US 1679900 A
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Aug. 7, 1942s. Lemma 1F. HIGGINS ET AL OIL BURNING SYSTEM Original Filed June 22, 1925 2 Sheets-Sheet l Aug. 7, 192s.
' F. HIGGINS ET AL OIL BURNING SYSTEM A original Filed June 22, 1925 m 2 Sheets-Sheet Patented Aug. 7, 1928.
UNITED" STATES 1,679,9oo Pn'riiiwr` OFFICE.
Original application led .Tune 22, 1925,
This invention relates to an oil burni ng system adapted for use in connection with furnaces, steam and hot water heating plants, and the like.
The principal objections to certain oil burners in use exist in the formation of carbon usually due to incomplete or improper combustion and the noise arising therefrom which make them objectionable in dwelll ings and the like. n It is an object of this invention to overcome these objections in the provision of an oil burning system in which the fuel 1s mixed with dry or superheated steam at low.. presl sure, together with air, which prod uces a bluish or almost colorless flame of intense heat.
It is a further object of this invention to provide a novel system ofv control 'for the burner including a sparking mechanism for producing initial combustion.
This application is a division of ourvpen ding application Serial No. 38,942, filed June 22. 1925. 251
lowing description and disclosures` this in venton comprisesthe novel structure and combinations hereinafter described and more Vao particularly pointed out and defined in the appended claim.
In the accompanying drawings which illustrate a. preferred form of this invention and in which similar reference numerals refer to similar features in the different views: Figure 1 is an elevational view of the oil burning appara-tus installed in connection with a furnace. Figure 2 is a plan view showing diagrarnmatically the control system.
Figure 3 is an enlarged sectional view through the water tank.
Figure 4 is an enlarged sectional view upon the line IV-IV of Figure l.
Figure 5 is an enlarged vertical sectional view through the fire pot.
As illustrative of this invention, there is shown a furnace 1 in which the fire pot 2 of the system is positioned. A water tank' 5U 3 is positioned adjacent the furnace. From the tank 3, a pipe 4 extends into the furnace and directly above the fire pot in the form of a coil 4aL which returns through a branch 4'b and the pipe sections 5 and 6, ,to a safety valve 7 which communicates with the top of With these and other objects. in View,- which will become more apparent in the folserial 110.38.942. Divided and this application marebruary 7, 1927. seriai No. mana l the tank. A pipe 8 provided with a control valve 9 extends from the top of the tank and connects with apipe 10 that communicates with the top of the fire nozzle 1l (Figure 5).
The water in the tank 3 is maintained at a level which should be a suitable distance below the top of the coil 4a in order that the steam may be preheated in the upper part of the coil 4 before it reaches the burner. In the present instance the level of the water is shown to be substantially a turn and a half of the coil 4a below the top of such coil, leaving substantially a coil and a half in which the steam may be preheated before it reaches the burner. This water level is maintained by means of a fioat 12 which is secured upon a flexible rod 13 which controls a valve 14 in t-lie water supplyv pipe 15. On account of the flexibility of the' float rod, it may be adjusted to vary the Water level within the tank. A low pressure gauge 19- is connected to the top of the tank for indicating the pressure of the steam.
The oil supply pipe 20 for the system extends through a regulating box 21, the mechanism in which will be later described. From the regulating box, the oil supply extends through the wall of the furnace and into the front end of the fire nozzle 11 as shown in Figure 5. Adjacent the regulating box, there is a trip valve 22 in the pipe S20. which is operated by Jthe usual trip bucket 23 from which a pipe Q4 extends. The pipe 24 extends into the lower part of the fire pot. As such a trip bucketaiid its functions are old and well-known it need not be more specificallv described.
The fire pot 2 which is best shown in Figures 4 and 5 consists of a substantially cylindrical body portion Q with a downwardly directe/d hood 25 which is offset with respect to the body portion, but integral therewith. The wall of the body. portion is not continuous: there is a gap E2G that establishes communication between the hood and body portion. The hood is so formed in connection with the body portion that the outer wall of the gap lies in substantially the same plane asthe inner surface of the adjacent wall of the fire pot. The inner side of the gap 2G is formed by the juncture wall 27 of the hood and body portion. This juncture wall slopes inwardly and Serves to deflect the flames with respect to the gap 26. This gap serves as a thoroughfare for air which may vnut tits loosely in the Anut 32.
enter the fuel nozzle through an inlet 28. The nozzle 11 is supported in the wall 2.9 that connects the deector portion 2T with the wall of the hood below the gap 26. According to this construction, the fuel nnxture passing through t-he nozzle 11 will be tangentially directed against the wall of the body portion and be Given a'swlrhng mo tion; after substantial y one revolution the same will strike the deflector 2T and be deflected inwardly of the gap 26 so as not to interfere with the operation of the nozzle.
The nozzle consists of a hollow Venturi tube. A nut- 30 is threaded in the outer end of the tube, the oil pipe 2Q`being secured in said nut. This nut has an extended ltube 3l which communicates with` the oil pipe 20. This tube extends into a second nut 32- threaded in the nozzle l1 in spaced' relation with the nut 30'to provide a steam chamber therebetween; The nut 32 is provided with a forwardly projecting noz zle 33. It will `be noted that the passage 1n the nozzle 11 is cylindrical at the rea-rg'it then becomes conical to provide a restricted portion which merges into a ari'ng portion to give 'a Venturi eitect to Fthe mixture.
It will be noted that the tube 3l in the Consequentlysthe steam entering thepipe 10 will pass into the nozzle of the lnut 32 and mix with the oil and as the steam has been superheated and `is dry, there will be no hindrance to combustion. Thev air inlet 28 communicates with the conical portion of the passage in the nozzle and forward of the nut 32. Consequently, the air willl become mixed ,s
with the oil after the steam strikes the oil. In referring to Figure 5, it will be noted that the bodv portion 2*iL of the fire pot has -a downwardlyr sloping annular fiange 2-b which forms part vof the bottom thereof.
T he remainder; of the bottom-is formed by a basin 34 or the like attached to thetlange 2b. An electrical heating unit 35 is attached to the bot-tom of the basin 34. AJ pair of conductors 36 and 36 which pass through insulated blocks 37, in the bottom of the basin,
convey the current with respect to the heatmgunit.
I he fuel vmixture willA initially drop into the basin 34: and be heated into vapor which will be ignited by an electrical spark produced by the spaced conductors-38 and 39 above the heating unit. These spaced conductors, which may be termed the spark wires, extend through suitable insulated blocks 37 in the base of the basin ,to the electrica-l control which will be later described. An apertured cover 40 having an. upwardly iaring portion around the aperture therein rests upon the top of the lire pot andproduces a Venturi effect with respect to the emitted dames.
Referringnow to the control mechanism which is housed in the box 21 and which is shown in Figure 2, it will be seen that the conductor 36 of the heating unit connects with a wire 41 leading from a high tension coil 42 to a source ot' powcr, and that Alconnected with a flexible switch element- 45 whichis adapted to be contacted by a thermostatically operated switch element 46 adapted to be heated by the coil 42 and which is connected by a conductor 4T to the wire 36.
The oil supply'pipe in the box 2l has an automatically controlled valve which is connected to an arm 48 intermediate the ends thereof; one end of this arm has a projecting pin 49 while the other end is connected to one end of a link 50. The other end of the link 50 is pivotally connected to a core 5l of a. valve closing solenoid 52.'
Mounted loosely upon the axis. of the arm 48. there is a second arm 53 which is pivotally connected by a link 54 with a rod 55 embodying a core 56 of a valve opening and switch closing solenoid 57. The rod extends cpntignous to and past a rotary switch 58 into a switch opening solenoid 59: the rod being provided with a suitable core 60 forsn'ch solenoid. The rod 55 is also pivotally connected by a link 61 to the rotary Switch 58. f
The rotary switch comprises an insulated disk having an arcuate conductive portion 62 upon its periphery adapted to form electrical connections between the stationary contact members 63, 64 and 43 as will later more fully appear.
After the system has been started, it may be automatically regulated by a thermostat 65 in the dwelling room. The delecting portion of this thermostat is connected to the Source of power through a conductor 66 which is connected by a conductor 67 with the switch opening solenoid 59. The low temperature side \of the thermostat is connected by a wire 68 with the valve opening solenoid 57 and the high temperature side of the thermostat is connected by a conductor 69 with the valve closing solenoid 52.
After' the system has been pnt into operation,it is desirable to rotate the switch to otl' position. In order to accomplish this the.
"switch opening solenoid must be energized.
, thermostat yielding switch member 45, it will continue.
toI move as its temperature increases until it v strikes the contact 71 for completing the circuit through the solenoid 59 which will actuate the bar 55 for rotating the switch to o. position as shown in Figure 2. In order to start the system, a suitable switch 72 may be inserted in the main line of the circuit. t
The operation is as follows:
In the position shown in Figure 2, the switch 58 is in off position and the` automatic valve in the oily supply pipe is closed. Now if the switch 72 is closed, the circuit through the solenoid 57 will be completed through the low temperature side of the 65. The solenoid 57 will attract the core 56 and shift the rod 55 to the ri ht, thereby closing the switch 58. Simu taneously, the arm and swing the arm 48 to the right for opening the oil valve, the oil then Howing into the lire not. Y
As soon as the switch 58 -is rotated to closed position, it will put the contact 43 in circuit and establish the circuit through the till nection with the post 71,
heating unit 35 for heating and vaporizing the oil. By the time the oil is vaporized, the thermostatic bar 46 will be suiciently heated by the resistance coil 42l to flex upwardly and contact with the switch element 45 for completing the circuit through the high tension coil 42, to which the spark -wires connect; consequently the sparks pr0 duced V'across the gap of the spark wlres 38 and 39 will ignite the vapors and start the burner. A short interval after the thermostatic bar 46 has contacted the switch element 45, it will sufficiently iex through additional temperature to force the said bar 46 against the contact 71 for completing the circuit through the solenoidv59 which will become energized and draw the rod back' to the .position shown in Figure 1 and rotate the switch 58 to open position-for disconnecting the contact 43 and breaking the circuit through the heating unit 35 and the spark wires. When the rod 55 is drawn to the left, the arm 53 will swing away from the pin 49, leaving the valve open. However,- as long as the bar 45 remains in contact with contact post 71 there will be a, short circuit through the solenoid 59. In open position, the solenoid 57 will be in circuit and the switch may be actuated back and forth as before explained, after the bar 46 has cooled suiiiciently to break the conperature in the room has not suiiiciently risen to break the contact at the low temperature side with the solenold 57. However,
`movement will bring the 53 will engage the pin 49' provided the temthermostat 65 with the solenoid52, the same will be energized for drawing the core 51 inwardly and swinging the arm 48 for closing the valve in the oil supply pipe. This pin 49 in close so that when the proximity to the arm 53,
,room cools olf and establishes the contact through the solenoid 57, for actuating the bar 55 to the right, the arm 53 will engage the pin 49 and open the oil valve, when the operation may be repeated as before explained It will of course be understood that during the operation of the apparatus herein described, suitable fuel is fed to the burner, and after sufficient heat has been generated, the water in thelower turns of the coil 4 will give off steam which will be superheated in the upper turns of said coil so that dry and superheated steam will be mixed with the fuel.
We are aware that many changes may be made, and numerous details of construction may be varied through a wide range without departing from the principles of4 this invention, and we therefore do notl purpose limitingl the patent granted hereon, otherwise than necessitated by the prior art.
claim as our invention:
In an oil burning system, a furnace having a fire pot therein, a fuel-nozzle in the fire pot., a coil positioned over the re pot, a tank having an upper steam storage space and a lower water storage space connecte by pipes to the top and bottom of the coil respectively, water iiow controlling means adapted to maintain the level of the water in the coil below the top thereof to ensurea steam conduit means extending from the tank to the nozzle, and means for feeding fuel to said nozzle for commingling with the steam. I
In witness whereof, we have hereunto subscribed our names.
FRANK HIGGINS. ARTHUR E. NORDSTROM.
of relatively hot water tothe coil,