|Número de publicación||US2206553 A|
|Tipo de publicación||Concesión|
|Fecha de publicación||2 Jul 1940|
|Fecha de presentación||19 Abr 1939|
|Fecha de prioridad||19 Abr 1939|
|Número de publicación||US 2206553 A, US 2206553A, US-A-2206553, US2206553 A, US2206553A|
|Cesionario original||Theodore Nagel|
|Exportar cita||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Citada por (31), Clasificaciones (9)|
|Enlaces externos: USPTO, Cesión de USPTO, Espacenet|
July 2,1940. T NAGEL 2,205,553
METHOD 0F BURNING FLUID FUELS Filed April v19. 1939 INVENTOR MN.
f BY @www ATTORNEY Patented July 2, 1940 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,206,553 METnon or BURNING FLUID FUELS Theodore Nagel, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Application April 19, 1939, serial No. 268,760
. This invention is directed to generating sensible heat from fluid fuels, and more specifically is directed to converting petroleum or hydrocarbons derived from petroleum to combustion products by decomposing oil to gas in air,.and burning the combustible gaseous mixture without additional or secondary air supply for combustion.
My invention provides for converting oil to gas :o in controlled gas-air ratio so that either an 'oxidizing or a reducing furnace atmosphere can be produced, and having any desired temperature within the range from practically the maximum theoretical combustion temperature of hydroih carbons and air that is, the temperature resulting from combustion of hydrocarbons with the amount of air theoretically needed for complete combustion-approximately 3750 F. without air preheat-down to around 2000 F.
My invention is adapted for the generation of combustion products controlled-temperature heat for industrial furnaces and for heating systems in buildings and homes.
InV the practice of my invention a controlled "3 continuous stream of air is iiowed through a dispersion chamber into which a controlled flow of oil is continuously atomizd for dispersion of this oil in the air. The volume of this air while sufficient to support ignition of the oil is insuicient for combustion of the oil. The oil is ignited upon entering the air stream, ignition being effected by any of the standard methods currently used for that purpose. y
From the ignition and dispersion chamber the dispersed and ignited oil continuously ows into a controlled continuous air stream introduced from about the periphery of the dispersed and ignited oil, this air converging into the path of the dispersed and ignited oil and being at 40 least sufficient in volume to support combustion of enough of the oil to liberate sulcient heat to vaporize all of the oil and flash decompose the oil vapor thus produced to gaseous hydrocarbons and carbon. The gaseous hydrocarbons and carbon thus produced are continuously diffused and disseminated throughout this air stream as they enter and flow in a converging stream through a gasifying and diffusion chamber, the velocity of the mixture through this gasifying and diffusion chamber being such that liberation of maximum heat intensity occurs mainly beyond the exit of the diffusion chamber, and if the volume of the last mentioned air stream be just suiiicient to produce complete combustion of the oil, combustion of all of the (Cl. S-117.5)
oil is effected, and the combustion products be- ,ing tr'ee from air dilution, attain combustion temperatures approximating 3750 F.
It is to be noted that all the air required for ignition, vaporization and gasification of the oil, and the air required for combustion is introduced into the equipment. The dispersion and diffusion chambers are so restricted in areas and volumes, that ignition, vaporization and gasification of the oil, and diffusion of the oil gas, carbon and air are effected within the dispersion and diffusion chambers, liberation oi vmaximum heat intensity, as above noted, being effected beyond the outlet or exit of the diffusion chamber.
I have assumed in the preceding paragraph that the volume of air entering and flowing through the diffusion chamber is just sufficient to eilect complete combustion of the oil. Should, however, the air entering 'and flowing through the diffusion chamber be less than that required for completecombustion ofthe oil, the air i deficiency may be made up by introducing a controlled and independently adjustable continuous stream of air within the equipment so as to diffuse with the combustible material flowing through the outlet of the equipment, so controlling the weight proportions and distribution of this air with respect to the combustible material as to produce external to the diffusion chamber exit combustion prodcts practically free from air dilution, and at temperatures approximately 3750 F.
When the production of an oxidizing furnace atmosphere is desired, I may produce, external to the diffusion chamber, combustion products containing any desired amount of air dilution by 4introducing air into the diffusion chamber, in excess of that required for complete combustion of the oil either with the first air stream introduced into the entrance of the diffusion chamber or with the air introduced into` the diffusion chamber adjacent the outlet of the chamber, or both. By the introduction of this air in excess, combustion products are produced, external to the exit of the diffusion chamber containing any desired amount of air dilution so as to obtain controlled-temperature combustion products at any deficiency below that required for theoretically complete combustion.
It will be seen from all of the foregoing that I have provided a process wherein oil is atomized into a dispersion chamber and dispersed into a continuously flowing stream of air paesini through said chamber, the volume of air bein! sumcient to support ignition of the atomized oil but insum'cient to gasify a substantial amount of the oil, the dispersed and ignited hydrocarbons passing continuously into an air stream of controlled volume flowing through a diffusion chamber where the hydrocarbons are converted to gaseous hydrocarbons and carbon, which are continuously discharged from the diilusion chamber to produce combustion products ex ternal to the exit of the diffusion chamber without additional or secondary air supply for combustion.
It will be apparent also that the temperature of the combustion products may be regulated at will. For example, I may produce combustion products suiilciently air diluted as to lower or reduce the temperature of the combustion products to around 2000 F., the combustion products temperature rising as the air dilution is decreased until this temperature approaches maxi mum theoretical combustion temperatures of around 3750 F. without air preheat and combustion products practically free of air dilution are produced. It will be appreciated, of course, that upon a stillfurther reduction of the air volume high temperature combustion products below the temperature of 3750 F. above referred to are obtained external to the diffusion chamber to produce a reducing atmosphere with- 'in the heating zone of a furnace.
complete combustion or 2920 cubic feet air, 3010 cubic feet combustion products will be produced, the air dilution of which lowersorreducesthetemperatures of the combustion products to around 2250 F. With 3250 cubic feet of air the temperature will be around 2000 F. An intense reducing atmosphere is produce with combustion products at a temperature around 2000 F., when the feed proportions are one gallon fuel-oil to approximately '750 cubic` feet air, producing approximately 800 cubic feet gaseous products containing no air dilution but consisting of combustible gas, carbon and inert gases.
I have constructed and operated several units for the practice of my invention and the operation of these units has conclusively demonstrated the claims herein made and covering my new method and apparatus for converting hydrocarbons to combustion products having any desired controlled temperature within the temperature range herein stated and producing at will an oxidizing or a reducing furnace atmosphere.
vBy means of the above described control i'iow distribution weight proportion of'air with respect to oil and the extremely short time interval that is' required in flowing through the dispersion and diffusion chambers I obtain practically flash decomposition of the oil to gaseous hydrocarbons and carbon, diifused and disseminated throughout the combustion air within the didusion ber and so controlled as to produce beyond the outlet of the diffusion chamber practically hash combustion ot the combustible gaseous mixture, for the reason that no supplementary or secondary air is required to produce, external to the diffusion chamber, combustion products of the desired temperature.
In the accompanying drawing I have illustrated several types of equipment which I have found suitable for the practice of my invention:
Fig. 1 shows insectional elevation an equipment for attachment to a furnace;
Fig. 2 is a similar view of an apparatus constructed as an integral part of an industrial furnace; and
Fig. 3 is a section on the line 3 2 of Fig. 2.
Referring to the drawing in detail and with reference, ilrst of all, to Fig. l: 2 designates a housing for refractories 4 providing dispersion chamber 6 and gasifying and dinusion chamber I. Oil from any suitable source of supply is subjected to pressure by a pump l0 and introduced by pressure release into the dispersion chamber B through an atomizing nozzle I 2 which is provided at the extrance end of this chamber. The amount of oil supplied to the dispersion chamber is controlled by valve I4.
The housing 2 is equipped with air intake Il to which a controlled air ilow is supplied by a fan or blower I8. The control of this air flow is eil'ected by gate valve 20. An ignition system, such as electrodes 22` or any suitable type' of ignition is provided adiacent theatomizing nozzle l2. A suillcient volume of the air entering the intake Il flows between the housing 2 and refractory 4 and into the dispersion Ichamber 6 about the nozzle i2 to support ignition of the oil as it is released into this chamber. This air is insumcient in volume, however, to gasify a substantial amount of the oil.
The ignited and dispersed oil passes through the dispersion chamber and flows continuously into a stream of air, the volume of which is controlled, entering the diffusion chamber at 24. This air. as will be seen from the drawing, is introduced from about the periphery of the dispersed and ignited oil and converges into the path of the oil. The volume of air entering at 24 is controlled, as above mentioned, by valve 20, and is at least sufi'icient t`o produce combustion of enough of the oil to liberate sutilcient heat to vaporize all of the oil and flash decompose the oil vapor to gaseous hydrocarbons and carbon within the diifusion chamber. The gaseous hydrocarbons and carbon thus produced are continuously ditused and disseminatedV throughout the air stream entering at 24 and owing through the diffusion chamber l and out of the exit end thereof. The diffusion chamber in the embodiment illustrated in Fig. 1 is contracted at its outlet end 28 and the mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons, carbon and air now therethrough in converging stream. The outlet end of the diffusion chamber is spaced from the adjacent end 2l of the housing 2, as shown at 21, to provide, if desired, for the admission of air from the intake I8 of an air supply additional to that admitted at 24. A valve 30 is screwed into the end of walll 2l of the housing 2 and by adjusting this valve the volume of air admitted addacent the exit end of the diffusion chamber 8 can be controlled,
As hereinabove pointed out all of the air desired for producing combustion of the oil may be introduced at 24. n the other hand, some of this air may be introduced between the wall 28 of the housing 2 and the end of the refractory at 21. tion of the products of combustion is desired the air in excess of that required to produce complete combustion of the oil feed may be introduced eitherat'24 or 2l, or both.
In Figs.. 2 and 3 I have shown an apparatus constructed as an integral part of an industrial furnace. In this construction the pump I0 supplies oil under pressure to the atomizing nozzle l2, the volume of oil being controlled by valve I4. The nozzle I 2, as in Fig. 1. is at the intake end of dispersion chamber 6', and ignition air is supplied by stack draft through the nozzle end of this chamber. The diffusion chamber 8' is continuously supplied with a controlled volume of air which flows about the sides f the refractory 32, control being eiected by damper 34. The operation of this equipment is the same as that of Fig. l and while all of the air necessary for complete combustion of the oil feed may be admitted past the damper 34, additional air for air dilution of the combustion products may be supplied to the exit of the diffusion chamber through channel 36 controlled by damper 38. 0in the other hand, this excess air may be supplied past the damper 34, if desired. Likewise, when desired, only part of the air for complete combustion of the oil feed' is suppled past the damper 34, the remainder being supplied through channel 36.
From the foregoing description and illustraapparatus provide a method for the continuous flash of oil in air to an ignited gas, carbon, air combustible mixture so proportioned and controlled through regulation of the weight ratio proportions of oil and air and the -ilow distribution of the air as to produce practically flash gasification of the oil to an ignited combustible mixture that requires no additional supplementary or secondary air supply for combustion beyond the outlet of the diffusion chamber.
It will be appreciated also that I can produce combustion products, either oxidizing or reducing, at practically any desired controlled temperature ranging from about 2000 F. up to practically maximum theoretical combustion temperature.
It is to be understood that changes may be -made in the method and apparatus herein described without departing from the spirit and scope of my invention.
What I claim is:I
1. The method of continuously burning oil, which method comprises continuously atomizing a controlled iiow of, oil into a dispersion chamber, simultaneously admitting air to the chamber in suillcient volume to support ignition of the oil but insuillcient to support combustion of enough oil to generate sufficient heat to gasify a substantial part of the oil in the dispersion chamber, igniting the oil in the dispersion chamber, continuously flowing the dispersed and ignited oil into a diffusion chamber, admitting As also explained above where air diluto the diffusion chamber additional air for com- 2. The method of continuously burning oil,
which method comprises continuously atomizing a controlled how of oil into a dispersion chamber, simultaneously admitting air to the chamber in sufficient volume to support ignition of the oil but insufficient to support-combustion 0f enough of the oil to generate 'suillclent heat t0 gasify a substantial amount of the oil in the dispersion chamber, igniting the oil in the dispersion chamber, continuously flowing the dispersed and ignited oil into a diffusion chamber, charging combustion air into the diffusion chamber across the path of the diverging dispersed and ignited oil, flowing the diifused and disseminated mixture at a controlled velocity through the diiusion chamber and prior to its discharge from the diffusion chamber charging additional air into the diffusion chamber across the path of said diffused and disseminated mixture in suilicient volume so that the total amount of air which has been admitted to the chamber is at least suilicient to support combustion of all'of the oil.
3. The method of continuously burning oil, which method comprises continuously atomizing oil in a diverging stream through a chamber, simultaneously admitting air to said chamber in suilicient volume to support ignition of the oil but insuflcient to support combustion of enough oil to generate 'sufiicient heat to gasify a substantial amount of the oil in the chamber, igniting the oil in the chamber, continuously flowing the dispersed and ignited oil into a diffusion chamber, charging combustion air into the ditluslon chamber across the path of the diverging dispersed and ignited oil, said air being sufhcient in volume to support the desired combustion of the oil and all of it being charged from about the periphery of the dispersed and ignited oil, and discharging the burning mixture from the diilusion chamber at such velocity that ilash combustion of the combustible gaseous mixture at maximum temperature occurs mainly beyond the exit of the chamber.
4. The method of continuously burning oil, which method comprises continuously atomizing a controlled flow of oil into a dispersion chamber, simultaneously admitting air to the chamber in suiiicient volume to support ignition of the oil but insufficient to support combustion of enough oil to generate suiiicient heat to gasify a substantial part of the oil in the dispersion chamber, igniting the oil in the dispersion chamber, continuously flowing the dispersed and ignited oil into a diffusion chamber, charging combustion air into the diffusion chamber across the path of the dispersed and ignited oil, said air being charged from about the periphery of the dispersed and ignited oil, and flowing this maxture through the diffusion chamber in a stream of decreasing cross sectional area and at such velocity that combustion of the mixture occurs mainly beyond the exit of the diiusion' chamber,
-cEmrIJsrccm2 op coRREcTIoN. patent No. 2,206,555.` July 2, 19240.
It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification of the above nunbered patent requirizg co'rrotion ae follows: Page 2, first ,column' une 142i fm' 6-'75" read "fl-75"# and second column, 15.1.1@36, for
the syllable "ber" read. --chamberng page 5,l first column, lin'e'hl, after "flash," insert -conversion; and. second column, line 65- 66, claim )4, for "maxture" read mixture; and. that the said Letters Patent ehouldbe read with this correction therein that the seme may conform to the record of the case 1n the Patent orf1ce.
signed and sealed this 15m day of August. A. n. 191m..-
` Henry Van Arsdale, (Seal) v Acting Commissione.' of Patents.
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