US 1908104 A
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May 9, 1933. a. G. BELL JSHAKER FOR INGOT MoLDs Filed Oct. 23, 1928 3 Sheets-Sheet l NYVENTOR.
A TTORNE Y.
May 9, 1933. s. e. BELL 1,908,104
SHAKER FOR INGOT HOLDS:
Filed Oct. 23, 1928 :5 Sheets-Sheet 2 a f" t' l FF 1 l I l. I\ ll "I I r--------------------- L JZ INV TOR.
A TTORNE Y.
y 9, 1933. G. G. BELL 1,908,104
SHAKER FOR INGOI' MOLDS Filed Oct. 23. 1928 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR.
Patented May 9, 1933 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE GE ORGE G. BELL, OF ABHLAND, KENTUCKY, ASSIGNOR TO THE AMERICAN ROLLING SHAKER non moor Moms ipplication filed October 23, 1828. Serial No. 314,506.
It-is well known that when molten metal is poured into ingot molds, defective ingots tend to be produced by a number of causes, the immediate trouble, in one as ect, being referable to a too-rapid freezing o the metal. Blisters, slag inclusions, and blow-holes are among these defects, the latter particularly being due to the release of gases held by occlusion or formed in the metal. The metal solidifies so rapidly that these gases, existing therein in bubbles cannot come to the surface. Much work has been and is being done to overcome these defects. It is possible to kill steel, for example, by adding materials tending to produce sounder castings. It'has been proposed also to keep the metal molten by various means for alonger period of time, so as to permit the natural escape of gases and the segregation by floating of included impurities. Various measures have been proposed looking toward some mechanical treatment of the freshl poured ingot to speed up the freeing of oreign matters so that it .will occur substantially within the natural freezing time of the metal.
It is with the latter art that my invention deals.
A number of proposals have been made to jar an ingot mold and its charge during pourmg, and before the metal has frozen. These have contemplated a series of blows from beneath, administered by a mechanical or fluid-actuated means equivalent to a hammer, or by the simple expedient of repeatedly rais ing the mold and base a short distance and dropping them against a solid su port. While these measures are so costly an cumbersome as to have achieved no wide-spread commercial use, yet upon trial they do result in improved castings. Even so they do not result in the utmost betterment which can be achieved by mechanical means. In recognition of this it has also been proposed to rotate the ingot mold while hammering it from beneath. I am not aware what improvement this produces, if any; but mechanism to follow the proposal is clearly out of the range of commercial practicability.
It is a fundamental object of my invention 0 to provide means for mechanically treating ingots upon a commercial scale, which means are cheap, positive, not sub'ect to disorder, slmple 1n construction an economical of operation. My shaking devices are useful in the casting of all metals subjectto the disorders mentioned or similar ones. An excmplary use is in the casting of ingots of the precious metals for dental purposes. An exceedingly important application, because of the simplicity and economy of my means as well as other advantages hereinafter to be discussed, is in the large scale casting of ingots of iron and steel, and I shall, in the ensuing disclosure describe a preferred embotdiment of my invention as related to this ar A second fundamental object of my invention is to provide means for imparting a new kind of motion to the ingot mold. The motion which I impart while exactly controllable as toextent an frequency, has components in many directions. I also make use of jars or blows. produced by the sudden stopping of the moving mold a ainst a solid abutment. I provide an actual bodily movement of the mold itself which occurs in many directions, and a series of blows which also are administered from more than one effective direction. My invention thus results in a new motion and mechanical treatment which I shall hereinafter referto as shaking or vibration, bearing in mind its differences from the result of a series of unidirectional blows.
I have found that this new motion produces much improvement not only over ingots cast without treatment, but over ingots cast with the old mechanical treatments. A series of experiments has indicated that vibrating ingots by my method uniformly produces a decided improvement in the quality of the finished product; and this improvement appears to reside largely in a decrease of blisters, a reduction in slag inclusions, a reduction in blow holes, and a more satisfactory form of ingot pipe. a
It is evident that a series of blows in one direction can be effective in eliminating gases and impurities practically only through the inertia effect of the metal. While I desire not to be bound by a theory which has been actual bodily movement of the metal with respect to the mold or to the frozen outer skm of the metal itself, which movement tends to facilitate the travel of inclusions to the surface and which may also tend to retard incipient freezing such as would bind impurities in place.
- Broadly my invention provides a vibrating or shaking means com rising a table mounted so as. to'vibrate free y, a vibrating means therefor, and a series of stops against which the table is jarred by and during the vibration.
' The objects of my invention set forth above, as well as ancillary objects which will be set forth hereinafter, or will be apparent to one skilled in the art upon reading these specifications, I accompl sh by that certain construction and arrangement of parts of which I shall now describe a preferred embodiment. Reference is made to the drawings which form a part of these specifications.
In these drawings:
Figure 1 is a perspective view of my device with an ingot mold 1n place.
Figure 2 is a vertical section therethrough.
Figure 3 shows one of a series of buggies in an ingot train with two shakers and two ingot molds mounted thereon, during a pouring operation.
Figure 4 is an end elevation of the buggy showing a shaker, a mold, and a ladle, and showing also a convenient driving means for the vibration.
' The base 1, of my shaker, may be if desired a part of a permanent support, or a part of a buggy in an ingot train, but I prefer to make it separate so that the shaker as such may bedplaced wherever desired and readily remove for use elsewhere or for repairs. The base is preferably a solid block of metal of a shape and size to underlie the table 2 which serves as a support for the ingot mold.
Base and table are separated by four heavy springs 3-, fastened at either end respectively to table and base, so that the table is free to oscillate with respect to the base. The table is adapted to receive an ingot mold 4 which will be held rigidly thereon during the pouring operation by clamps 5 of any suitable construction. It will be clear that if the base is solidly mounted and a vibratory force applied to the table, the table and in got mold will shake or wabble with respect to the base, and that its motion will have components in many directions both horizontal and vertical; The springs will of course be heavy enough to bear the load of table,
' mold and molten metal.
To limit the oscillation of the table and also to produce jars and concussions which will have a metallurgical effect upon the mold charge ancillary to the vibration, I provide a series of stop means or abutments. These may conveniently comprise heavy bolts 6 threaded into the base and held 1; erein ad- 'ustably as to height by lock nuts 7. These liolts will be adjusted so that their heads lie a short distance below the bottom of the table in the position in'which the latter is held by the springs when the ingot mold is full.
, A variation of this distance will vary the limit of motion of the table when vibrated. It will also be obvious that during oscillation the table will strike the stops. This will have the effect of administering blows to the table, and since there are several stops, and since the table has horizontal as well as vertical oscillatory motion, the stops will not all be struck .at once, and may all be struck severally. This will give the blows or concussions differing effective directions upon the table. I prefer to mount the sprin s at the four corners of base and table, an adj acent each an adjustable stop as shown. But different arrangements of springsand stops may be made if desired. Thus the springs may be mounted at the four corners and the stops centrall of the sides. Or each spring may have wit in it a central nonadjustable post serving as a stop. The number of springs and the number of stops may be varied as desired.
The vibrating means for the table top may take various forms. Pneumatic, hydraulic or steam vibrators with or without counter weights may be used but are somewhat expensive. It may set up sufficient vibration merely to move the device over a rough track when it is mounted upon a buggy, but in practice I have found this unreliable. Further, it is highly desirable that vibration be applied during pouring, when generally the ingot mold will be stationary. The vibrator which I prefer to 'use comp-rises a shaft 8 mounted upon the table in suitable bearings 9. The shaft extends beyond the table prefcrably at both ends, and carries eccentric weights 10. When the shaft is rotated these weights set up a vibration in the table, and the frequency of that vibration ma be readily controlled by the speed of rotation of the shaft. The weights may be mounted on the shaft in the same or in opposite eccentric directions if desired; but I prefer to mount them at right an les so' as to develop in full the multi-directlonal components of the shaking.
When vibration is applied, the ingot mold will be moved bodily in a number of directions both horizontally and vertically and will be struck blows in rapid succession coming from different effective directions. There may be even a rotary component to the movement. The bodily displacement of the mold will occur, of course, only through a small and carefully controlled space; but the top of the ingot mold will move more than the -supporting ingot molds 4 and 4a.
bottom, which is advanta eous. As hereinbefore set forth, I have ound that my peculiar combination of shaking and concussions produces enhanced metallurgical effects.
Further theconstruction of m shaker is so simple and economical that t e buggies in ingot trains may be permanently equipped with them at an expense which 1s not prohibitive. In Figure 3 I have shown a buggy 11 of the usual construction, operatin upon a track 12 and fitted with two of my 5 akrefis e mold 4 is'being poured from the ladle .13. Each bug or each shaker may have its own vibrator; ut I prefer (as shown in Figure 4) for economy and convenience to provide a stationary driving means which may comprise an electric motor 14 connected by universals to a detachable coupling. 16, which ma be connected to the shaft 8 of each sha or as the buggy is drawn into pouring position.
Modifications in my invention will be within the urview of one skilled in the art to make without de arting from the s irit of it.
Having described a preferre embodiment what I claim as new and desire to sean abutment on said base for each spring to limit the movement of said table against the compression of said spring, and means for shaking said table, said means comprising a shaft journaled upon said table and at least one eccentric weight upon said shaft mounted for rotation therewith, and means for whating said shaft.
7. A shaker for ingot molds comprising a rectangular base and a rectangular table thereabove, four corner compression sprin s connecting table and base four separate y adjustable stop means pro ecting from said base toward said table adjacent the springs, a shaft journaled beneath said table and projecting beyond it at either end, an eccentric weight fastened to each end of said shaft, and means for holding an ingot mold upon said table. I GEORGE G. BELL.
port strikes, and vibratory means on said I support.
3. A shaker for ingot molds comprising a base and a table, a plurality of compression springs connecting said base and said table, a plurality of abutments on said base to limit the movement of said table against said springs, and vibratory means on said table.
4. A shaker for in 0t molds comprising a base and a table, ap urality of compression springs connecting said base and said table, an abutment on said base for each spring to limit the movement of said table against the compression of said spring, and means for shaking said table.
5. A shaker for ingot molds comprising a base anda table, a plurality of compression springs connecting said base and said table. an abutment on said base for each spring to limit" the movement of said table against the compression of said spring, and means for shaking said table, said abutmcnts being separately adjustable.
6. A shaker for ingot molds comprising a base and a table, a plurality of compression springs connecting said base and said table,