US 2142177 A
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L. R. cLAPP Jan. 3, 1939.
SHINC-LE Filed Nov. 25, 1936 ATTO RNEY Patented Jan. 3, 1939 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE SHINGLE tion of Connecticut Application November 25, 1936, Serial No. 112,626
The invention relates to roof or surface coverings and, more particularly, to such coverings known in the art as shingles.
In Guiterman Patent No. 1,971,932, dated August 28, 1934, a roof covering is shown made up of flat, thin, metal shingles having their lower weather edges turned up to provide flanges of sufiicient height to impart the appearance of thickness to the shingle. In Guiterman Patent No. 2,117,092, granted May 10, 1938, the shingle is corrugated longitudinally to enhance its beauty and effect, to strengthen the shingle and to permit it to be bent about a longitudinal axis so that it may be used as a hip shingle.
The present invention relates to the type of shingle disclosed in the above mentioned patent and application, According to the invention, the lower upstanding flange or toe roll is provided with a fiat lying flange extension for strengthening the shingle and for obtaining other advantages. The sides of the shingle are notched to provide holding down tabs under which the flat lying flange extension of the shingles in the upper courses are inserted for holding down the weather ends of the shingles. The upstanding flanges located at the lower weather edges of the shingles may be spaced from the extreme edges of the shingles by different amounts to obtain a random effect. As the total length of the shingle remains the same, the variable spacing of the upstanding flanges provides toe flanges of variable lengths. If desired, the shingles, although having a generally rectangular configuration, may have their side edges converge slightly toward the top of the shingle to save material.
The invention also consists in certain new and original features of construction and combination of parts hereinafter set forth and claimed.
Although the novel features which are believed to be characteristic of this invention will be particularly pointed out in the claims appended hereto, the invention itself, as to its objects and advantages, and the manner in which it may be carried out, may be better understood by referring to the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawing forming a part thereof, in which Fig, 1 is a perspective of a roof covered with the type of shingle according to the invention;
Fig. 2 is a perspective of an individual shingle;
Fig. 3 represents diagrammatically three courses of shingles showing how they are laid;
Fig. 4 is a vertical section through the lower part of the roof covered with shingles according to the invention.
In the following description and in the claims, various details will be identified by specific names for convenience, but they are intended to be as generic in their application as the art will permit.
Like reference characters denote like parts in the several figures of the drawing.
In the drawing accompanying and forming part of this specification, certain specific disclosureof the invention is made for purposes of explanation, but it will be understood that the details may be modified in various respects without departure from the broad aspect of the invention.
Referring now to the drawing and, more particularly, to Fig. 2, the shingle comprises a generally rectangular body I0 having an upper edge II, a lower edge l2 and side edges l3 and M. The shingle may be of corrugated metal or other sheet material and is crimped or corrugated with the corrugations running lengthwise of the shingle for strengthening the shingle and to permit bending for use as a hip or ridge shingle, as will be explained hereinafter, The shingle may be made of any of thecommon metals ordinarily used for roofing, such as copper, zinc, etc. The side edges l3 and I4 may converge slightly from the lower edge to the upper edge of the shingle for the purpose of saving metal without substantially affecting the covering or protection ofiered by the shingle. I
The lower weather edge of the shingle is'bent upwardly and then downwardly to provide a vshaped toe roll or flange indicated by 15, the edge then being further bent to form the lower toe flange l6. The side edges of the shingle are provided with diagonally cut slits forming tabs ll, under which the toe flanges l6 .of the shingles in the adjoining upper courses are inserted, as will be explained more in detail.
To lay a roof with these shingles, the roof indicated by 20 in Fig. 4, is first prepared in the usual way, as for laying wooden shingles for example. The lower edge of the roof may be provided with a strip of continuous sheet flashing, indicated by .2l, this flashing being bent down around the lower edge of the roof, as indicated, if desired. The roof may also be covered with an underlying sheet of insulating material 22, if desired, or this insulating sheet may be omitted.
The first course indicated by A is then laid, the shingles being spaced side by side in a manner similar to wooden shingles. The adjoining shingles may touch each other or they may be spaced apart, as illustrated in Fig. 3. This row is secured to the roof by driving nails 28 through the shingles into the roof. Two nails may be used for each shingle and these nails are placed below the upper edge of the shingle as far as possible, so long as these nails are covered by the next course of shingles.
To assist in holding down the butt ends of the shingles in the first course, the lower flange I 2 may be bent downwardly. Course A shows the toe flanges thus bent. Nails 25 driven through the toe flanges into the roof 20 hold the weather edges down securely.
In course A, the upstanding flanges or toe rolls l5 may be aligned or not" according to the effect desired. If the toe rolls l5 are all aligned, it is obvious that shingles having the same size toe flanges may be used for this bottom course. If the random effect is desired, shingles having different size toe flanges are used, in which case it is obvious that only part of the toe flange [2 of the larger size toe flanges will be bent down as illustrated, for example, by shingle 23 in row A.
In case it is not desired to bend down the toe flanges l2, special shingles may be made in the factory having the toe flanges bent down so that the lower row of shingles may be applied without distorting the toe flanges on the job.
After the first course A is laid in the manner described, course B is laid. In this course the toe flanges l2 are inserted under the tabs ll of the shingles in course A and nails 21 are driven through the shingle bodies into the roof in a manner similar to course A. Care should be taken, however, that the spaces between shingles in course B are staggered with respect to the spaces in course A. The toe flanges I2 effectively hold down the weather edges of the shingles in course B and perform the sameiunction as the depending flanges in course A.
Course C is laid in a manner similar to course B with the toe flanges l2 tucked under the tabs I I and with the spaces between shingles staggered with respect to the spaces between shingles in course B. The succeeding courses are laid in a similar manner until the top of the roof is reached.
The ridge of the roof may be covered by a course of shingles indicated by X. These shingles may be identical with the shingles in courses B and C and are laid by bending the shingles about a. line running lengthwise of the shingles, the corrugated construction permitting the upstanding flanges l5 to give or expand so that the shingles may be bent without otherwise distorting them. Nails will be driven through the shingle bodies at suitable points in the body III of the shingle. Nails may be placed in the toe flange l2 also if desired. The shingles in the ridge course may be laid without regard to the length of toe flange II or, if desired, the length of toe flange may be the same in all the shingles. Or shingles having no toe flange H at all, such as disclosed in the above mentioned Guiterman application, may be used in this row.
The shingles may also be used to cover a hip caused by the intersection of two inclined roof planes in a manner as described in the Guiterman patent above referred to. In this case also the toe flanges l6 may be of variable length, the same length, or omitted entirely, as described above in connection with the ridge shingles.
It will be noted from the above and from the drawing that all of the regular shingles (exclusive of course A and ridge or hip shingles) are of the same length irrespective of the position of upstanding flange I 5 and that the tabs H are always at the same distance from both the lower edge It and upper edge II of the shingle irrespective of the position of the upstanding flange l5. This construction provides automatic spacing of the courses with uniform overlapping between courses and yet gives a random effect similar to that obtained in ordinary wooden shingles, for example, by varying the overlap between courses. The provision of tabs I! at a constant distance from the lower edge of the shingle insures the holding down of the shingles in a uniform manner irrespective of the random eifect portrayed by the upstanding flanges.
In addition to the random effect obtained by the variable position of the upstanding flanges, a random effect may be obtained by changing the spacing between shingles in the same row. A random effect may also be obtained by changing the width of the several shingles to get the desired effect. Furthermore, if desired, the height of the toe roll may be varied to obtain a random effect, all depending upon the architectural appearance desired.
It is obvious that the-dimensions of the shingle and the overlap may be varied widely as in the case of wooden shingles. For example, these shingles may have a uniform length of about fifteen inches and may run in width from seven to twelve inches. The taper of the side edges l3 and I may make the width of the shingle two inches less at the top than at the bottom. The crimping or corrugations may run, for example, four or flve corrugations per inch, although a somewhat coarser pitch is indicated in Figs. 2 and 3. The gage of metal may be #29 Brown 8: Sharpe. The lower upstanding flange may be approximately one inch wide as measured up and down the length of the shingle, and the height of this flange may be approximately seven-eighths of an inch above theplane of the shingle. The tabs I1 may be placed at about six inches from the lower edge l2, thereby providing a nine inch overlap between adjacent courses and a three inch overlap between every third course.
Thus, a shingle construction has been disclosed which has the advantages inherent in this type of shingle. It also has certain additional advantages, as for example, the saving in metal due to the tapering of the side edges l3 and H, above described; the holding down of the butt ends of the shingle by inserting the toe flanges under the tabs of the shingles in the next lower row; the variable positioning of the upstanding flanges to give a random effect without destroying the uniform coverage and uniform laying of the courses; the shingle has increased strength due to the addition of the lower toe flange which strengthens the upstanding toe roll 15. These advantages are obtained without sacrificing any of the protection offered by this type of shingle against the elements and without interfering with the use of these shingles as hip shingles or ridge shingles.
The use of the additional toe flange I6 also provides an additional element by which the shingle may be fastened to the roof. Nails may be driven through this flange when the shingle is used as a ridge shingle or when used in the flrst course of shingles. Throughout the main area of the roof the overlying tabs in the shingles in the lower rows enables this flange to hold down the shingles in the overlying courses.
By the use of this shingle many beautiful architectural efiects can be obtained. The corrugations permit bending the shingles to conform to a rolling roof and the interlock between toe flange and tabs insure the holding down of the weather edge of the shingle on any shape of surface; 'l'he upstanding toe roll or edge flange imparts the appearance of thickness to the shingle when viewed from a distance and yet permits the body of the shingle to lie flat against the roof for obtaining maximum protection against the weather.
While certain novel features of the invention have been disclosed and are pointed out in the annexed claims, it will be understood that various omissions, substitutions and changes may be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit of the invention.
What is claimed is:
1. A shingle comprising a body of generally oblong conformation and made of corrugated sheet metal with the corrugations running up and down, the side edges of said shingle converging slightly upwardly to save material, said body having upstanding therefrom at the lower edge thereof a flange-like portion formed by bending the sheet metal upwardly and then downwardly to form an upstanding, invert ad, trough-shaped flange, the metal bcing further bent to form a short toe flange projecting below said upstanding flange and lying in substantially the same plane as said body, the side edges of said body being slit downwardly and inwardly to form upwardly extending tabs to overlie the toe flanges of shingles in the next upper course.
2. A shingle comprising a body made of corrugated sheet material with the corrugations running lengthwise, said body having upstanding therefrom at the lower edge thereof a flange-like portion formed by bending the sheet metal into an upstanding, inverted, trough-shaped flange, said shingle having a toe flange projecting below said upstanding flange and lying in substantially the same plane as said body, the side edges of said shingle having upwardly extending tabs to overlie the toe flanges of shingles in the next upper course.
3. In a shingled surface, a series of courses of shingles, each shingle comprising a body adapted to lie generally flat on a supporting surface and an upstanding flange at its lower edge, but spaced from the lower margin of the shingle, the flanges of the several shingles being spaced at different distances from the lower margins thereof to give a random effect, the side edges of said shingles having tabs for overlying the lower edges of overlying shingles. the overall lengths of the several shingles being substantially equal and the tabs of the several shingles being located at the same distance from the lower margin of the shingles irrespective of the position of the upstanding flanges.
4. In a shingled surface, a series of shingle courses 'each shingle being substantially rectangular andadapted to lie generally flat on a supporting surface, each shingle having its lower edge bent upwardly and then downwardly to form a flange-like member and then bent outwardly to form a toe flange in the plane of the body of the shingle, said toe flanges in the various shingles being of variable length, said shingles each having a hold down tab, the shingles in each course being spaced, the spaces between shingles of adjoining courses being staggered and the toe flanges of the shingles in the upper courses underlying the tabs of the shingles in the adjoining lower courses, the overall lengths of the several shingles being substantially equal and the tabs of the several shingles being located at the same distance from the lower margin of the shingles irrespective of the position of said flange-like members.
5. In a shingled surface, a plurality of courses of shingles, the shingles in each course being laterally spaced, the shingles in the courses having the spaces therebetween staggered with respect to the courses next above and next below, the shingles in each upper course overlapping the shingles of the next lower course and also the shingles of the lower course once removed, each shingle being formed from a metal sheet having a substantially rectangular body portion with the side edges of the body portion lying substantially in the same plane as the body portion, the body portions of the shingles lying flat against the supporting surface, each shingle having upstanding therefrom at the lower edge thereof a flangelike portion formed by bending the sheet metal upwardly then downwardly to form an upstanding trough-shaped flange, the metal being further bent to form a short toe flange projecting below the said upstanding flange in the plane of the body of the shingle, the side edge of each shingle body being slltted to form a tab, the toe flanges of the-shingles in the courses above underlying the tabs of the shingles in the next lower courses.
6. In a shingled surface, a plurality of courses of shingles, the shingles in each upper course overlapping the shingles of the next lower course, each shingle being formed from a metal sheet having a body portion with the side edges of the body portion lying substantially in the same plane as the body portion, the body portions'of the shingles lying flat against the supporting surface, each shingle having upstanding therefrom at the lower edge thereof a flange-like portion formed by bending the sheet metal upwardly then downwardly to form an upstanding trough-shaped flange, the metal being further bent to form a short toe flange projecting below the said upstanding flange in the plane of the body of the shingle, the side edges of the shingles in the lower courses and the toe flanges of the shingles in the upper courses constituting sets of attaching edges, one of said attaching edges of each set having a tab interlocking with the other edge of said set to hold down the shingle in the upper 00111589. LAWRENCE R. CLAPP.