US 1796048 A
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Grginal Filed May 18, 1921 10 Sheets-Sheet l 1o sheets-sheet 2 R. H. ROBINSON BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Original Filed May 18, 1921 SS Y:
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March 10, 1931. R, Hh ROBINSQN 1,796,048
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BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Original Filed May 18, 1921 10 Sheecs-SheelI lO hw@ .ff
i L wer/3 Patented Mar. 10, 1931 PATENT OFFICE BOYJ. ROBINSON,`OF CHICAGO, ILLINOIS BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Application led May 18, 1921', Serial No. 470,669. Renewed .Tune 10, 1927.
v My invention relates toimprovements in the design and construction of building strucl tures particularly as applied .to the modern skeleton type of building and in special rela- 6 tion to stone, marble and masonry work, together with important methods of manufacturing, assembling, and erecting the structural and ornamental parts of which the building structures are composed. e
Among the principal objects of the present invention are to reduce the cost of building construction by eliminating alarge and unnecessary wastage of both material and labor consumed by present methods of design and erection; to initiate new methods of'building masonry work, whereby small quantities of costly stone and other masonry materials accomplish the same purpose as the relatively heavy constructions now employed; to reduce the quantity andthus the cost of transportation of. ornamental materials generally shipped from distant points of production; to increase the available Hoor space in a building structure of the same external dimension; to change present masonry dead loads, which nowuselessly Weigh down the building frame work, into structural 'supporting elements; to reduce the imposed dead loads of the building structure andV in consequence the size of the foundations and the .supporting structural frame work; to eliminate the extensive fabrication of steel work now required in the structural. framing; to very materiall reduce the quantity of steel now employe to substitute` cheaper materials for the masonry backingfnow used, and at the same time, materially reduce the quantity thereof; to greatly increase the speed of erection of large building structures; to cheapen, facilitate and safeguard the erection of buildings in winter and in inclement weather; to permit the use of reinforced concrete columns in high buildings where the loads and consequently required columnsizes do not now successfully permit of such; to make possible the use of concrete structural elements of improved strength and quality and of smaller size; and, fnally,'to reduce the process of-buildingconstruction from a slow,
expensive, field operation to a highly economical, rapid and standardized continuous process of shop manufacture so as, in summary, to produce buildings of greater strength, lighter weight, and greater capacity in shorter time, with a greatly reduced consumption of thev now high prices of labor and material so as to insure at one and the same time profitable investment and returns in building enterprises for capital and favorable rentals for tenants, both of which are now made impossible by the revolutionized condition of the building industry.
My invention, while producing in exterior appearance a masonry faade, similar to that now used, introduces a quick, economical and novel means of attaining these same results with many distinct advantages. I assemble, preferably at the factory, the small individual units of stone, marble, terra cotta, brick or Whatever ornamental material may be selected, in groups in union With a thin embedding matrix of steel reinforced concrete enclosed in a metallic reinforcing and welding frame, or, in lieu thereof, containing in any case embedded metallic welding or connecting members. In doing this, I am able to greatly lighten and reduce the thickness of the masonry units. I then erect and unite these several groups of pre-assembled masonry elements in the building structure, forming the Wall faade preferably by metallically uniting their metal members. Metal is7 stronger than mortar, and similarly my wall structure composed of masonry or concrete elements united by metal instead of mortar or cementitious adhesion, is of increased strength and lightness, and a very substantial economy in materials is provided.
By thus metallically uniting the various units, I am able to set up and hold in position thin masonry and concrete panels which under the present method of masonry setting or securing with mortar or concrete could not be safely placed or sustained in position. At the same time, I utilize this material to develop structural frame bracing and supporting members which supplant the customary wind bracing and sustaining frame work of the present structures.
This new means of uniting masonry and connected positions and assures a rigid and dependable connection not secured by other means heretofore employed. It also secures a union in restricted positions without cumbersome space consuming connections and permits of readily concealing the connection and avoids both consumption of valuable .architectural arrangements.
space and interference with ornamental or Still further, it provides a lecway of adjustment in the ield and freedom from troublesome exact register Which otherwise makes fabrication and interlittingl assemblage costly, slow and most uncertain. i
A very notable advantage in the solidity of the building structure is secured by my construction as compared with the present practice of wall construction in buildings employing-reinforced concrete framing.
My invention makes it possible to use thin slabs of these materials which are easily obtained and are relatively inexpensive in such thicknesses, while the exterior effect procured is quite the same as that obtained in the present heavy masonry construction.
With my light masonry elements assembled in extended lengths .on an interior reinforced concrete 'core within a metallic welding frame, I am able to build a light skeleton structure With hollow chambers, eliminating the weight of material and saving the expense of a further quantity of masonry backing now required With these heavy stone exteriors as well as using only a thin veneer of the costly marble or other masonry elements. The hoisting and setting of these sections is obviously rapid and highly economical.
In addition to the diiiculty and expense of obtaining in large sizes, many of the most desirable stones and particularly the highly decorative marbles are found to be structurf ally unsound, owing to the presence of :seams and cracks of one kind or another. Some of these defects are invisible to the naked eye and it is impossible to Work the material in ,large sizes Without destroying it or making it backing, instead ofthe stone itself being the element depended upon fo-r strength and suport. p Similarly, in these stones and particularly the most desirable marbles, it is most difficult to get stones of large dimension free from discoloration and objectionable natural markings and aesthetic defects. This is particularly true Where two or more faces are to be exposed to View. In my thin slabs, however, which are sawed from the mill blocks, these diiiiculties and defects can be almostentirely avoided and with small waste of stock.
My method of construction also makes possible an innovation in the method of cutting these large stones, such as heavy cornices, etc., in the mill or stone-yard. I build up my cornices and other similarly projecting relief work out of thin veneers in one or several pieces which, because of their thinness, can be secured in long slabs. .It is possible to form all the architectural members on these` long slabs at small cost bygrinding or planing in a machine. Under the present methods the Stones because ofv their great thicknesses, size and Weight, must be in short lengths and so this machine work cannot be readily done or With anything like the same facility and economy.
In building up these' pre-assembled masonry cornices and similar units, the separate stone pieces are preferably set up in the factory, the uniting edges being either dry or buttered with mortar and, if desired, the
Veneer stones are furtherlsecured inwardlyor outwardly with spots of quick setting plaster of Paris. This setting up, preparatory to concreting, can be done in various positions, light, temporary gauge and rack framework and supports being properly located to receive and hold the stones in accurate and secure alignment for concreting. In the case of cornices, one of the most desired methods is to set erect in vertical position the steel border and welding frame which is preferably used. The stone veneer elements are then set up on longitudinal gauges in their proper position, projecting out in front of the metal Welding frame. Reinforcing bars are previously securely attached to the metal Welding frame, certain of these projecting outwardly into' the body -of the cornice in proper relation to the stone members, and particularly so that certain of them lie as reinforcement in the countersunk or rabbeted joints With which the stone members are provided and which, when filled With concrete, form a permanent key bond between the stone veneer and the concrete core. These metallic reinforcements may be anchored directly in holes in the stones, or further anchors in the stones can attach or t'ie to or around the reinforcing bars.
After this is done, hollow forms areset up in proper relation to the'steel reinforcement so as to produce structural ribs within the cornice structure and greatly reduce its weight, as well as the consumption of cncrete material employed. In this way, a light, 5 strong cornice is economically obtained. These hollow members can run transversely or longitudinally in the concrete', or with a combination of both.
In assembling these masonry elements in factory-builtl wall groups, I do away with the laborious and expensive vertical field work of stone setting or brick laying, and instead, .assemble the masonry veneers by Y quick process on trued surfaces and patterns in horizontal .position in the factory with great ease and rapidity. In casting the binding and sustaining matrix forthese to form the structural panel, my aim is to secure a strong thin wall, in order to avoid waste of material and consumption of the valuable Hoor space occasioned in present time construction and still produce a wall which has equal or better insulating qualities despite its relative thinness.
In the manner described, large pre-assembled masonry arches formin substantial or complete portions of story eightsmay be built up with a thickness of siX inches or less.
These with their reinforcement and rib struca ture furthermore form in themselves complete structural panel beams for wind bracing the columns and sustaining all loads required in the wall faade and framework, and also for supporting floor arches. These masonry groups or panel-s I combine with each other and with the column framework of the structure to form the wall faades. I also preferably secure them in connection with the floor arches so as to provide a still further stiffening of the several members.
In one of my preferred masonry panel arrangements, particularly suitable vfor the high office building type of structure, I first erect l vthe vertical columns made in one story or two story lengths and apply to the face of these,
vertical pre-assembled masonry panels, the` welding faces of which are welded to the me- -tallic -faces or connections of the columns. These vertical panel sections preferably come from column to column metal'pintles may be provided to register in slotted holes in the top metallic edges of thefvertical pier panels. These receiving holes for the pintles are preferably 4partially ,filled-with cement, 'grout or mortar just before setting theV vhorizontal panels in placeso that whenl the pintles sink in alignment at their top with the top ofthe into them they become permanently secured as an additional tie between` these adjacent elements. These pintles, which preferably are anchored in and pass through the metal frames of the panels, serve a triple purpose; first, to determine the correct location of the panels, second, to hold the panel in position prior to the welding operatiomand third, to provide a further stiii'ening tie between the wall members. v
After the horizontal story panels are so erected fin place, they are preferably welded to the metallic connections of the columns and to the temporarily sustaining vertical panels and also preferably to each other at their abutting ends. With these horizontal story panels in place, the structure is then ready to receive another tier of the vertical column covering panels, which also preferably have depending pintles on their bottom edge registering in receiving slots in the top of the horizontal panels. Where there are Window openings bet-Ween columns separated by masonry piers or mullions, vertical panels similar tothose covering the columns are set with pintles registered on the horizontal panels at the required points. All these vertical panels should be properly plumbed preferably by thin metal wedges inserted from the rear and driven between the metal framing edges of the horizontal and the vertical panels. It is advisable in preforming the A panels to slightly cant the bottom metal frame or face so that when temporarily set in place the panel tips inwardly slightly. The wedges driven in from the inside will then bring this into plumb, while the pintles prevent it from falling over in either direction, the pintles being preferably so fitted as to permit a shglht plumbing movement of this kind. In 1s way, the panels are quickly brought into plumb. Their permanent position is then secured by the setting of the mortar about the .pintles and the welding of the adjacent metal edges of the panels together. The metal set.- tin wedges may then be knocked out.
Ign this manner, story, after story is quickly set into position by derricks. Similarly constructed preformed floor panels may be set by the derricks at the same time, and these l preferably have exposed metallic welding faces on the sides, as do the adjoining horizontalstory panels'. g By this means, the wall panels and the oor panels may be welded together at the desired reinforcing points, stiffening both Vstructures and making the complete metallic union between the several structural elements, walls, fioor and framing Where the masonry panels are formedv in vthe cornice construction already described,
I preferably have an interior counterbalanc- 'ing mass of concrete at the bottom of the plate to offset the thrust of the overhanging 60rnice members at the upper part of the plate.
This counterbala'ncing concrete I further ico form to receive the preformed floor panels which rest on this and bear against the cornice panel at a point generally in alignment with the lower portion of the cornice belt. This floor arch is preferably .welded metallically to a welding face on the interior of the cornice panel at this point. In this way, the fioor arch serves to counterbalance the thrust of the exterior cornice projection and firmly secures the cornice panel which at its ends is welded to the column members.
In other instances, I modify the arrangement of faade panels so that the vertical panels forming the column facings extend continuously in abutting vertical sections without interception by the horizontal panels. In this arrangement, the vertical panels have their metallic faces welded to the metallic faces of the columns and to each other at their abutting ends, while the horizontal panels connect with the side of the columns and weld to metallic connections on the column, and also preferably to metallic connections on the vertical panels.
Where the vertical panels are exceptionally wide, the horizontal panels may be made in lengths equivalent to the space between the Wide vertical panels and set in place on supporting lugs or insetsl formed on the side edges of the vertical panels and then united by welded connection to the edges, or to both the edges and a face of the vertical panels.
The horizontal panels may be formed with rabbeted ends in conjunction with their connection to the supporting vertical columns and the terminals provided with metal facings so that they bear against and can be welded to both the outer face and the side of the column, forming a strong supporting brace for the column.-
It will be readily evident that the steel work as well as the concrete and masonry material of my wall panels, on account of the metallic union with the structural column members, may be given full credit as a portion of the load sustaining material of the columns and the columns correspondingly reduced thereby.
For the initial support of the horizontal panels subsequently supplemented by metallic connection, thecolumns may be either provided with outwardly projecting lugs or brackets or inwardly projecting inset openings on the face or side of same and upon which, in each case, the horizontal panel rests when set in position.
In the union of panels to each other there are several important features which my invention provides. The welded connections are preferably disposed so that the welding can be done from inside the building instead of exteriorly, in order to avoid the expense and annoyance of scaffolding. On the inner face of the panels the concrete covering the welding elements is preferably'margined back sufiiciently on one or both of the panels to proA tles are preferably vlocated at points nearer the outer edge to offset the welding engagement near the inner edge. In addition to this, I also preferably provide near the outer face of the panels and along their upper edge, a sunken slot which is filled with mortar or other suitable adhesive before the setting of a superimposed panel. Thev superimposed panel in this case has a depending tongue or tenon, preferably of stiff sheet metal, which embeds itself in this mortar filled groove and thereafter serves to prevent the entrance of moisture and the erosion of thel metal while at the same time lending additional stability to the united elements. This union also obviates any necessity for pointing the exterior joints from the outside with mortar to exclude moisture and weather.
Furthermore, the two contact metal faces of adjacent panels may be built with special steel shapesfor this marginal framing, providing Within themselves the registering metallic interlocks. Under ordinary conditions, however, this will be' unnecessary.
Where conditions require a more strongly reinforced connection, the panels may have their metallic edges or Welding elements also welded on the inside and outside of the panel.
-In such cases the masonry elements. or the at the edges of the panel to give the width of the conventional masonry joint adopted in the architectural design when two panels are brought edge to edge with their metallic faces in bearing ready for welding.
In types of heavy masonry building, as distinct from the modern skeleton structure, and particularly in monumental-public buildings of stone exterior, my construct-ion in part may also be effectively employed. This the general plan of is done by preassembling several pieces of the stone work in one unit secured with bonding members and metallic elements on a ref inforced concrete core, preferably containing hollow chambers or cells. By this means, the stones may be used in thin slabs, as already described, except on the returns or quoins where greater thicknesses to produce any desired head are combined with the thin intermediate slabs. One course or several courses of the wall may be pre-combined in this manner. Single stones out thin may be filled out by the same method. Aside from the saving of the expensive stone stock and the employment of the cheap concrete material, not only as a substitute for the stone but also for the likewise more expensive brick backing, considerable'labor and time are saved in the setting, as several stones are thus lset in one operation of the derrick. These preassembled units may be made to lay up with mortar bed to bed, the same as the masonry they replace or, if desired, they may be formed with embedding welding elements Land welded together, as already described. Particularly extensive savings will be effected in the cost of the heavy cornices employed in this type of architecture. k
A very material saving will also occur in the construction of the lintels or arches for door and window openings where these are formed of numerous arch stones. In flat arches, under present conditions, these have to be supported by an expensive steel lintel. In my construction I not onlyl eliminate the steel lintel entirely but make it possible to use a skeletonized stone structure of thin stones preassembled and secured by the reinforced concrete backing which forms the supporting lintel as well as the wall masonry and enables the arch to be set in the wall in one piece. l
In carrying out the eneral purpose of my invention, -I also pref'rably employ a new column shape, distributing the metal framing of the column so that the column is only the thickness of the wall or, at, most, much thinner the wall depth way, and in the oppo-y site direction very wide and much wider than columns heretofore generally employed. In both'steel and reinforced concrete work, as
at present used,'tlie columns jut deeply intov formed sections.
vide open panels depressed intolthe column shaft in which arel installed thesteam or other heating coils which connect onto the steam risers at the side. In this way the floor space customarily taken up by radiators is saved and the unsightly heating apparatus concealed. Where lavatories are required the wash-bowls and the lavatory slabs may be set within these column recesses and connected directly to the supply and waste pipe lines carried withinthe columns. The lavatory thus formed may be closed by a cabinet door. A
A still further salient feature of my column construction lies in the combination of structural steel and reinforced concrete columns made possible by the methods devised for metallically connecting my pre- Reinforced concrete columns because of their necessary cross sectional area are undesirable for buildings of extended height.
Where it is desired to secure the greater economy of the reinforced concrete column 'in skeleton structures of the greater heights,
I employ my structural steel columns for the lower stories where the excessive loads are to be met. In the upper stories where reinforced concrete columns can be used with diminished size, 'I cap the structural steel columns with a steel plate support and on this metal support I superimpose my preformed reinforced concrete column with its metal faced base which rests on the steel column; This is then welded to it by welding the edges of this metal angle iron base to the metal top of the structural steel column. By this means, the tensile strains are safely transmitted and thoroughly'subst'antial and safe interconnection between the two types of columns secured and safeguarded.
The floor beams or girders which span between columns to support the floor arches and which weld to the columns may be of either structural steel with preferably a precast coat of concrete ireprooling applied at the factory, or they may be a reinforced concrete beam. I preferably make .the reinforced concrete beam by forming a metal framework, leaving exposed metal .ends to which attach the customary reinforcing bars for stirruped or trussed construction. These rigidly attach or anchor into the metal tervininals and the framework is then concreted to form the beam in the factory, the metal being exposed for welding at the ends.l The metal frameface or anchored plates ane refiio,
welding it at the top and bottom and also, if desired, on the sides tothe exposed metallic faces or connections on the column. Preformed floor arches are then swung into position by the derricks and set in position on these beamsA and, thereafter, the metal con- .nection of the floor arch and the beam, and
,n certain instances also the column, are secured together bv welding the contact faces at the desired points. This in turn makes the reinforcement from one ioor panel to another continuous and transmits the stresses from panel to panel. This isa very important feature.
Where it is desired in some cases to re- .duce the number of wall panels and to embody more area in the same, the construction may be simplified by erecting the vertical) supporting wall columns and uniting them by intermediate connecting masonry units, a single masonry panel spanning between two columns and being one or two-stories in height. ,These large masonry groups are preferably precast in cellular formation.
withinola metallic frame and have exposed embedded metallic, welding or connection members at the desired points on the sides or edges. In casting these large panels, the
" window frames are preferably set in hori- A .Zontal position properly located within the metal frame of the panel, the masonry elev mentsv being laid out beneath the frame and filling out the panel in proper design. The
' reinforcing bars and Wire mesh backing for the masonry are attached to the metal frame, and generally to the window frames also.
' The concrete'-matrix is then poured, spread coat of flnishe and screeded over the masonry elements to the proper thickness, generally about an inch and a half, embedding both matrix and metal work. Cellular forms are then placed in the proper location on the freshly screeded layer of concrete matrix and the concreting is then continued, embedding the cells and so forming the interior concrete ribs of the panel and embedding the metal frame or welding elements and metal reinforcements. I prefer erection. The window frames are preferably anchored to the reinforcement ormetallic framework of the anel and cast in place in their position in tlle panel so that the story section forfthe 'wall is'com'pletewith both window frame and masonry elementsincorporated and all in a single complete masonry unit. These masonry units tie thecolumns together and thus eliminate the necessity for thel customary beam and girdier framing. These units likewise support themselves along their sides in connection with the columns instead of resting as a load on a supporting framework.
Where a large amount of relief work occurs in the masonry elements ofa p reassembled group, it will probably be found to be advantageous to lay these elements face up rath'- er than by the face down method described.
'In such cases, the concrete is cast around are readily laid in horizontal position to their proper lines and levels in this matrix bed,l the lines being preferably laid out and determined by side gauges and templets temporarily attached to the sides or metal frame of the panel, or by the metal framework itself. The rabbeted masonry elements arelaid in horizontal courses, preferably with shoved joints and the bed mortar may be pushed up in this way to form mortar joints between the elements or their edges maybe kept hard, stone to stone, the outer exposed edges of the joints being preferably beveled or grooved to form a rustic or nail head joint effect between the stones., This will relieve their outer edge from pressure and conceal any slight inequality in the masonry members, particularly between the masonry of abutting panel groups.
As the structural work of beams, columns and wall panels is erected at the building, the
'ioor panels are preferably setl at `the same time. In this way, the danger involved in running up an open unfloored structure, as inthe present steel skyscraper, is avoided. The Hoor panels are preferably set with their marginal metalconnection members in metallic contact with or adjacent to exposed metallic surfaces on the supporting beams on which they-are laid.. Ipreferably provide the metallic border framework of these panels with holes at the corners of the panels, vaccessible for engagement and lifting by derrick hooks, lewises or othersuitable devices. X
I also preferably provide temporary screw lifts in these corner holes in the vfloor panel framework. Set screws are placed in these for leveling the `panels after they areset in place on the steel bearing surfaces o f the supporting beams. By this means, the panels can be readily brought to exactfnishing levels and finally secured by welding their exposed welding members to the exposed metal surfaces on the beams, or, in certain instances, to each other where the panels are in contact or close position. After this is done, and
will be seen that the construction of the fin-- ished floor at the building consumes but a small fraction of the customary'time.
Where the precast floor panels abut the precast wall panels, both are preferably provided with metallic contacts at suitable and adjacent points and, after erection, the floor and wall panels are then welded rigidly together at-this point, tying the structure and strengthening both members. On the wall faades where the panel load is carried by the wall panel at one end, the wall panel is pref'- erablybuilt with an offset providing a concrete shoulder with an exposed metallic member embedded in the wall panel to form a bearingcn whichy the iioor arch rests and to which it is welded.
' Where electric lights are to be furnished in the ceiling panels, I preferably insert the electric conduit and outlets before casting the panel. The conduits terminate in exposed position at the edge of the panel where they" will be accessible .after the panels are set in place. In the slot or groove formed between 'the panels, the floor conduits are run below the level vof the finished floor and are connected to thecast-in conduit sect-ions already embedded in the panels. These conduits are then concealed when the slot is lled with concrete and covered with the floor finish along the panel joints.
After the oor panels are finished at the factory, they are preferably covered with a protective coatingsuch as whitewash or adhesive paper, so that materials at the building will not become permanently attached to the finished surfaces. In this way the floors will be kept in good condition and can be readily cleaned off on the completion of the interior work in the building.
Where wood fioor finish is desired, I follow the same procedure of panel casting, with the except-ion of incorporating in the nal topping surface sawdust or similar ingredients to produce a nailing concrete. The several panels are then trued by adjustment of the corner screws, and the finished flooring-nailed -directly to the precast floor panels.A This produces rials.
A further feature of my floor construction lies in the Afact that in welding together the a great saving of labor and matemetallicf connectionelenients of yadj acent floor panels either directly or indirectly through the connecting metal of the supporting beam members, I secure the extra strength of con-l tinuous reinforcement notwithstanding the fac'.v that the floor panels are of separate precast formation. Similarly, by placing my reinforcement in both directions, lengthwise and crosswise, within the metallic framework of the panel, I secure a two-way reinforcereinforced concrete. My construction, however, is not conned to the beam and panel type of floor alone, but is equally applicable to the formation of a new type of floor in the form of a precast flat slab or beamlessfloor llthically field built flat slab oors. This is made possible through the continuous tying of he reinforcement of the fiat panels by the welded metallic connections between the precast members, which permits of a flat slab or paneled ceiling without beam obstruction where the same is desired for factory buildings, etc.
The many other features and advantages of my invention will be better understood by reference to the following specication when considered in connection with the accompanying drawings illustrating certain selected embodiments thereof, in which Fig. 1 is a frontelevation of a section of a masonry wall constructed in accordance with my invention.'
system,corresponding tothe resent mono- Fig. 2 isa sectional view on line 2--2 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is an enlarged sectional view of the connection-between masonry wall panels of Fig. 2.
Fig. 4 is a front elevation of a typical sec,- tion of wall faade, indicating one form of masonry panel arrangement.
Fig. 5 is a front elevation of one of the wall panels of Fig. 4, portions being'broken away to illustrate the interior and rear construction thereof. Y f
Fig. 6 is a vertical sectional view of a wall showing masonry wall panels in combination with a masonry cornice panel and floor arch.
Fig. 7 is a front elevation of the vertical masonry panel shown in Fig. 6.
Fig. 8 is a section on line 8,--8 of Fig. 7.'
Fig. 9 is a perspective view'of a vportion lof a preferred f orm of steel shape employed masonry wall panels attaching to the face section of one arrangement of masonry panels and cornice construction.
Fig. 11 is a front elevation partially in section of a portion of the vertical masonry Wall.
Fig. 12 is a horizontal section of a reinforced concrete type of column and adjacent panels, showing the horizontal panels connected to the side of the columns and the Vertical pahels tothe front of the column to produce exterior architectural pilasters. Y
Fig. 13 is a horizontal section of a special structural steel column and the adjacent masonry wall panels, showing the horizontal panels connected to the side of the column and the vertical panels to the front of the column to produce exterior architectural pilasters.
Fig. 14 is a horizontal section of a structural steel column and adjacent masonry wall panels in which the column has the masonry exterior in preformed combination therewith to form exteriorly either a pilaster or a flush wall surface with the horizontal masonry wall p-anels attached to the sides of said column.
Fig. 15vis a horizontal section of'a structural steel column and adjacent wall panels in which the masonry wall panels extend across and are attached to the face of the steel column.
Fig. 16 is a horizontal section of an arrangement.. of column and panels in which the masonry wall panels extend across'the face of the column and attach to both theside and the face of the column.
Fig. 17 is a horizontal section of an arrangement of column and panels with the of the structural steel column but not extending entirely across same.
Fig. 18 -is a vertical section-of a structural steel column indicating the manner in which the column lengths are spliced and welded together.
Fig. 19 is a horizontal section of an arrangement for the corner wall column and the masonry wall faade where the masonrywall panels extend across the face of the column, welding to the same.
Fig. 20 is a horizontal section of another arrangement of the corner wall construction where the masonry panels extend partly across the face of the column, welding to the same, while the column itself provides the masonry finish of the remaining exposed corner.
Fig. 21 is a horizontal section of a further corner arrangement wherein the horizontal wall columns attach to the interior sides in` stead of the external faces of the corner column, and the column has in preformed union a masonry exterior on its external exposed portions. f
Fig. 22 is a front elevation of a portion of a wall faade wherein the preformed masonry wall panels are in large story sections containing within themselves the window openings.
Fig. 23 is a section on line 23-23 of Fig. 22, showing the connection of preformed masonry panels to structural steel column and the special type of column embracing the risers,I pipes and heating coils.
Fig. 24 is an interior elevation of a portion of the column shown in Fig. 23, illustrating the recess in the column for the heating coils.
Fig. 25 is a sectional view on line 25--25 of Fig. 22.
Fig. 26 is a sectional view of a special column arrangement similar to Fig. 23, illustrating the method of embracing within same a lavatory and the necessary pipes connected therewith.
Fig. 27 is a horizontal section of the building structure above the floor level, illustrating the wall and panel arrangement of the .section of the union of precast reinforced concrete column, beam members and masonry wall panels.
Fig. 32 is an elevation partially broken away to show the union of interior columns and beams.
Fig. 33 is a horizontal sectionalview of4 Referring to Figs. 1, 2 and 3 of the drawings: 1 designates the typical vertical preassembled and preformed masonry'panels employed in this general type of wall. These panels are preferably two stories in height, and have a width corresponding to the distance between adjacent window openings 2,-
and so form the masonry pier' or pilaster effects. The masonry of these panel groups is formed in any stone desired, theash'lar3 being formed of thin masonry: slabs preferably about an inch thick or varying from threequarters to one and one-'half inches" thick so as to reduce the quantity of material, the cost of same, and the weight of the structure. These pieces of stone may be run under a carborundum planer soas to provide channelled grooves or rabbets on their backs 4, to engage with the concrete matrix 5, uniting the masonry in preassembled groups.
Embedded in the concrete matrix of the panels 1, are vertical metallic reinforcements 6, either channel irons as shown, or any standard or special steel shape desired. These engage within the topand bottom horizontal metallic frame members 7, and have welded or otherwise rmly attached to their outer edges the reinforced bars 8, and similarly the reinforced bars 8 weld to the other side of the frame members 10 and 16 or to other rei linforcement of the metallicrframe which is holes drilled in the back of masonry elements 3. In the preferred practice a wire mesh 9 is tied on the outer side of these reinforced bars` 8, (and similarly 9a to the bars 8a), the mesh 9` serving to further reinforce the matrix backing 5 directly behind the bonding backs of the masonry elements 3.
At the side edges of the panels 1 are further steel reinforced members 10 of suitable lshape and size to properly stifen the panel framework and provide a welding connection for carrying the intermediate wall panels 11 Which span between and on the masonry panels y1 when same are erected to form the wall faade. In the manufacture of the masonry units several metallic members, as 6,7, 8, 9 and 10 forming the panel framework, are fabricated and united into a unit. After the masonry elements 3 and the panels 1 are laid in proper architectural relation, edge to edge, face down upon the molding fioor, the metallic frame unit is then set over the back of same properly spaced away and the concrete matrix 5 is then poured over the masonry and steel work to form the preformed masonry panel as already described.
l Prior to the erection of the panels the wall columns 12, which can be either of structural steel or of 'reinforced concrete as shown in Figs, 1 and 3, are erected in place. In the reinforced concrete design, the preferred form employs angle irons 13 and 14 or other structural steel. shapes vas the cornerY reinforcement tied together by light bars 14a, bent 'back and forth to form a lattice, laid inside the angle irons13 and 14, and preferably .welded to the legs of saine.v The concrete of-thefcolumnsv properly covers and reproofstheinner angles1 3, but the outer angles'14 are left with' exposed' surface, as
noted, for metallic contact with members 6 and 7 of panel 1, forming a welding joint 15, and on the sides of the column the concrete is properly margined backat the approach to these welding points to properly admit the Welding electrodes, rigidly securing the panel 1 to the column 12 by welds 15. These can run either continuously along the metallic offset formed between the metallic faces 6 and 14 or they may be located merely at major stress points in tack welds, allowing the necessary number of inchesof welding required to secure the solidity of the structure. It will be particularly noted that -by this union the panel 1 becomes a homogeneous and structural part of the column 12, the materials of the panel being thus made available to assist in sustaining the 'load which the column has to bear, and a large T column is secured in cross section noted. This is of particular value in resisting the wind stress, and in itself becomes the wind-bracing of the, column and faade. By this means, instead of the masonry being a mere load upon the wall frame as in present construction, it becomes, as is clearly seen, an important load sustaining factor as a monolithical part of the wall frame. The intermediate horizontal panels 11 which are carried on the vertical panels 1 have metallic border members 16 of ai suitable shape and shown as channels in this instance. These meet to form a welding slot or offset' on the inner side, in which the connectingweld 17 is mad-e after the panels are set in place supported on brackets 16EL which are welded or riveted on the outer face of the channels 10 to sustain same in erection as well as subsequently in addition to the welding connections. In addition to and in conjunction with the vertical weld 17 which can be tack, or continuous, I preferably'weldk the joints across the width of the face of the steel members 10 and 17 at point 18 on the top of panel 11, where same is exposed to form the window opening. This provides welding in more than one plane to prevent any rocking movement between the two panels.
A salient feature of my invention is further shown in the formation of panel 2O of Fig. 1. These more-fully exemplify the cantilever construction also presented by panel 1.v These panels, as will be noted, have their lateral joints 27 located and concealed in the arch masonry at or near the keystone. This feature is of particular value in avoiding interference with the inter-bonding joints of masonry which generally occur in the wall masonry at other points between arches. In conjunction with the metal framing of the panel, the metal framework provides a particularly strong cantilever construction, having a channel iron or steel shape 21 extending along the upper joint line at that point, forming a cantilever tension member in the most desirable position. The panel is pro- 'vided with vertical steel welding land bracing members the same as 6 of panel 1, which correspondingly weld at 15 to the angles 14 of the column and has the upperand lower steel frame members at joints 21 and 22 corresponding to 7. There may be also a marginal metal reinforcement either exposedor slightly submerged below the face of the concrete matrix Aon the curved arch soiiits 23 of the panel.
The panel 24 forming a pilaster onlthe front of column 12 is of similar construction to panel 1 and welds to the vertical column angle irons 14 in the same manner. The upper me" allic frame member of the panel 24 welds both to a horizontal plate 25 attached to the angle irons 14 and the bottom steel edge 22 of panel 20 welds to this at accessible points where the same extend on either side of the column. Similarly the metal reinforcementand welding elements 7 of panel 1 and 21 of panel 20 weld to each other along their marginal edges on either side of column 12, and the element 21 is welded to the exposed face of the steel cross strap 25 on the column before panel 1 is superimposed on panel 20 in the wall.
The vertical panels, such as 1 and 20, preferably havedepending steel pintles 26 anchored in .their bottom metallic frame member which set and engage in holes in the panel below, passing through the upper metallic members of those panels and preferably near their outer edge. .These holes in the metallic framework are so located as to secure the panel exactly and automatically in erection in proper relation to bring their exterior faces flush, as already noted, but the holes are preferably slotted sideways so as to permit some adjustment in moving the panel sideways in small degree for suitable adjustment and dividing up of possible vertical joint discrepancies.
Where desired in special instances, the arch cantilever panels 20, instead of meeting at j points 27, can have a separate keystone panel Ves which will insert between and be carried by panels 20 on either side to which the intermediate keystone section will weld.
The panels 11 will be of any length re quired by the span between panels 1, thus in some instances in meeting architectural requirements, they will be long masonry panels carrying upon them groups of windows with vertical masonry mullions between the windows, seating on and welding to the lpanels 11 in a manner to be subsequently described and further illustrated in other figures.
4 discloses another desirable arrangement of my wall masonry units particularly suitable for modern architectural wall structures. As a salient feature of this construction the masonry of the wall is formed ln-long horizontal panels 28, forming the to the face of the wall columns 12 to which they are welded. These panels may be attached to both the face and the side of the wall column. Instead of spanning between the vertical panels 1, as noted in the arrangef ment of horizontal panels of Fig. 1, the vertical masonry covering the columns between these horizontal panels 28 of Fig. 4 1s preassembled to form the vertical panels 31 which extend from the sill line to the arch line ofthe window openings, greatly facilitating both the preassembling and the erection of the masonry units. These vertical panels have pintles 32, which insert in the rece1v1ng holes passing through the upper metallic frame members of the panels 28, the same as the pintle arrangement already described. After being so set in place the panel 3 1 welds to panels 28 on the inside along the joint l1ne 33 where same is accessible on either side of the column 12, while vertical metallic members similar to 6 of Fig. 3 embedded in the irons with exposed face weld to the angle irons 14 of column 12. It is understood that the metallic framing of the masonry panels 31 is similar to that of panels 1 of Fig. 1 with the exception that the channel side members 10 are not necessarily required and reinforc ing bars embedded in the concrete and welded to the upper and" lower steel framing members of the panel are sufficient to provide the necessary lateral reinforcement.
Panels 28 are particularly designed for long spanconstruction. Masonry mullions are provided by further preassembled masonry panels 34 which set upon the panels 28 secured by pintles 35 and have welding members along the joint line 36 which weld to the top frame member 37 of panels 28.
The metal and welding member is preferably tilted at a very slight angle in the fabrication and concreting of the units, so that when these units are erectedin their vertical position on 28, they tilt slightly inward at the top and out of plumb. This enables the exact plumbing of the panels by the workmen from inside the building after their being set in place by driving steel wedges between the bottom face of the vertical panel and the top metal face 37 of the horizontal panels. After being so plumbed and before the cement grout, if used, has set up in the pintle holes of 28, receiving the pintles 32 and 35, the
v panels are then permanently secured by weld- In erecting and completing the uniting of p