US 1799754 A
Descripción (El texto procesado por OCR puede contener errores)
APY 7, 193A- w. s LAWRENCE 1,799,754
TRANSFER AND METHOD OF USING THE SAME Filed Dec. 1926 base,
tva, /15 ry base,
Patented Apr. 7, 1931 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE WINTHROP STANLEY LAWRENCE, OF BROOKLYN, NEW YORK, ASSIGNOR TO XAUMA- GRAPH COMPANY, OF NEW YORK, N. Y., A CORPORATION OF NEW 'YORK TRANSFER AND METHOD OF USING THE SAME Application led December 4, 1926. Serial No. 152,731.
My invention relates to a new and improved transfer andto a new and improved method of transferring a marking from a transfer to a fabric.
One of the objects of my invention is to provide a transfer which shall utilize soluble dyes both of the mordant and of the direct type.
Another object of my invention is to provide a transfer having a marking or impression formed thereon with the useof soluble dyes, the composition of the marking medium being such that this marking or impression can be readily transferred by means of heat and moisture.
Another object of my invention is to provide a marking composition for transfers of the type above mentioned, by means of which it will be possible to transfer the marking or impression upon a moist fabric by heating the said fabric, but without generating steam in the fibres thereof.
Another object of my invention is to pro- Y vide a new and improved method of transferring markings or impressions made with the use of a marking agent or medium containing a water soluble dye.
Other objects of my invention will be set forth in the following description and drawings which illustrate preferred embodiments thereof, it being understood that the above general statement of the objects of my invention is intended merely to generally explain the same and not to limit it in any manner.
Fig. 1 is a perspective view illustrating the marking of finely divided fabrics.
Fig. 2 is a side view of Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is another perspective view showing the marking of coarse fabrics.
Fig. 4 is a side view of Fig. 3.
Fig. 5 is a detail side elevation.
Transfers having markings or impressions formed thereon by means of markln compositions soluble in water have been nown for a great many years. However, it has been heretofore difficult to provide a satisfactory transfer of this type which was efficient for use with rough fabrics, for example, because the high spots of the rough fabric would become colored, but the intermediate threads and the insides of the threads would remain white. It has proved especially difficult to use such transfers in connection with coarsely woven woolen fabrics, suchvas blankets, etc.
Likewise, the coloring compositions used on transfers of this type have not been eiiiciently fixed in the fibre of the fabric.
According to my invention, the transfer has a marking or impression formed thereon by means of a printing ink or composition which can be applied to the transfer base by ordinary printing methods.
An example of a composition utilizing a basic dye is as lfollows Twenty grams of glycerol and 10 grams of gum arabic are mixed together in the cold condition and heated to 100 C. until the gum arabic is dissolved in the glycerol. This gives a very thick viscous tacky solution or vehicle to which 5i grams of citric acid, 5 grams of water, and 5 grams of a basic dye, such as methylene blue, are added.V The whole is thoroughly mixed and warmed until complete solution of the dye-stuff takes place. In very humid weather, the proportions of glycerol and water may be varied, using 10 grams of water and 15 grams of glycerol, in order that too much water ma not be absorbed from the air. If too muc water is absorbed from the air, the viscosity of the ink is reduced so that it cannot be used in ordinary printing operations. In using the so-called co ying inks, it has heretofore not been possib e to apply them to a paper base by ordinary stereotype plates for example, because the ink dried too rapidly, and did not have enough body. By using a sufficiently large proportion of gl cerol, and the proper proportion of gum ara ic, the ink is given .enough body to enable it to be used with ordinary stereotype plates, and the glycerol absorbs sufficient atmospheric moisture to compensate for evaporation of the water. The urpose of adding the water is to prevent t 1e glycerol from rapidly absorbing the atmospheric moisture, which it would do if the composition were anhydrous. This absorption of moisture from the air would lower the viscosity of the composition to an objectionable extent. By using a nonaqueous solvent for the water soluble d e which contains suicient gum to render the same viscous or tacky, it is possible to print the transfer by means of a relief process, using ordinary stereotype plates for example, instead of employing an intaglio printing process which would require specially engraved rollers.
Other water soluble mediums, capable of dissolving the dye, may be used in place of glycerol, such as glycol.
A composition of this type containing a basic dye is not suitable for making a transfer for cotton goods, but it is suitable for wool and silk goods, for example. The base of the transfer is a suitable paper, such as ordinar sulphite tissue or onion skin.
Ihe direct dyes can also be released very readily from a paper base of the type above mentioned so that they become fixed on the cotton fabric with little or no difficulty.
The citric acid is added to the composition to facilitate the solution of the methylene blue or other basic dye in the glycerol and to also facilitate the transfer of the marking to the fabric. When this transfer of the marking is effected, as will be later more fully described, by means of warm water or steam, the citric acid dissolves very quickly because it is extremely soluble in water. This assists in carrying along the soluble d e, the transfer of which might be hindered y the gum arabic, which is slowly soluble in warm water.
For making transfers to be used in connection with cotton goods, an ordinary direct dye, such as direct fast red, may be used instead of the methylene blue above mentioned. A composition made according to the formula previously mentioned may be utilized, save that the 5 grams of methylene blue are replaced by 5 grams of direct fast red, and the 5 grams of citric acid are replaced by 3 grams of sodium phosphate. The sodium phosphate assists in causing the penetration of the red dye into the cotton fibre.
Of course, the formulas above mentioned are merely illustrative and may be varied according to the particular conditions present.
For example, the sodium phosphate may be entirely omitted in the second mentioned formula, dependent upon the nature of the dyestuff.
When the marking or impression is printed upon the paper transfer base by means of a printi g or marking composition of the type above mentioned, the liquid constituents dr up, leaving the gum and the dye fixe on the paper. The gum aids in transferring the design, since it prevents the dye from running up the fibres of the fabric, which would give a very uneven impresslon.
The use of the citric acid permits the use of the gum arabic, because the gum arabic alone is so slowly soluble that it would prevent the free transfer to the fabric of the markin or impression upon the transfer base. hen using direct dyes, however, many of these dyes' are so readily soluble that they are readily released from the transfer base, even though the gum arabic is used and even though no sodium phosphate is used in the mixture.
In order to utilize a transfer of this type, the fabric to be marked or decorated is moistened,and the face of the fabric is then pressed against a transfer of the type before mentioned by means of a hot iron. The purpose of the hot iron which is applied to the back of the fabric is to produce enough evaporation on the surface of the fabric with which the hot iron is in Contact, to decrease the amount of water there, so that a circulation of the water is set up in the damp fabric due to the equalizing effect of capillary force. This brings the dyes from the pattern up into the fibre of the fabric so as to thoroughly impregnate the fabric. As the pressure with the hot iron is continued, the moisture dries up, leaving the dyes which had been dissolved thereby precipitated in an insoluble state on the fibres of the fabric throughout the entire zone or area in which the marking is to be effected.
This method is efiicient for marking linen, cotton and even silk, but it is not as efficient in marking coarse and loosely woven woolen fabrics, such as blankets, for example. For marking woolen blankets and the like, I prefer to place the blanket upon a suitable table and without moistening the blanket. The pattern or transfer is then applied to the blanket. A moist cloth is then placed upon the back of the transfer and this moist cloth is pressed with a hot iron. Steam is generated in the moist cloth and this steam forces its way through the transfer base, which is made of an extremely porous paper for this purpose. The steam passing through the pattern or transfer carries with it the dye which is forced into the coarse and loosely woven woolen fabric, efliciently marking the same. However, in marking coarse, loosely woven woolen fabrics or the like, I do not wish to restrict myself to having this fabric in the dry condition, as it may be moistened without departing from my invention.
If basic dyes are used, a wood pulp paper cannot be used as the base for the transfer because the tannic acid which is found in such paper fixes the basic d e on said paper and prevents the transfer o the marking.
The paper base of the transfer 1s referably very permeable to moisture. or example, a thin blotting paper is suitable for use in a transfer for marking woolen blankets. Impressions may be made upon transfers with inks of different colors, each impression being allowed to dry before the next color is applied. Imprints of different colors may be superimposed and any of the ordinary printing methods can be utilized.
I have found that gum arabic is much more suitable than any similar gums because it gives the proper thickening qualities together with the tackiness necessary for permitting p'oper distribution of the ink on the printing p ate.
There are many other gums which thicken the composition as Well as gum arabic, but they do not make the composition as tacky. Some of the glycerol may be replaced with mon-acetin or di-acetin or by ethylene glycol.
It Will be noted that in both embodiments of my invention a Water soluble dye (not a pigment) is utilized to lform a releasable surface marking on a suitable paper base in combination With a tacky or mucilaginous substance. Of course, the glycerine evaporates after the impression or marking has been formed upon the paper base. Like- Wise, I prefer to include in the marking or impression on the paper base a substance more readily soluble in Water than the tacky or mucilaginous substance before mentioned.
I have shown preferred embodiments of my invention, but it is clear that numerous changes and omissions could be made without departing from its spirit.
I claim 1. A transfer comprising a paper base permeable to steam and free from any filler which would prevent the passage of steam, said paper base having a surface marking comprising a dye soluble in water and embodied in a surface film soluble in Water, so that if steam is forced through said base it can act directly upon said iilm and said dye, said marking being made directly on said paper base.
Qi. A transfer comprising a paper base having a surface marking comprising a dye soluble in water embodied in a film which consists substantially of gum arabic, said film containing a substance more readily soluble in Water than the gum arabic and adapted to cause the dye to penetrate the fabric to be marked when said film is acted upon by Water, said surface marking being made directly on said paper base.
In testimony whereof I afiix my signature.
WINTHROP STANLEY LAWRENCE.