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Número de publicaciónUS2335474 A
Tipo de publicaciónConcesión
Fecha de publicación30 Nov 1943
Fecha de presentación18 Sep 1940
Fecha de prioridad18 Sep 1940
Número de publicaciónUS 2335474 A, US 2335474A, US-A-2335474, US2335474 A, US2335474A
InventoresHerbert W Beall
Cesionario originalHerbert W Beall
Exportar citaBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
Enlaces externos: USPTO, Cesión de USPTO, Espacenet
Pressure producing apparatus
US 2335474 A
Resumen  disponible en
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Reclamaciones  disponible en
Descripción  (El texto procesado por OCR puede contener errores)

Nov. 30, 1943. H. w. BEALL PRESSURE PRODUCING APPARATUS Filed Sept. 18, 1940 5 Sheets-Sheet Hawaii)- mar/944,

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NOV. 30, 1943. w BEALL 2,335,474

PRESSURE PRODUCING APPARATUS Filed Sept. 18, 1940 I 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 .mnunul' 4 flE/PEERT M45541. 4,

' Nov. 30, 1943. P H, w, BEALL 2,335,474


Ektqww Patented Nov. 30,1943

UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE PRESSURE G Herbert 'W, Beall, Sumter, 8. C. I Application September 18, 1940", Serial No. 857,821 8 Claims. (Cl. 128-1) This invention relates to pressure producing body apfliances and more particularly to apparatus tori supplying controlled pressure to different parts or portions of the human body under varying abnormal conditions.

One important embodiment of the present invention relates to sai'etyv appliances for aviation purposes. In the operation and piloting of aeroplanes in rapid maneuvering or in coming out of i a dive, for example, the physical or. physiological condition of the pilot frequently is such that he loses consciousness, and this condition is known as, "black-out. This physical impairment not only applies to the pilot but to any persons in the aeroplane or members of the crew whether they be navigators, gunners or observers.

One cause of this black-out condition is due to the centrifugal force produced as a result of the particular motion of the plane and this circular motion causes the blood flow to the head to be stopped or otherwise depleted and thereby causing the black-out? physical disability.

It is an important object of the present invention to provide a safety apparatus in the form of personal equipment for the personnel of an aeroplane, which shall practically eliminate or'reduoe to a minimum this condition of physical impairment.

Another important object of the present invention is to provide a novel form of pressure apparatus for preventing black-out which apparatus of the character'designated shall include a garment or suit of clothes having portions constructed and arrangedto snugly flt the body of the aviator and subject the different body portions to counteracting pressure.

Another object of the invention is to provide safety equipment of the character designated including a body fltting garment which shall have fluidcontaining sacks or compartments in pressure contact relation with the body and in free or controlled communication with each other and an extraneous source of fluid pressure.

Another object of the invention'is to provide a safety apparatus of the character designated in tion i2.

which a balance of pressure at substantially A still further object of the invention is to provide apparatus of the character designated which shall supply equalpressures within the helmet and partly in section showing apparatus embodying the present invention,

Figure 2 is a diagrammaticview in elevation showing garment pressure chambers and apparatus embodying the invention,

Figure 3 is a diagrammatic view in elevation showing another modification of the apparatus.

Figure 4 is a diagrmmatic view in elevation showing still another modification of the invention,

Figure 5 is a perspective view of a collar embodying the present invention,

Figure 6 is a sectional view on line 6-6 of Figure 3,

Figure '7 is a detailed view in elevation showing a novel form of helmet,

Figure 8 is a bottom view of the helmet shown in Figure 7, and v Figure 9 is a detailed sectional view of the bottom part shown in Figure 7.,

Referring to'Figs. 1, 2 and 3 o'fthe drawings, there is shown a preferred embodiment of the invention as applied to an aviators garment indicated generally by the numeral Hi. This garment includes a snugly fitting inner body garment portion H and a spaced outer garment por- This outer spaced portion forms a sack or fluid tight compartments |3+I3 for sustaining fluid pressure as hereinafter designated. These compartments are preferably inthe form of relatively long narrow fluid pressure producing sack members substantially coextensive with the I arm, leg and body portions, and are in free communication with one another. Fluid pressure is supplied to these compartments by means of a tank or reservoir indicated by. the numeral M. This tank communicates with the compartments I3i3 by means of a condu'it l5. and the, flow may be controlled by a valve 16. I

While the suit is shown with fluid containing sack portions for transmitting fluid pressure to the body, it is obvious that the f suitcompartments may be arranged to substantially encircle orenclose the body members. Whichever form foot portions thereof.

is employed it has been discovered that the fabric material of the suit must flt snugly when the pressure is brought into effect. Liquid, such as water, is most desirable because it has substantially the same specific gravity as the blood in the body. Therefore the body is subjected to the same pressure as though it were actually encased in a mobile liquid. 7

Associated with the body garment III is a helmet member IT. The interior of helmet I1 is in communication with the interior of the suit compartments 13-" by means of a suitable conduit ll. Also associated with the helmet is a .pressure producing collar or neck band it. This collar band consists of an outer retaining member 20 of non-elastic material and a flexible fluid containing ring member 2i supported thereby. This neck band is in communication with a gas pressure source indicated by the numeral 22 and communication conduit 23. The pressure is controlled by a conveniently located valve 24. This valve may be the vent type to control or release pressure previously established on one side of the valve as well known in the valve art.

- The interior of the helmet I1 is also placed in communication with the gas pressure source 22 a by means of a conduit 25 and a combined indicator and control valve 28. The helmet is also provided with a relief valve 21 at the top portion thereof to maintain any desirable predetermined pressure within the helmet. For example, this valve will permit a continued flow of oxygen through the helmet whenever desired for certain conditions of altitude flying.,

The suit is preferably made adjustable to the body size by means of a conveniently disposed lacing indicated by the numeral 28. The suit is further provided with quick opening devices such as a "zipper fastener indicated by the numeral 29. The relative position of these parts is better shown in Fig. 6.

This arrangement provides a comfortable and form fltting garment which may conveniently be adjusted to the body of different sizes of persons and may be quickly and readily put on or removed.

The suit also contains a fluid containing compartment in the form of a quilted seat indicated by the numeral 30. The cells of this seat portion are in free pressure communication with the remainder of the suit compartments as well as the tank pressure source I 4.

To further provide for the desired efllcient operation of the device, the tank Il may be filled with just suflicient fluid to fill the suit compartments l3-i3, and the application of fluid pressure may be controlled in the following manner.

When it is desired to create pressure within the suit compartments, fluid is admitted by the valve It so that the fluid shall reach a desired predetermined height in the suit. By leaving valve [6 open, the volume of liquid within the suit will be compensated for by the return flow to the reservoir I4. In other words, the act of breathing causes the liquid to rise and fail.

Should it be desired to drain the suit for any reason, a valve 2i is provided at the bottom of This valve communicates with the foot sack compartment by conduits 3232. This valve 3| also communicates with a pumping device 33 by'means of a conduit 34 and the pump communicates with the container I! by means of a conduit 35. It will be noted .that this arrangement provides a closed fluid system so that a predetermined amount of fluid assure will always be retained and'circulated when desired. To facilitate the operation and control of the fluid flow from the container I! through the suit compartment, the valves i6 and ii are preferably connected by an operating lever 26 which insures their cooperation to produce the most efllcient results and prevent any improper manipulation of the valves.

Referring to the helmet constructiom'this is substantially air tight and is preferably made in sections including a front section of transparent material indicated by the numeral 21 and a rear section of flexible material indicated by the numeral II. To further provide for controlling 'the pressure existing in the helmet under certain conditions of operation, a valve 29 is provided in the conduit ll cohnecting the helmet H with the fluid containing body compartments lI-ll. This arrangement illustrates the proportionate size of the fluid containing sacks or compartments as to the remainder of the suit or garment portions.

In this embodiment of the invention it will be noted that the size of the collar i9 is adjusted by regulating the fluid pressure by means of valve 24. In this particular apparatus the tank 22 may contain oxygen under pressure and this pressure may also be communicated to the helmet in controlled amounts by the regulator valve 26. It will be understood thatthe outside of the collar is made of non-flexible material while the inside is flexible or yieldable so that the size of the collar may be changed in size or pressure to the trunk portion or the body when and if such a condition may be desired. This flgure also illustrates a modification in which the air and liquid containing sacks are shown separately. The numeral 44 designates the air sack communicating with the helmet H by the connecting conduit 18, and the numeral 48 designates a water containing sack having the connection I! to the water reservoir ll, for example. The flow of water is regulated by the valve ID as previously described. Water may be drained from the suit at any time by a suitable valve 41 which is located at or below the bottom portion of sack 46. It will be noted that the sack ll may be made to surround sack 46 or superposed thereon. In either case, it is desired to have the sacks transmit pressure either singly or in combination as certain conditions may require.

It will be seen that it is unnecessary for the aviator to have any constraining pressures applied to his body at low altitudes and while in normal flight. It is also unnecessary to supply oxygen at low altitudes. therefore the helmet shown in Fig. 7 may be employed as the front door 53 maybe left open to facilitate natural breathing. However, when the aviator ascends, it becomes necessary to supply oxygen at a near normal pressure. This pressure may be applied to the helmet portion of the suit to facilitate breathing and to the body portion of the suit to supply counteraction or balancing pressure to prevent the lungs from becoming unduly inflated. The pressure within the suit counteracts any tendency for the lungs to be expanded by reason of the pressure inthe helmet by introducing a counteracting pressure on the body and thereby allowing free breathing without undue muscular effort. In inhaling, the increased volume of the lungs forces the air contained in the sack 4! out through connection It into helmet l1, and when the air is exhaled, the external pressure on the suit is maintained by the return flow of oxygen from the helmet to the sack 4|, Fig. 2.

Referring particularly to the suit shown in Fig. 3, when the aviator desires to go into a power dive he opens valve it which permits the body sacks 40, II and 42 to fill with liquid and thereby exert a pressure equal to the vertical column of water from any point in the sacks up to the waterlevel in tank H. When the aviator pulls out of this dive, the centrifugal force created by the motion of the plane causes internal pressure in the lower parts of his body and tends to withdraw the blood from the head. At the same time, an equal amount of centrifugal force and pressure is created in the sack portions I3|I of the suit and produces a corresponding and equal pressure whichv counteracts thisv flow of blood and thereby prevents blackout.

One important advantage of the arrangement of the long narrow fluid containing pressure producing sack members in relatively small contact area with the body members of the person swearing the suit is that it facilitates ventilation through the garment fabric and the rel-i. )Vfll of body perspiration inall parts of the garment except those in actual contact by the sack members. This is oi" primary importance in producing a garment or suit of this character which may be worn with reasonable comfort, as well as permitting mobility .of the aviator in the normal discharge oi. his duties. In other words, ample provision must be made for ventilating thesuit to remove perspiration and prevent smothering of the person while enclosed in a garment of this character and for retaining the blood under pressure efiects so as to effectively prevent the "black out condition.

It will be ObVlOlSthfit the body sack 4| may be supplied with air or gas pressure by communication with the helmet portion and if it is desired to go into a power dive, this same sack ll may be filled with liquid to counteract the pressure caused by centrifugal force.

The suit arrangement illustrated in Fig. 4 does not efiectually prevent'black-out but does provide an eflicient support for the front portion of the body as well as facilitating a breathing and respiration.

Fig. 5 shows a detailed construction of th col lar l9 and includes the non-elastic outer band 20 having a suitable closure member 50 which may consist of a zipper or other means. The numeral 5i indicates stiffening members inserted in the collar to maintain its proper widthJ Another important feature of the present invention is the provision of a novel form of helmet which may be used in conjunction with the above described garment or used independently as a respirator apparatus, Figs. '7, 8 and 9.

A particular form of the helmet I! is illustrated generally in Fig. '7 and includes a substantially rigid shell or dome shaped member as previously designated. The bottom of the helmet is closed by a collar member 50 of rigid material to support the helmet on the neck and shoulder portion of the person and in sealing relation to the rest of the body. The helmet I! may be made of any convenient light and rigid material such as plastic material. This plastic material may be transparent to facilitate observation by the wearer. The collar section 50 includes the inflatable ring 2| for sealing the neck portion against pressure leakage with the body at .this point. The collar communicates with an outside source of fluid pressure by means of the conduit 23 as heretofore described.

Extraneous fluid pressure is supplied to the interior helmet by the conduit 25 and this may be oxygen from a tank as heretofore described or a respiration inducing apparatus indicated by the numeral Si in Fig- '7. Whichever form of pressure inducing apparatus is employed, the helmet l; sealed to obtain the full advantage of such pressure. 7

The base portions of the helmet are secured in air tight relation to a rigid collar member 45 by a sealing gasket 52 interposed between the tapered periphery of the collar and the helmet bottom side edges.

The rigid collar member 45 is divided into sections 53 and H for convenience in attaching the same and hinge 55 and a quick opening latch 56, on' the. other side. The meeting edges of the collar sections are provided with suitable gaskets or pack ing indicated by the numerals 51--51.

The front of transparent window section 31 as previously described. A, front doorportion 53' is provided for. the purpose of communicating with the interior of the helmet. This door oropening of course-is also arranged to have its movable parts in seal ing contact. 7

The helmet is retained on the collar by suitable latch devices indicated by, the numerals 6858.

When the helmet is employed as a respiratory I apparatus, the conduit 25 is provided with positive and negative pressure relief valves indicated by the numerals 59 and 50 respectively. The conduit 25 communicates with the respiration device 5i In this particular case the pressure producing means 5| may be anysuitabie device for intermittently producingsuction and pressure.

Having thus described the several embodiments of my invention, the operation thereof may be restated as follows: The garment contains or includes fluid pressure sack members or compartments, i3-,-l3, constructed and arranged to apply external pressure on any desired parts or portions of the aviators body. These sack meme bers may be filled with gas or liquid to create the desired pressure.

This pressure may be by these means either separately or in combination but it is preferable to use water or other similar liquidhaving approximately the same specific gravity as the human body. It will be noted that if a compartment is filled with water, a pressure will be created within the sack which will be proportional to the depth of the liquid, and when the liquid has a height corresponding to the height of the body, a pressure will be created equal to the gravitation component of the pressure of the blood within the body. If this sack or compartment member is constrained by reason of the garment, it will create a pressure entirely around the body member equal to the pressure in the sack at this point and will operate in the same manner as though the liquid containing member completely surrounded the body.

Whichever position the aviator may assume, the sack will assume a corresponding position as it are connected at one side by a suitable the helmet is provided with the is in pressure contact with his body, and the vertical height ofthe water column within the suit will be approximately the sameas the gravitational component of the blood pressure within ators body, and they will neutralize each other.

If the aviator does not desire to go into any maneuver which will create acceleration'but desires to apply an oxygen supply to the helmet portion of this suit, the same pressure which is ,inthe helmet is also applied to all portions of the aviator's body so as to eliminate muscular effort in expelling the air from the lungs as well as constricting the circulation in other portions of his 7 body.

While in this condition, if the aviator desires to make a dive or other maneuver which would create acceleration, he can then flll the sack with water up to his shoulders and this will create an additional pressure owing to the combined pressures of the oxygenin the helmet and gravitational pull upon the column of liquid. As heretofore pointed out, the suit may be constructed so as to provide separate sacks for liquid and air, or to use one sack for both purposes, and I do not wish to be limited to the use of any particular construction.

It is obvious that various changes may be made without departing from the inventionas deflned in the claims.

What I claim is:

1. In a body garment having a inner lining portion adapted to snugly flt and conform to the contour of a body member, a fluid containing sack compartment oi relatively small contact area formed integral with said inner lining and substantially coextensive in length with said body member so as to exert a constant fluid pressure on a portion of-said body from top to bottom thereof, and connection means for supplying fluid pressure to said compartment irom a fluid source apart from the garment.

2. Apparatus of the character designated in claim 1 in which a reservoir supplies fluid pres-v sure to the sacks, and means for releasing the fluid from the sacks and returning the same to said reservoir.

.claim 1 including small area pressure 3. Apparatus of the character designated in a fluid reservoir, valve means for regulating the flow of fluid to the sacks, valve means for releasing the fluid from the sacks, and means for coordinating the operation of the valves.

4. As an article of manufacture, a suit of substantially non-elastic material snugly fltting the body, a relatively narrow pressure producing element located inside said suit and in relatively contact relation with the body from top to bottom thereof.

5. As an articlepf manufacture, a suit of substantially non-elastic material snugly fltting the body. a relatively narrow pressure producing element located inside said suit and in relatively small area pressure contact relation with the body from top to bottom thereof, means for admitting fluid to said pressure producing element, and means for relieving the pressure in said element.

6, As an article oi manufacture, a suit of substantially non-elastic material-snugly fltting the body, a relatively narrow pressure producing element located inside said suit'and in pressure contact relation with the body from top to bottom thereof, a reservoir including tubular connection means for conducting fluid to and from said pressure producing element, means for adjusting the size of the suit independently of the pressure producing element to different sizes of body, and quick opening closure means for retaining the suit in close proximity to the body to obtain the desired pressure benefits from the pressure producing element. v

7. In a suitfia snug body fltting garment, said garment including relatively narrow fluidtight pressure producing sack members extending longitudinally of the garment, and a fluid in said sack members whereby uniform circumferential tension shall be producedin the fabric of the snug fltting garment to produce pressure on the body of the wearer;

8. In a suit, a snug fltting outer body garment, said garment including relatively narrow longitudinally extending fluid tight pressure producing sack members, a fluid in said sack members, the confined fluid producing pressure-on the body enclosed by the garment fabric whereby that portion of the enclosed body not covered by the sack members shall be naturally ventilated.


Citada por
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Clasificación de EE.UU.600/20, 128/DIG.230, 128/202.11
Clasificación internacionalA62B9/00, B64D10/00
Clasificación cooperativaB64D2010/005, Y10S128/23, A62B9/00, B64D10/00
Clasificación europeaA62B9/00, B64D10/00