US 1959960 A
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J. MAGRATH May 22, 1934.
METHOD OF MAKING ASBESTOS SIDING IN IMITATION OF BRICK Filed Jan. 20, 1952 2 Sheets-Sheet (IIL/010;
INVENTOR Maj/v. af,
ATToRNEYs J. MAGRATH May 22, 1934.
METHOD OF MAKING ASBESTOS SIDING IN IMITATION OF BRICK Filed Jan. 20, 1932 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 aww @KQ/62M ATTORNEY` Patented May 22, i934 Ul STAT @WCE MITATION Joseph Magrath, Utica,
corporation of Application January 20,
This invention relates to an asbestos siding in imitation of brick and more particularly to an asbestos siding of shingle-like form which when laid shingle fashion against the wall of a building or like structure closely simulates brick veneer even when viewed at very close range.
It has heretofore been proposed to make imitation brick siding of this general character from asphalt sheets. A number of its disadvantages were, however, attendant upon the use of shinglelike asphalt strips for this purpose. In the first place, the asphalt strips made from a paper or other fibrous material impregnated with asphalt and surfaced with stone were extremely thin so that the brick-like extensions were set out in very low relief and could not give the appearance of a genuine brick and mortar siding at close range. Furthermore, by reason of the character of the asphalt strips it was necessary to pass brads through the brick-like extensions in order to prevent them from lifting or curling up due to climatic conditions. rihis lifting up would, of course, spoil the entire effect of the siding and the use of brads to prevent this also spoiled the effect of brick veneer. Also, since the imitation asphalt brick siding was generally used on the lower part of the house, it was constantly in danger of having mischievous children tear olf the brick-like extensions and ruin the entire effect. Another serious disadvantage of asphalt shingle-like brick siding was that it was found impossible to texture the brick-like extensions in imitation of cut brick or other forms of textured brick. In such sheet asphalt brick siding the cover portion of the shingle-like units was also used to simulate the mortar and since asphalt is naturally black in color this mortar was also necessarily black.
It is the principal object of the present invention to provide shingle-like siding units which are made from a mixture of Portland cement and asbestos fiber and are provided with specially textured brick-like extensions which when properly laid against the side of a building or the like gives a very realistic appearance of brick veneer. The shingle-like units made from this material are necessarily comparatively thick and are strong and rigid. The brick-like extensions are therefore set out in high relief relative to oneV another so that the shadows cast impart a very realistic appearance to the siding. Moreover, since the shingles are rigid and durable they resist the mischievousness of children, that is, the shingle-like extensions cannot be torn from the wall and stones can be thrown against the wall F BRICK N. Y., assigner to Creo- Inc., North Tonawanda, N. Y., a New York 1932, Serial No. 587,704
without danger of injury to it. Moreover, because of the rigidity of a sheet made of asbestos fiber and Portland cement the brick-like extensions cannot, or" course, curl up and consequently' no exposed brads or other fastenings are necessary.
By the use of asbestos ber and Portland cement the molding or forming of the shingle-like units also permits of texturing the brick-like extensions. Thus, a very close imitation of wire cut brick can be achieved or any other texturing of brick can be reproduced in molds for pressing the asbestos fiber and Portland cement into form.
Since the material used in making sheet asbestes of this character is chiefly Portland cement, it is also apparent that the mortar which appears between the bricks is, in fact, made of Portland cement. This imparts a very realistic appearance to the brick siding since, so far as materials are concerned, there is no imitation in this regard.
Another advantage which obtains from the use of sheet asbestos and Portland cement is that the nail holes which must be necessarily preformed in the rigid sheets can be used for proper gaging of the siding units. It is apparent that unless the siding is arranged with accurate regularity the effect of the siding as an imitation of brick veneer will be Alost and therefore the use of the nail holes and attaching nails to gage the shingle-like units from one another is extremely important.
Other advantages of an asbestos imitation brick siding is that a wide variety of surfacing can be used on the brick-like extensions; such surfacing is embodied in the cement and is firmly bonded to the cement body of the sheet; the siding is entirely rire-proof and weather resisting and, as compared with asphalt roofing materials, is a relatively poor low conductor of heat.
In the accompanying drawings:
Figure 1 is a perspective View showing a number of shingle-like asbestos units showing the manner in which they are laid to simulate a brick veneer siding.
Figure 2 is a vertical section taken on line 2-2, Fig. l, and showing the shingle-like units nailed to the sheathing of a house or the like.
' plastic square sheet made from asbestos fiber and Portland cement and showing one way in which the stone surfacing can be applied so that the unit when finished will give an imitation brick effect.
Figure 4 is a view similar to Fig. 3 showing another method of applying this surfacing.
Figure 5 is a View similar to Fig. 3 showing the manner in which the form of the invention shown in Fig. 3 can be machine cut and notched to provide the brick-like extensions.
Figure 6 is a view similar to Fig. 4 showing the manner in which the form of the invention shown in Fig. 4 can be machine cut and notched to provide the brick-like extensions.
Figures '7 and 8 are fragmentary views similar to Figs. 5 and 5 showing other forms of notches between the brick-like extensions.
Figure 9 is a perspective view of a modified form of the invention in which the brick-like extensions are specially formed sothat the bricks stand out in relief on all four sides and are also provided with faces which are parallel to the face of the wall to which they are applied.
Figure 10 is a vertical section taken on line 10-10, Fig. 9.
While the invention can be carried out in a wide variety of ways, as dictated by the particular texture of imitation brick desired, I have illusrated a manner in which the effect of the siding is that of a wire cut brick veneer. The shinglelike brick siding units are shown as formed from a square sheet 15 of plastic asbestos and Portland cement. In making such sheets for blanking out the units about by weight, of Portland cement is mixed with 15%, by weight, of shingle asbestos fiber and a suitable amount of iron oxide coloring and Water and while still plastic this mixture is formed into the square sheets 15, these sheets, as illustrated, being approximately 17" x 17".
While these sheets are still plastic, one or more bands of brick surfacing are provided. In the form of the invention shown in Figs. 3 and 5, two parallel bands 16 are provided on opposite sides of the square. These bands are formed by applying a suitable color paste to the surface of the plastic asbestos squares and thereafter applying a layer of crushed stone 17 over the bands of color paste. The bands 16 of color paste and crushed stone are preferably each somewhat wider than the width of the exposure face of a brick to allow for subsequent cutting and trimming but it is important that the line 18 between the band of crushed stone and color paste and the uncoated or cover portion 19 of the blank be very well dened and exactly parallel with the corresponding edges of the blank after it has been cut.
Instead of providing two bands 16 of color paste and crushed stone a single band 16a can be provided across the center of the square. In this form the edges 18a of the band which correspond to the edges 18 in the form of the invention shown in Fig. 3 must also be well dened and exactly parallel. It is apparent, of course, that in either form the portions 19 or 19a of the blanks which are not coated with crushed stone and color paste are of the natural color of cement (although coloring materials can be added with the Portland cement and asbestos ber, if desired). It is therefore apparent that if this uncoated portion of the blank used to simulate the mortar in the imitation siding that a realistic effect of mortar will be provided. It is also apparent that it is Vpossible to form the bands and cut the units in such manner as to give an irregular effect to the bricks.
After the squares 15 have been provided with the bands 16 or 16a of color paste and stone the blanks are placed in a mold and their banded faces are textured. This can be done in a number of ways but preferably a die or mat (not shown) made of craped tin plate is employed. This die or mat is made from a sheet of tin plate or other soft metal and is craped with irregular corrugations, these corrugations running in the same direction. This craped die or mat is placed over the surface of the squares 15 so that its corrugations run transversely of the bands 16 or 16a and when this die or mat is pressed against the surface of the square it forms irregular grooves or indentations 20 in the surface of the square, these grooves running transversely of the bands 16 or 15a and closely imitating a cut brick surface. This mat or die, of course, also presses the crushed stone or slate 17 into the Portland cement and asbestos ber body of the plastic square and causes the crushed stone to be bonded to the Portland cement and firmly keyed thereto after the Portland cement has hardened. By the use of a soft craped die made of tin plate or the like the die gradually loses its grooved or craped surface. rI"nis insures that each brick has an individual texture, no two bricks being textured exactly alike. In use, after every eight or ten impressions, the die must be re-craped. After the squares of plastic asbestos fiber and Portland cement have been textured and surfaced in this manner they are machine cut.
In the form of the invention shown in Fig. 3, the edges 21 of the square which are parallel with the bands 16 are cut into exact parallelism with the lines 18 of these bands. The other sides 22 of the square are then squared up and two corners of the square are then notched out as indicated at 23. Each of these notches 23 extends inwardly from the corresponding edge 21 of the square to a point substantially beyond the band 16 of color paste and crushed stone and the width of these notches 23 is the width of the mortar between the bricks. VA notch 24 of the depth equal to the notches 23 is cut through the center of each band 16 and is of the saine width as the notches 23. These notches 24 divide the bands 16 into a pair of brick-like extensions 25, the stone surfaced portion of which is of the dimension of the exposed face of a standard brick. The square is then provided with nail holes 26 which are exactly positioned, as hereinafter described, and the square 15 is cut through the center along the line 27, this line 27 being parallel with the bands 16 so as to divide the square into two units each having two brick-like extensions 25. It is, of course, apparent that any number of brick-like extensions can be provided for each unit. In cutting out the form of blank shown in Fig. 4, the edges 28 which are parallel with the band 16a of color paste and crushed stone are squared up and the other edges 29 of the square of plastic asbestos ber and Portland cement are also squared up. Each of these edges 29 is then notched, as indicated at 30, the depth of these notches being half the width of the mortar desired, and these notches are centrally arranged and extending beyond the band 16a into the unsurfaced portion of the square. A central notch 31 is also provided in the blank, this notch extending transversely of the band 16a and being of the same length as the notches 39 but being twice the width of each of the notches 30. square is then provided with nail holes 26a which correspond to the nail holes 26 in the form shown in Fig. 5 and the blank is cut along the center line 32, this line 32 being exactly parallel with the edges of the band of crushed stone 16a and The a foi ' in proper positions dividing the square intoA four shingle-like extensions 25a. It is apparent that the form of the end notches in either forms of the blank'can be asA indicated by the notches 23'in Fig'. 5 or the notches 30 indicated in Fig'. 6. vIt is also apparent that instead of providing square ends to the notches 23, 24, 30 or 32, these can be of roundingy form, as indicatedv in Fig. 7, or of pointed form, as indicated in Fig. 8'.
4The shingle-like units so cut are then permitted to set and after they have hardened they are ready to be applied to the sheathing 33 of a house or the like. In laying the units, the units are nailed in the manner of shingles, the brick-like extensions projecting downwardly and being. each separated by vertical notches which are of the Width of the mortar. The successive rows of shingle-like units are also so positioned that the lower edge of each row is spaced above the adjacent line 18 or 18a of the bricks immediatelybelow a distance equal to the Width of the slots between the bricks. It is therefore apparent that each of the bricks is completely surrounded by mortar, this mortar being the -color of the cover portion of each unit. The
brick-like extensions are laid in staggered relation in the same manner as bricks and the nail holes are so positioned that when the units are the nails 34 rest upon the upper edge of the next surrounding lower row of shingle-like units. This predetermined positioning of the nail holes insures that the width of the horizontal lines of mortar is always exactly uniform.
The form of the invention shown in Figs. 9 and 10 follows the other forms of the invention shown except that the brick-like extensions 36 are formed so that they are elevated from the surface of the unit. This provides a shoulder 37 at the upper edge of each brick so that each brick stands out in sharp relief on all four sides. In this form of the invention the bricklike extension 36 can also be tapered so that the thickest portion thereof is adjacent the shoulder 37. With the brick-like extensions tapered in this manner the faces of all of the bricks are parallel to the surface to which the shingle-like units are applied even though, of course, the shingle-like units themselves are arranged at an angle to the surface in the manner of ordinary shingles.
From the foregoing it is apparent that the present invention provides a rigid fire-proof imitation brick siding which is far less expensive than brick both in cost of manufacture and also in the cost of laying the same. Since the siding is made of Portland cement and asbestos fiber the brick-like extensions are durable and rigid and cannot be torn off and do not need any exposed fastenings to insure their proper retention against the wall to which they are applied. Moreover, since sheets made of asbestos fiber and Portland cement are necessarily thick the bricks stand out in high relief and closely simulate a brick veneer. Itis also apparent that since the formation of such shingle-like brick siding necessarily involves a molding process the surface of the bricks can be textured to closely imitate the texturing of any brick. Also, since the mortar between the bricks is provided by Portland cement itself it is apparent that the effect of mortar in siding embodying the present invention is extremely realistic. The shinglelike units can also be easily gaged with reference to one another since the nail holes and edges of each unit are used to effect this gaging. The siding can therefore be easily laid in exact predetermined relation in such manner that no disturbing irregularities appear in the finished sidlng.
1. The method of making a shingle-like siding unit adapted to provide a brick effect which consists in forming a plastic mass of asbestos ber, Portland cement and water into fiat sheet form, pressing a band of surfacing material into one face of said sheet and over a part only of the surface of said sheet and trimming said sheet longitudinally of said band and transversely notching said sheet across the full Width of said band to trim saidv band to the widthof the exposed face of a brick and to divide said band into one or more brick lengths and permitting said sheet to harden.
2. The method of making a shingle-like siding unit adapted to provide a brick effect, which consists in forming a plastic mass of asbestos fiber, Portland cement and water into flat sheet form, pressing a band of surfacing material into one face of said sheet and over a part only of the flat surface thereof, impressing texturing finish grooves into the banded surface of said sheet and trimming said sheet longitudinally of said band and transversely notching said sheet across the full Width of said band to trim said band to the width of the exposed face of a brick and to divide said band into one or more brick lengths and permitting said sheet to harden.
3. The method of making a shingle-like siding unit adapted to provide a brick effect, which consists in forming a plastic mass of asbestos fiber, Portland cement and water into flat sheet form, pressing a band of surfacing material into one face of said sheet and over a part only of the fiat surface thereof, impressing texturing finish banded surface of said sheet, width and depth and trimming said sheet longitudinally of said band and transversely notching said sheet across the full width of said band to trim said band to 120. the width of the exposed face of a brick and to divide said band into one or more brick lengths and permitting said sheet to harden.
4. The method of making a shingle-like siding unit adapted to provide a brick effect, which consists in forming a plastic mass of asbestos fiber, Portland cement and water into flat sheet form, pressing at least one band of surfacing material into one face of said sheet over a part only of a at surface thereof and on opposite sides of and parallel with a center line thereof, dividing said sheet along said center line, trimming said sheet longitudinally of said band to provide two units each having a band equal in width to the width of the exposed face of a brick and transversely notching said sheets across the full width of their bands into one or more brick lengths and permitting said sheet toharden.
5. The method of making a shingle-like siding unit adapted to provide a brick effect, which consists in forming a plastic mass of asbestos fiber, Portland cement and water into flat sheet form, pressing two parallel bands of surfacing material into one face of said sheet on opposite sides thereof and over a part only of the surface thereof, trimming said sheet to bring its two opposite edges into parallelism with the inner edges of said band and to bring said bands to a width equalling the width of the exposed face of of asbestos ber, Portland cement and Water into iiat sheet form and pressing into a part only of the flat surface of said sheet a band of coloring material and a superposed band of a granular material, thereafter impressing a grooved texturing nish across the banded side of said sheet, trimming and notching the banded part of said sheet into brick to harden.
7. The method of making ornamental siding units which consists in forming a plastic mass of asbestos ber, Portland cement and Water into flat sheet form and pressing into a part only of the flat surface of said sheet a band of coloring material and a superposed band of a granular material, thereafter impressing a grooved texturning nsh across the banded side of said sheet, thereafter trimming said sheet along one longitudinal side of said band and transversely notching said sheet across said band to divide said band into uniform lengths, and permitting said sheet to harden.
form and permitting said sheet JOSEPH MAG-BATH.