shown and described, but claim as my invenbase.

2. The method of laying block flooring which comprises applying fluid adhesive t0 the bottom of a block, placing the block upon its supporting base near the final position it is to occupy, pressing the block upon the base and sliding it into final position in a manner to substantially lill all the space between the block and ioor with the said adhesive and to form a load-supporting film thereof of capillary thickness between the substantially contacting portions of' lthe block and base.

3. The method of laying block flooring which comprises applying iiuid adhesive to the bottom of a block, placing the block on its supporting base near the final position it is to occupy upon the base, and sliding the block into its final position without sharp impact thereby forming a thin loadcarrying film joining substantially all poi'- tions of the block to its supporting base.

4. A floor comprisin a supportn `base, and a covering of bloc s arranged t ereon so that the sides and ends of adjacent blocks fit tightly against each other, and secured to the base by a film of adhesive adhering to substantially the entire bottom surface of each block and to the entire surface of the base therebelow, the film being of capillary thickness between the substantially con- 60 hesive adhering to theentire bottom surface 'of each block and to the base therebelow, the layer being or' capillary thickness between substantially contacting portions of the block and base.

6. A floor comprisin a supporting base,

a covering of blocks t ereon, and a thin, load-carrying film of adhesive of approximately uniform thickness completely filling the space between the blocks and base and being of capillaiy thickness between subes stantially contacting portions of the base and blocks.

7. A wood block floor comprising a supporting base, a plurality of wood blocks arranged in side and end contact with each 7o other, and a thin film of bituminous adhesive securing the blocks to the base, the adhesive adhering to substantially the entire bottom surface of each block and to the base therebeneath, substantially filling the space between the blocks and base and being or capillary thickness between the substantially contacting portions of the blocks and base.

In testimony whereof I hereunto ailix my signature this 3 da of November, 1926.

' J S ORR FULTON.

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Clasificaciones
Clasificación de EE.UU.52/390, 52/181, 52/747.1, 404/40
Clasificación internacionalE04F15/04
Clasificación cooperativaE04F15/04
Clasificación europeaE04F15/04