US 2341019 A
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Feb. 8, 1944. N, w COOK 2,341,019
v METHOD OE ANCHORING THE ELASTIG THREADS OF FABRIC AND THE PRODUCT PRODUCED BY THE METHOD Filed May 13, 1941 2 Sheets-Sheet l NOIITLaJz/ COOK.
E @www N. W. COOK Feb. 8, 1944.
METHOD OF ANCHORING THE ELASTIC THREADS OF FAB AND THE PRODUCT PRODUCED BY THE METHOD Filed May 13, 1941 2 Sheets-S1186?, 2
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Patented Feb. 8i, 1944 PATENT orFlcE METHOD OF ANCHORING THE ELASTIC THREADS OF FABRIC AND THE PRODUCT PRODUCED BY THE Norman W. Cook,
METHOD Englewood, N. J.
Application May 13, 1941, Serial N0. 393,294
My invention relates to a method of attaching or anchoring the elastic threads of woven, knitted, netted or braided elastic fabrics,` to prevent the displacement or drawing back ofthe elastic threads, 'and to the product produced by the method.
As is well known, elastic fabric,-woven, knitted, netted or braided, embodies elastic threads which are frequently placed under tension when the fabric is being formed. With elastic fabric, particularly where the elastic threads are under tension when the fabric is being formed, there is a tendency for the elastic threads to become displaced or to pull back. This pulling back of the elastic threads frequently occurs when the elastic fabric is cut into a Suitable size or shape and sewed in place. The tendency for theelastic threads to pull back is also increased during the use of 'a garment or article embodying elastic fabric. It .therefore results that garments made in part or in whole of elastic fabrics have the undesirable property of losing their elasticity and fine appearance at or near the seams where different sections are sewn together. These garments embrace such wearing apparel as'corsets, girdles, brassires, slips, underwear, ladies panties, shorts, gloves, bathing suits, athletic supporters, pajamas, surgical garments and other articles to be applied to the body and which are formed in whole or in part of elastic fabric.
Attempts have heretofore been madeto solve this problem but they have not proven satisfactory. It has been proposed to coat the edge of elastic fa ric with a rubber cement which coated edge is subsequently subjected to heat for vulcanizing such edge, as shown in Patent 1,672,432. it has been proposed to apply a liquid cement to the surface of the elastic fabric and then apply a strip of unvulcanized rubber to the coated surface subsequently to which heat vand pressure is applied to the rubber strip. Thismethod is shown in Patent 1,882,642. InPatent 2,136,742 the edges 'of the elastic fabricy are coated with a rubber solution such Aas latex which is allowed to dry thereby anchoring the rubber threads against displace-Y ment. A
Illlese former" methods arev objectionable for several reasons. They all involve the application of a liquid cement or liquid chemical to the In accordance with my method the elastic fabric has applied thereto a materialwhich is normally inthe form of a solid, is exible, dry and non-tacky, but which alone is a potential adhesive, and will be activated into adhesiveness lby heat, without the use of a liquid cement or solvent and which will instantly set when the 4heat is removed therefrom. The potential adhesive is preferably carried by a fabric strip, although I contemplate using the potential adhesive withoutthe fabric strip.
'ln one embodiment of the invention the poten- 'tial adhesive 1s secured to one face of a preferably thin nnely woven fabric land the thin fabric is then arranged upon 'the elastic fabrlc, with the potential adhesive next to the elastic fabric. IZlhe assembled parts are then subjected to the action of heat and pressure.
I also contemplate omitting the preferably thin fabric strip and applying a strip of the potential adhesive to the surface ofthe elastic fabric, to be followed by the heat treatment and pressure.
I further contemplate forming the potentially adhesive material in ,the form of a thread and i sewing this thread into the elastic fabric.. This will bring the thread potential adhesive well into and through the fabric in close relation to the elastic threads and this will be followed by the heat treatment in the presence of pressure.
In the accompanying drawings forming a part of this application and in'whlcn like numerals are employed to designate like parts throughout the same,
Figure 1 is a perspective view of the meeting ends of an elastic band or fabric, showing partly applied thereto a strip or binder carrying the thermoplastic adhesive material,
Figure 2 isa longitudinal section taken on line 2--2 of Figure 1, i
Figure 3 is a similar view, showing the application of heat and pressure ments, A
Figure 4 is 'a transverse section taken on line 4 4 of Figure 3', l
Figure 5 is a perspective vlew ofr the completed seam or article,
Figure 6 is a perspective view of one end of an elastic band or strip showing a binder folded about the edge ofthe same in accordance with elastic fabric, which is a slow and expensive step. 4
The methods disclosed in the patents also produce a' mfdmed form 0f he 1PVBD011-. n l
a seam or surface. which is bulky and sticky, l Figure 7 is a longitudinal section taken on1me having a texture or appearance quite different '-1 0f Figure 6.
from that of the elastic fabric, and is therefore Nihil?.
Figure 8 is a. similar view, showing the band subected to pressure. and heat,
to the associated ele.
.strips of fabric same, and the inner surfaces of the fabric strips' adhesive I3 will pletely covers or compounded with Figure 11 is a similar view showing the garment parts folded over the line of stitching,
Figure 12 is a perspective view of an elastic band showing the thermoplastic adhesive material sewedinto the same,
Figure 12a is a transverse section through a modified form of thread containing lthe thermoplastic material,
Figure 13 is an enlarged detailed section taken on line I 3`I3 of Figure 12,
Figure leiA is a detailed section taken on line I-M of Figure 13,
Figure 15 is a view similar to Figure l3, showing the heating irons applied to the fabric having the stitching of thermoplastic adhesive material,
Figure 16 is a similar view after the heating operation, showing the nished product,
Figure 17 is a view similar to Figure 14, after the heating step and showing the finished product, and,
Figure 18 isa perspective view of the end of the elastic band, showing the nished product.
In Figures 1 to 5, inclusive, the numeral I0 designates a section or sections of an elastic fabric, which may be woven, knitted, netted, or braided, and having elastic or rubber threads II, combined with the usual non-elastic brous threads or yarn. The elastic fabric maybe of a one-way or two-way stretch. 'I'he meeting edges 35 of the sections I0 Vare shown as covered by the arranged above and below the I2 are coated with ranged next to the the potential adhesive I3, arelastic fabric I3. The adhesive I3 applied to the surface of the fabric strip I2 is dissolved in a suitable solvent ordispersed inan aqueous solution and spread upon the surface of the fabric I2 throughout its length. The solvent is driven'off and the potential adhesive I3 remains deposited upon the surface of the fabric I2. This fabric is preferably thin,
fabric I2 is closely woven so that the potential not pass to the opposite or outer faceof the' fabric Il. The fabric or' binder 4I2 will possess the same general appearance as the associated elastic fabric I0, andmay be made in the same color, if desired. Thefabric I2 comconceals the potential adhesive I3. The coating or nlm of the potential adhesive I3 is normally in a solid form, is flexible, dry, and non-tacky, and which alone is a thermoplastic potential adhesive. As illustrations of compositions'which I employ in normally solid forms and 6 which alone are thermoplastic potential adhesives, I may use (1) uncured 'rubber which is curing ingredients and antioxidants, (2) uncured rubber treated with an anti-oxidant, (3) (4) polymerized isopolybutene, (5) polymerized virLvl chloride or vinyl acetate or copolymers of both, (6) plasticlzed casein, (7) polymerized v inylidene chloride.- Of ythese substances the plasticized casein and vulcanizable rubber are only -initially thermoplastic, while the other potential adhesives arepermanently, thermoplastic. All of the potential adhesives iwill substantially instantly set or harden moval of the heat.
to prevent the thick or bulky seam, and the thin Y The next step' in the method is to subject the potentially adhesive material I3 to the action of heat to render the same plastic and adhesive, in the presence of pressure. 'I'his may be effected by arrangingthe elements t'o be secured together between heating and pressing jaws, which are brought together to subject the sections of elastic fabric I0, strips I2 and the potential adhesive I3 to the desired heat and pressure. I have found that satisfactory results can be obtained by heating the potentially adhesive material I3 to a temperature of from 200 F. to 218 F., although these temperatures maybe varied. The temperatures at which the different potentially adhesive materials mentioned will become plastic and adhesive is known in the be regulated as may be found advantageous. As an illustration, the polymerized vinylidene chloride may be rendered adhesive by heating the same to substantially 250 F. The heating and pressing jaws I4 may be heated by any suitable means. I preferably subject the sections of fabric I0 and associated elements to a pressure of from twenty-five pounds to fifty pounds to `'the'.
anchor or bind the same within the fabric. The
heat treatment need only be for .a short time, practically momentarily. As soon as the irons. I4 are removed from the strip I2vthe thermoplastic material I3 sets substantially instantly thereby securely bonding or anchoring the elastic or rubber threads I2 to the fabric, thus positively holding them against displacement or pulling out actionr During the heating and pressure treatment the plastic material I3 will not extend through the closely woven fabric I2 to itsouter surface. The outer surface of the fabric I2 therefore remains clean, and will correspond generally lnappearance to the elastic fabric I0, and may be of the same color, thus affording a, seam of attractive appearance. A further'advantage in the method is that the pressing action compresses the seam including the strips I2 and portions of the. elastic fabric I0. so that' the seam has substantially the same thickness as the sections Il, when freed from compression. 'As the thermoplastic material I3 sets substantially instantly, it also holds the seam against'transverse expansion, whereby the seam has its surface substantially 'flush with the ysurfaces of the fabric sections I0. This produces aneat and attractive seam having a slender appearance.
The meeting edges of the elastic fabric sections I0 are further secured together by a zig-zag methyl orv ethyl polyacrylale,
(y line of Stitching I5,
passing through the' fabric strips I2 and sections I0. This zig-zag line of stitching is preferably made after the heating and pressing operation, although the invention is not restricted to this order of the steps, asc'the strips I2 could be stitched to the sections III prior to the heating and pressing steps.l
In Figures 6 to 1l numeral I8 designates a fabric strip or binder.
which is U-shaped about the edge of trade, and the temperature may ection and is placed' sides of the binder binder has its inner face plastic potential the precise stitching step. The parts I6 and Il are subjected to heat and pressure and the thermoplastic adhesive I9 is rendered plastic and adhesive and enters the interstices or spaces of the elastic fabric I6 to contact with the elastic threads thereof and anchors or binds the elastic threads to the non-elastic fibrous yarn. This thermoplastic material sets instantly upon the release of pressure and heat and the edge produced by the binding I8 will have substantially the same thickness as the normal thickness of the section of fabric I6. The fabric or binding is thin and formed of a closely woven fabric, corresponding to the strip I2, and the plasticized adhesive will not pass to the outer surface of the binder I8, for the same reasons as stated in connection with the strip I2.
When it 'is desired to secure the elastic fabric I6 to a garment or the like this may be effected by placing parts20 of the garment upon opposite I8 and stitching the elements 20, I8, andv I6 together by a line of stitching 2l, subsequent to which the fabric parts 20 are folded overthe lineof stitching. gardedas one illustration of the manner of attaching the elastic section to a garment part.
In Figures 12 to 18, inclusive, I have shown a still further modification of the invention. In
` these figures, the numeral 2i designates an elastic fabric, woven, knitted', netted, or braided, having elastic or rubber threads 22 and non-elastic fibrous threads oryarn. Adjacent to the cut edge of the elastic fabric, I sew through the same a line of stitching 23. This line of stitching is made from a thread formed of a thermoplastic potential adhesive. Any of thethermoplastic potential adhesives recited in connection with the This should be re-.
' various articles,
` with the rst form of the invention, excepting 'lo action of heat to vention herewith shown plasticiae the same so canizable or non-vulcanizable, as illustrated by the several examples furnished. The use of'all of my materials eliminate the step of applying a liquid chemical to the fabric.
The present invention `may be embodied in such as the garter shown in Figure 1 of the Herbener Patent 2,136,742, the bands with the stiffening ribs and the girdle shown in the various views of the Herbener patent. or the insert I2 of the Spalding Patent 1,672,432, or in other articles which are to be worn and wherein section or sections of elastic fabric are connected to other parts.
It is to be understood that the forms of my inand described are to be taken as preferred examples of 'the same and that various changes in the shape, size, and arrangement of parts may be resorted to, and that changes in the order of the steps of the method, and that known chemical equivalents may be used, without departing from the spirit of my invention or the scope of the subjoined claims.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim is:
1. yThe method of treating elastic fabric having elastic threads, comprising inserting into the previously formed fabric a normally solid thermoplastic potentially adhesive material while in the solid. condition, and then subjecting the thermoplastic material to the action of heat to that it anchors the elastic threads within the fabric.
2. The method of treating elastic fabric having elastic threads, comprising sewing into the fabric a strand embodying normally solid thermoplastic potentially adhesive material, and then subjecting Vthe thermoplastic material -to the plasticize the same so that it anchors the elastic threads within the fabric.
3. The method of treating elastic fabric hav-` ing elastic threads, comprising Vsewing into the fabric transversely of the elastic threads a strand embodying normally solid thermoplastic potenfirst form of the invention may be used. Satisfactory results are had by using polymerized vinylidene chloride. The thread may be formed entirely of polymerized vinylidene chloride or the thread may have a core 24 formed of cotton-or the like having a coating 25 of polymerized vinylidene chloride. When the thread is sewn through the fabric 2l it contacts with or is disposed in close relation to the elastic or rubber threads 22.
After the sewing operation, the edge of the fabric 2l adjacent to the stitching 23 is subjected to the heating step by means of the heating irons It so that the thermoplastic material is rendered adhesive and adheres to the elastic threads 22 within the fabric.y The same action will occur Y if the threads 23 are formed entirely from the tially adhesive material, and
then subjecting the thermoplastic material to the action of heat to plasticize the same so that it anchors the elastic threads within the fabric.
4. Themethod of treating elastic fabric having elastic threads, comprising sewing into the fabric transversely of the elastic threads a strand formed entirely of a solid thermoplastic potentially adhesive material, and then subjecting the thermoplastic material to the action of heat to plasticize the same so that it anchors the elastic threads within the fabric.
5. The method of treating elastic fabric having elastic threads, comprising sewing into the fabric transversely of the elastic threads a strand having a fibrous core and a coating of a solid thermoplastic potentially adhesive material, and then subjecting the thermoplastic material to the action of heat to plasticize thev same so that it thermoplastic material or are coated with the' I thermoplastic material. By thermoplastic material into fabric 2l, very little, if any, pressure is necessary to be applied to the fabric. whereby the edge of the fabric is not materially compressed.
In all forms of the invention I employ a normally solid material which alone is a thermoplastic potential adhesive. This material may be rendered quickly or instantly plastic by the action of heat and will as quickly set, upon the removal of the heat. The-material may be vulthe sewing of the and through the anchors the elastic 6. The method of treating elastic fabric having spaced elastic threads, comprising passing into the previously formed fabric through its face a normally solid thermoplastic potentially adhesive material while in a solid condition at a plurality of spaced points and thereby locating such solid material adjacent to the elastic threads, and then subjecting the solid thermoplastic material to the action of heat to plasticize the same so that it engages and anchors the elastic threads within the fabric.
threads within the fabric.
7. TheI method of treating elastic fabric havlng an elastic thread, comprising passing into the previously formed fabric at generally a right angle to the plane of the fabric a section of a normally solid thermoplastic material while in the solid condition and at a point adjacent to the elastic thread, and then subjecting the thermoplastic material to the action of heat to plasticize the same so that it anchors the elastic threads within the fabric.
8. The -method of treating elastic ing longitudinally extending elastic threads. comprising inserting into the previously formed fabric at generally a right angle to the surface of the fabric and at points spaced transversely of the fabrica normally solid thermoplastic potentially adhesive material while in the solid condition and thereby locating such ma adjacent to the longitudinal elastic threads, and then subjecting the thermoplastic material to the action of heat to plasticize the same so that it anchors the elastic threads within the fabric.
9. As an article of manufacture, a completed elastic fabric having elastic threads and a cut or raw edge, and means to anchor the elastic threads within the. fabric, said anchoring means being disposed only adjacent to the cut or raw edge vand including a normally solid thermoplastic potentially adhesive material sewed into the fabric adjacent to the elastic threads while the material is solid andsubsequently heated to fabric havastio potentially adhesive material forced into thefabric while in the solid condition and adjacent to the elastic threads the cut or raw edge and subsequently heated to render the same plastic so that it anchors the elastic threads i Within the fabric'.
.13. The method of treating an elastic fabric having ,spaced rubber threads and a cut or raw edge, comprising passing into the previously formed fabric through its face and only adjacent to its cut or thermoplastic potentially adhesive material while in v'a solid condition 'at a. plurality -of spaced points and locating such solid material adjacent f anchors the rubber .to the nbber threads, and then subjecting the solid thermoplastic material to the action of heat to plasticize- -the same so that it engages and threads within the fabric.
plastic and then allowed lto raw edge a normally solid