|Número de publicación||US2043217 A|
|Tipo de publicación||Concesión|
|Fecha de publicación||2 Jun 1936|
|Fecha de presentación||4 May 1933|
|Fecha de prioridad||4 May 1933|
|Número de publicación||US 2043217 A, US 2043217A, US-A-2043217, US2043217 A, US2043217A|
|Inventores||Constantin P Yaglou|
|Cesionario original||Carrier Engineering Corp|
|Exportar cita||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Citada por (31), Clasificaciones (23)|
|Enlaces externos: USPTO, Cesión de USPTO, Espacenet|
Julie 2, 1936. Q p YAGLOU 2,043,217V
METHOD AND MEANS FOR CONTROLLING-THE IONIC- CONTENT OF AIR INVENTOR. Conaanim Yaglou A TTORNEY June 2, 1936:
c. P. YAGLou 2,043,217
FORl CNTROLLING THE IONIC CONTENT OF AIR Filed May 4, 1933 METHOD AND MEANS 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 C'onsian im PYaglou ATTORNEY INVENTOR.
Patented June l2, 1936 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE METHOD AND MEANS Fon coN'rRoLLlNG THE lomo coN'rENT or Am Constantin P. Yaglou, Boston, Mass., assignor, by
mesne assignments, to Carrier Engineering Corporation, Newark, N. J., a corporation of New York Application May 4, iessfserial No. 669,362
As waspointed out in my said previous'disclo sure, present general air conditioning practice attempts to condition a given atmosphere by controlling such factors as temperature, humidity, and air motion. The control of these factors, while promoting a much improved condition of comfort,'still leaves one important factor unaccounted for, namely, ionic content. While the air may be at exactly the correct temperature, have exactly the correct dewpoint, and may be perfectly distributed, it still may not have the freshness that is so apparent, for example, -at the seashore or inthe mountains. Such vapparent lack of freshness inthe air may be traced directly to the reduced number or absence of ions in the air.
Air, as any other gas', may be ionized. Ions may be classied as to sign, either positive or negative, and also, as to size, either small, large or intermediate. Physically, and from a physiological standpoint, the small ions appear to be the most important. Large ions are as a rule associated QWith aerial pollution; the greater the pollution, the greater theconcentration of large ions.
Although the production of small ions'is continually carried on in nature by solar radiation, cosmic rays, radioactive disintegration and asa result of other phenomena, many adverse forces For example, ions tend to destroy these ions. of opposite sign tend to agglomerate and in the process neutralize themselves. Similarly, in dusty air, small ions agglomerate, with dust particles or condensation nuclei forming large ions. Also, they may be destroyed by grounding and in a number of other Ways encountered naturally in the atmosphere. matic conditions, ions vary widely not only as to number, but in respect of sign and Size.
Experiment has demonstrated that the ionic content of enclosed atmospheres, as in theatres, auditoria, or other inhabited areas, varies not only with ch-anges in climatic conditions, but that human or animal occupancy tends to destroy ions at a high rate. Thus, the artificial produc- Further, under different cli-l tion of ions to make up deficiencies in ionic content and the control of such production to assure ions of desired character and number becomes of major consequence.
The general `object of the invention is vto pro'- vide an improved method and means for producing ions of desired character, as to sign and size, substantially in unlimited quantities for practical purposes in controlling the ionic content of enclosures.
' A further object of the invention is to produce ions of suitable character, in desired quan' tities, without the production of ozone.
Another object is to provide ions of desired character and number without setting up electrical disturbances Aapt'to interfere with radio reception.
A feature of the invention resides in the use of a step-uptransformer in combination with a rectifying device to give a source of high potential uni-directional current.
When utilizing direct or uni-directional current to produce ions, I have found that sub-v stantial ionization begins when the potential on the ionizing head is about 8,500 volts. Above 10,000 volts, the production of ions is apparently directly proportional.v to the potential. Another feature of the invention'utilizes this discovery and resides in a simple 'provision of transforming means suitably arranged for varying the voltage quantitatively and hence, the ionic output. Other means in combination therewith are arranged to control the sign, as Well as the proportions of positive to negative ions. I
Another feature of the invention resides in utilizing a condenser in the electrical circuit in such manner that the peaksl and variations in the ionizing potential are smoothedV out.' result, the production of ions is considerably increased, and the consumption of electrical energy is correspondingly reduced.
A further feature of the invention resides in substantially eliminating corona, or any other form of brush or arc discharge, as well as eliminating the employment of spark gaps, in the production of ions.
Another feature resides in the provision of a grounded cylindrical 'grid` or a plane metal shield in combination with a circuit having two ionizing heads, adapted to produce both positive and neg ative ions. By varying the diameter of the grid surrounding one of the ionizing heads or by adjusting the plane metal shield with respect to the ionizing heads, a preponderance, in any propor- As aV lons, either of positive or negative ions, may be roduced.
Other objects and features covering construcional and engineering advantages making for implicity, eiciency and preclusion of ozone will e more apparent from the following description ynd drawings, in which:
Fig. l is a. diagrammatic view,'partly in section, f an air conditioning system to which the in- 'ention may be applied;
Fig. 2 represents an electrical circuit arrangenent adapted to carry outthe invention;
Fig. 3 represents a modication of the electrial circuit of Fig. 2;
Fig. 4 is a simplified electrical circuit adapted o carry out certain objects of the invention;
Fig. 5 and 5a. are modifications of the circuit yrrangement of Fig. 4 and they are particularly ydapted to the production of negative ions exclulvely;
Figs. 6 and 6a represent simplified electrical ircuit arrangements adapted to produce positive Jns exclusively; and v Figs. '7v and 7a represent electrical circuits by ieans of which both positive and negative ions, a desired ratio, may be produced.
Considering the drawings, similar designations eferring to similar parts, and first referring to lig. 2, numeral 5 designates a step-up transormer having a primary winding 6 and a secndary winding 1. Alternating current, from .ny available source, is suitably connected to the rimary winding 6 through leads 8 and 9. A vaiable resistance I0, in the lead 9, is adapted to 'ary the voltage impressed on the primary windng 6, and a fuse II, inthe lead 8 affords protecion to the transformer, and other parts of the .pparatus, against accidental overload. Although i. resistance is shown in the primary circuit, it is o be understood that any other expedient such is an inductive reactance or a tapped secondary night be employed.
A rectifying device is provided in the circuit o change the character of the current supplied y the secondary Winding 1 from'alternating to ini-directional. Although the rectifier may be ne of many types and may operate on one of nany principles, applicant illustrates a simple, eilicient and inexpensive device comprising an rvacuatedtube I2 in which are suitably mounted a ilament I3 and a plate element I4. While one arge tube is shown, several smaller tubes may be lsed in series to secure the desired voltage. For he purpose of heating the filament, a small steplown transformer I5 has its primary winding I6 `uitably connected, as by leads I8 and I9, across eads and 9 and in series with the resistance I0 .nd fuse II. The secondary winding I1 is coniected to the filament I3. Lead 20, from secondlry winding 1 of transformer 5, is connected to he lament I3, and under certain conditions vhich will be made apparent hereinafter, the ther lead 2I is grounded as at 24. The plate 4 is connected by a well insulated lead 22 to an onizing head 23, and a condenser 25, of suitable.
:apacity and proper dielectric strength, is located etween the plate circuit and lead 2 I. While the :ondenser is not absolutely essential, the marked ncrease in eiciency of the apparatus when it is lsed makes it desirable, particularly in units of 'ery high ionizing capacity.
The head 23, which in practice may be mounted vithin duct 26 (Fig. 1) `preferably comprises a rass ball, or the like, about three quarters t0 011.6
and a half inches in diameter. Sharp projections, such as, for example, phonograph needles, are tapped into the ball. When a high electrical potential is impressed on the head 23, these needles produce a very powerful electrical field all around the head, hence, ionizing any gas coming into the sphere of inuence of said eld.
Under conditions which make it desirable to produce negative ions exclusively, the circuit arrangement may be precisely as shown in Fig. 2. If, on the other hand, all positive ions are desirable, the ionizing head 23 will be connected to lead 2I and the plate of the rectifying tube will be' grounded. In other words, the ground and ionizing head will be in reverse position to that shown in Fig. 2. Primarily then, the apparatus of Fig. 2 is adapted to produce ions of either positive or negative character.
In Fig. 3, the ground 24 of Fig. 2 has been replaced by a second ionizing head 21, similar in all respects to head 23. A shield 28, comprising a metal strip or plate, is adjustably positioned between the heads 23 and 21 and is grounded as at 29. Except for these changes, the apparatus and circuit of Fig. 3 may be identical with that of Fig. 2. In operation, the device of Fig. 3 is capable of producing both positive and negative ions. By moving the shield 28 with respect to heads 23 and 21, a preponderance of ions having a desired characteristic may be established. For example, if the shield is moved closer to 23 than to 21, a preponderance of positive ions will result, while if the shield is moved into proximity with h'ead 21, a preponderance of negative ions will be established. In this manner, any desired ratio of positive to negative ions may be obtained. While the shield is illustrated as a plate 28, in practice it is desirable to use grounded cylindrical grids surrounding the ionizing heads. The grids are preferably constructed in such a manner that their diameter may be varied, i. e., in-
creased or decreased. By varying the diameter," the distance between the head and the grid may' be varied to give the eect achieved by moving the shield 28 of Fig. 3 closer to one of the ionizing heads. By varying the resistance I0, the potential impressed on the ionizing heads may be varied, and as has been found, the number of ions produced by an apparatus such as is illustrated in Figs. 2 and 3 is directly proportional to the potential (above 10,000 v.); hence, the number of ions produced may be controlled.
' For most practical purposes, particularly those wherein the desired concentration is less than 20,000 ions per cubic centimeter of room air, the
rectifying tube I2, its filament transformer I5,
and condenser 25 may be dispensed with. The
resulting circuit, with various modifications, is
shown in Figs. 4, 5, 5a, 6, 6a, 7, and 7a.
Figs, 4, 5 and 5a show various circuits adapted to the production of negative ions exclusively, and comprise generally a light duty transformer .5, a rheostat I0 in series with primary winding I, and two ionizing heads 23 and 21 arranged in the secondary circuit. As can be seen from the drawings, the main difference between these circuits lies in the particular arrangement of the ionizing heads in the secondary circuit, and in the methodfof grounding, i. e., in Fig. 4, the heads 23 and 21 are connected to opposite terminals former casing as indicated at 44; and in Fig. a, the ionizing heads are connected in parallel with one terminal of secondary winding 1, the other terminal being grounded as at 45.
Figs. 6 and 6a. are circuits, particularly adapted to the production of positive ions exclusively. In these figures, the heads 23 and 21 are connected to the opposite terminals of secondary winding 1 of transformer 5. In Fig. V6, the midpoint of the secondary is grounded to the transformer casing, as indicated at 44. In both oircuit's, a cylindrical grid 41 surrounds one of the ionizing heads, but is separated therefrom by an air space sufficiently wide to prevent disruptive or corona discharge therebetween. The grid is grounded as at 45. While a grid has been found most efficient, comparable results can be secured by placing a grounded metal shield (of the type illustrated in Fig. r3) near one ionizingl head.
Figs. 1 and 7a show circuits adapted to produce both positive and negative ions in desired proportions. In Fig. 7, the midpoint of secondary winding is grounded to the transformer casing as indicated at 44, and the ionizing heads 23 and 21 are connected to opposite terminals thereof. Each head is provided with a cylindrical grid 41, preferably constructed so that the diameter of the grid may be varied. The grids are grounded as at 45. The diameter of the grids are adjusted at a desired minimum to provide an air space which will prevent corona or disruptive discharge at the particular voltage used. If one grid is then increased from this minimum diameter, a preponderance of positive ions will be produced, while increasing the diameter of both grids results in the production of a preponderance of negative ions.
In applying the invention to an air conditioning system, as illustrated, for example, in Fig. 1, the ionizing head 23, or heads 23 and 21, may be mounted in the duct 2B and suitably insulated therefrom as by insulator 43.
The air conditioning system (Fig. l) comprises a conditioner 3U, equipped with sprays 3l, fed with Water, or other liquid, at desired temperatures from a refrigerating machine 32 by a pump 33. A mixing valve 34, operative responsive to thermostat 35 in the conditioner, is adapted to control the temperature of the sprays, hence, the dewpoint in the conditioner.
Outside air', through the inlet controlled by dampers 36, and air returned from the enclosure 31 through duct 38 and damper 39, is passed through the conditioner 30 in desired proportions. Subsequent to conditioning this mixture may be augmented and attemperated by a volume vof returnair through dampers 39 and delivered by fan 40 through supply duct 26 to the enclosure 31. The proportions of fresh and return air are varied and controlled by the operation of thermostat 35, while the amount of bypassed air utilized is controlled by a thermostat 4l located in the return duct 38. A rehcater 42, of any suitable type, serves to heat the air, under winter conditions, prior to its delivery to the enclosure, the amount of heating done being regulated by thermostat 4l. The ionic content, as to number himself to this precise means, but may use instead a motor generator or source of high potential uni-directional current.
Since certain changes in carrying out the above process and in the constructions set forth which embody theinventionjmay be made without departing from its scope, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description or shown in the accompanying drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
I claim as my invention:
1. The method of producing positive and negative ions in respiratory air which comprises utilizing a source of high potential uni-directional current, feeding said current to a plurality of shielded leak devices to produce a high intensity electrical eld, passing respiratory air through said eld whereby it will be ionized, and varying the position of thev shielding with respect to said leak devices to vary the relative proportions of positive and negative ions produced in said air.
2. The method of ionizing a uid, consisting in utilizing a high potential, uni-directional current to produce a pair of electrical elds, shield'- ing one of said elds from the other, varying the position of said shielding ywith respect to said fields to vary the proportiens of positive and negative ions produced intuid subjected to said fields, and varying the ionizing capacity of sair fields by varying the potential of said current.
3. A combination of apparatus for producing positive and negative ions, comprising a pair of pointed electrodes, means for establishing a potential difference between said electrodes, a grounded shielding means positioned therebetween, said means being movable With respect to said electrodes, whereby the proportions of positive and negative ions produced by said electrodes will be varied.
4. A method of producing positive and negative ions in respiratory air'which comprises utilizing a source' of high potential current, establishing an electrical potential between a plurality of pointed electrodes to produce a high intensity electrical eld about said electrodes,
passing respiratory air through said eld whereby it will be ionized, and shielding one of said electrodes with a grounded shield, other of said electrodes remaining unshielded whereby positive and negative ions in desired ratio are produced, substantially free of ozone.
5. A method of producing ions substantially free from ozone, in respiratory air, which comprises utilizing a source of high potential current, feeding said current to a pointed electrode connected to one terminal of said source, to produce a high intensity electrical field about said electrode, passing respiratory air through said field whereby it will be ionized and connecting the other terminal of said source to another pointed electrode, the intensity of the electrical field between said electrodes being below that required to cause substantial discharge between them.
6. A method of producing ions, substantially free from ozone, in respiratory air, which comprises utilizing a source of high potential current, feeding said current to a pointed electrode connected to one terminal of said solQce to produce a high intensity electrical eld about said electrode, passing respiratory air through said eld whereby it will be ionized, connecting the other terminal of said source to 'another pointed elec-v trode, and establishing an electrical ileld between one of the electrodes .and a grounded shield, the other of the electrodes remaining unshielded.
7. A method oi' producing ions, substantially free from ozone, in respiratory air, which comprises utilizing a. source of high potential current, feeding said current to a. plurality of pointed electrodes connected to both terminals of said source to produce a high intensity electrical iield about said electrodes, passing respiratory air through said nelcl, whereby it will be ionized, and shielding only one of said electrodes whereby positive and negative ions will be produced by said electrodes in desired ratio.
8. A combination of apparatus for producing ions, substantially free from ozone, in respiratory air, comprising a source of high potential current, a first pointed electrode connected to a irst terminal of said source, a second pointed electrode connected to a second terminal of said source, and a grounded shielding means positioned adjacent one of said electrodes, said shielding means being a substantial distance from said second electrode whereby positive and negatiw ions will be produced by said electrodes in desirel ratio and whereby no substantial discharge oc curs between said second electrode and sail shielding means.
9. A method of producing ions, substantiall: free from ozone, in respiratory air, which comprises utilizing asource of high potential currexr` of the order of 8500 volts and greater, feedim said current to a needle pointed electrode con nected to a selected terminal of said source t( produce a high intensity electrical eid aboui said electrode without producing ozone, passim respiratory air through said field whereby it wil be ionized and connecting the other terminal o1 said source to ground, whereby ions substantially exclusively of -the selected polarity will be produced, the sharpness of the pointed electrode being suiicient to preventthe formation of ozone, the intensity of the electrical iield between the electrode and ground being below that required to cause substantial discharge between them.
C ONSTANTIN P. YAGLOU.
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|Clasificación de EE.UU.||361/231, 422/4, 261/136, 250/432.00R, 422/906, 315/200.00R, 204/176, 55/418, 209/127.1, 361/235, 315/227.00R, 315/228, 62/186, 126/113, 236/44.00R, 55/DIG.380, 422/22, 62/78|
|Clasificación cooperativa||F24F3/166, Y10S55/38, Y10S422/906|