US 2310795 A
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Patented Feb. 9, 1943 2,310,795 EMUIJSION FOR TREATING TEXTILES Fred G. La Piana,
S. Bosland, Paterson, Hall a; Company, Inc.,
Forest Hills, N.
N. .L, asslg'nors to Stein, New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York No Drawing. Application August 31, 1939,
The present invention relates to textile processing materials, and, more particularly, to the preparation of emulsified compositions having improved softening, filling, spreading or lubricating properties adapted to be used in the sizing, printing and finishing of textiles. 3
It is well known in the art to treat filaments, yarns and threads used in the manufacture of textile fabrics with sizing materials to facilitate subsequent weaving and like operations. Untreated yarns made of staple fibers, which are characterized by rough and irregular surfaces, tend to fray as they pass knitting machinery and cause irregularities in the finished goods. It is the primary function of the size to smooth and fill the surface of the yarn to facilitate the weaving or knitting operation. Yarns made of continuous filaments, for example, artificial silks, do not require as much protection against fraying, but these materials are relatively weak and inelastic and have a tendency to snap or break during the weaving operations. The function of the size applied to such materials is primarily to lubricate and strengthen the threads to prevent breaking. Such sizing materials are applied to both the warp and weft, particularly the warp, and it will be apparent that the physical characteristics of the size with respect to softening, spreading and lubricating properties are of a critical nature in order to insure desirable protection of the fabric, yarns and threads.
It is also well known in the treatment of textiles to employ thickening agents in the preparation of coloring substances to be applied to textiles, such as by printing. The preparation of such color compositions requires much care, and it is essential that the thickening agents be formed with a smooth and homogeneous character, free from lumps and the like. The purpose of the thickening material is to improve the physical character of the printing colors so that the same while filling the engraved part of the printing rolls will not adhere to the unengraved surface and will be easily removed from this part by the doctor blade and also will not run when applied to the cloth. In order to attain the desirable viscosity characteristics, it is essential that the.
thickening material is in the form of a homogeneous composition having good spreading properties.
In the prior a it has been common to use a similar type of composition for sizing, Printing and finishing, and such compositions are usually of a starch or gum base. The ability to use a similar composition for a variety of textile treatments has been an advantage of the prior art. Such materials, while long in use, have many disadvantages, and the art has long sought improvements in this field.
we have discovered that effective and desirthrough the weaving or improved emulsion of 'plished by preparing a compositioncomprising Y., and Herman able compositions which can be used for a variety of purposes in the treatment .of textiles, such as sizing, finishing and printing, and which do not partake of the disadvantages of the prior art, can be prepared in the form of an emulsion of a protein with water, and a water immiscible organic liquid.
Accordingly, it is an object of the invention to prepare a. composition containing proteinaceous material which is in the form of an improved emulsion having good spreading, lubricating and softening properties.
A further object of the invention is to prepare such an improved emulsion in which the ingredients have a beneficial action in the processing of textiles, such as sizing, printing, finishing and the like.
Another object of the invention is to provide an proteinaceous material which is in a stable condition and may be used at any time in the manufacture of textile fabrics.
A further object of the invention is the provision of an emulsion compatible and miscible with ordinary starch sizes and thickeners whereby the properties of the emulsion are imparted to the entire mixture.
Further objects of the invention will be apparent as the description of the embodiments of the invention proceeds. I
The above objects of the invention are. accom a colloidal solution of a proteinaceous material in water emulsified with an organic water immiscible liquid. The compositions may contain in addition a protein solubilizing agent, a ma terial for facilitating the emulsion, and any organic solvent or thinning agent, as well as wetting agents, alcohols and the like, all of which are well known in the art as agents for improving the emulsifying, viscosity and wetting properties of dispersions of filling materials.
A modification of the present invention comprises the addition of an aldehyde, such as form aldehyde, which may be mixed in with the other ingredients in the emulsion to form a composition particularly suitable when more permanency is desired. The relative proportions of the ingradients may vary over wide limits as will be apparent hereinafter. I
The proteinaceous material which may be used in accordance with the invention comprises an alkaline soluble protein such as casein from milk, soy bean protein and the like. Other proteins such as albumen from egg or blood may be used. The protein solubilizing ingredient, which has the function of increasing the solubility of the protein in the aqueous phase, comprises a carbamide, such as urea, or an example, triethanolamine or monoethanolamine. when the monoethanolamine is used, a lesser amine or alkylolamine, for
amount is required because of its greater alkalinity. Other solubilizing agents, such as ammonia and alkaline salts, i. e., borax and sodium phosphate, may be used. It is to be understood that any of the above solubilizing agents may be used alone or in admixture with each other. In general, the emulsified composition will comprise about from 5 to 30 parts or percent of a proteinaceous substance, such as casein, about 5 to 30 parts or percent of solubilizing agent or agents. The proportions will depend to a large extent on the particular ingredients selected, and the nature of the emulsion desired.
' The water immiscible organic liquid which I prefer to use may be, for example, a petroleum hydrocarbon, such as kerosene, gasoline, naphtha, etc. or coal tar distillates such as xylol, benzol, toluol, etc. Other suitable liquids are carbon tetrachloride and the like. All these materials are volatile at room or moderately elevated temperature and may be termed evaporative water immiscible organic liquids. In general, any petroleum or coal tar distillate having a boiling point in the range of about 50 to 250 C. will efi'ect desirable results. A particular example of such a hydrocarbon emulsifying agent is the petroleum derivative known to the trade as Sunoco Spirits which has a boiling range between 149 C. and 207 C. The preferred proportion of the hydrocarbon emulsifying ingredient is usually about 5 to 75 parts or percent. The water in the emulsion is present in an amount of. 5 to '75 parts or percent depending on the charactor of the emulsion desired and the particular use to which it is to be put.
Among proved and desirable characteristics to the emulsion and facilitate its formation are included rosin, high molecular weight fatty acids and esters, such as stearic acid and stearin, high boiling point alcohols, such as octyl alcohol, and sulfonated or sulfated wetting agents, such as Sulphonated oil, sulfated alcohols and phenoxyethylsulphohate. Any other materials having an improving efiect upon the emulsion may be added. These ingredients are well known as are their ellects on emulsions and are termed as a. group emulsion facilitating and modifying agents." Such an ingredient is not essential, but if used, the additions will be less than 5%, based upon the total weight of the emulsion, and frequently such additions are preferably about 1% or less.
The following specific examples of preferred embodiments of the invention are given by way of illustration only and are not to be construed as a limitation upon the scope of the invention as described heretofore:
the addition agents which impart im- Example 1 Percent Case 12.48 Triethanola mi ne 7 .42 Urea 15.50 Sunoco Spirits 43.37 Octyl alcohol. 0.13 Stearic acid 2.70 Water 18.40
In making the composition the casein is dissolved in the water with the urea and triethanolamine. The octyl alcohol is added and the resulting solution emulsified with the Sunoco Spirits and stearic acid.
The above composition is particularly suitable for use in sizing rayons. It can be used as such or can be admixed with boiledstarch or starch gums of the usual type in which case the amount of the above composition is about from 2% to 10% based on the total weight of the total mixture.
In making the composition the casein is dissolved in a portion of the water with the urea and a part of the monoethanolamine. The rosin'is dissolved in the ethyl alcohol and the remainder of the water with the remainder of the monophonated oil and octyl alcohol. These two mixtures are then emulsified with the Sunoco Spirits.
A composition prepared in accordance with the above example is particularly suitable for the sizing of artificial silk threads such as the cellulose acetate type, When the composition is to more of the composition with the usual boiled starch or starch gums.
The emulsion comprising the above ingredients a size, is. particularly suitable for printing in conjunction with the developing type colors and for lubricating the printing paste. It is preferred to employ the emulsion in combination with the usual starch or gum paste in which the ratio of components is about one part of emulsion to approximately 5 to 8 parts of the starch paste.
The emulsions generically and specifically described heretofore can be admixed with an aide-- hyde, such as formaldehyde or acrilio-aldehyde, for the purpose of rendering the emulsion more resistant. The amount of the aldehyde preferred is preferably in the range of from 30 to 45 parts of formaldehyde to 55 to 70 parts of the emulsion.
As a more specific example the following illustration is included:
Example 4 Per cent An emulsion prepared in accordance with Example 3 65 Formaldehyde- 35 This emulsion is in the printing of charge printing.
The compositions which are prepared in accordance with the foregoing disclosure are characterized by an emulsion form which is superior that known in the prior art and provides a particularly adapted for use insoluble pigments and in dismaterial having improved and desirable characteristics with respect to softening, spreading or lubricating and printing properties. As a result oi. the improved emulsion characteristics of these compounds, the same may be used to obtain improved results in the sizing, printing and finishing of textiles.
It will be understood that other ingredients, which are the equivalent of those set forth, may be used in preparing the improved emulsions, and it is my intention to include all such equivalents within the scope of the following claims.
We claim! 1. A composition'of matter in emulsion form comprising 51:0 30 parts. of analka-line-soluble protein, 3 to 10 parts of an organic protein solubilizing agent, 5 to 20 parts of urea, 5 120-75 parts of water, and 5 to 75 parts of aliquid hydrocarbon boiling within the range of about 50 to atacomm matter emulsmn mm comprising 5 to parts of casein, 3 to 10 parts of an alkylolam-ine, 5 to 20 parts of urea, 5 to 75 parts of water, and 5 to '75 parts oi. a liquid bydrocarbon boiling within the rangeof about to 250" c.
4. A composition of matter in emulsion form comprising to partsof the composition set forth in claim-land 30 to 45 parts of formaldehyiie.
'5.'A composition of matter in emulsion form comprising 55 to 70 parts of the composition set forth in claim 3 and 30 to 45 parts of formaldehyde.
6. A composition of matter in emulsion form comprising about 7 to 12 parts of an alkalinesoluble protein; about 4 to 7 parts of an organic alkaline protein solubilizing agent, about 6 to 15 parts of urea, about 5 to 18 parts of water, and about 43 to parts of a liquid hydrocarbon boiling within the range of about 50 to 250 C.
7. A composition of matter in emulsion form comprising about 7 to 12 parts of casein, about. 5 to 7 parts of an alkylolamine, about6 to 15 parts of urea, about 5 to 18 parts of water and about 43 to 66 parts-of a liquid hydrocarbon boiling within the range of about 50 to 250 C.
FRED G. LA PIANA. HERMAN S. BOSLAND.