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Feb. 7, 1950 w. H. WOODWARD GUARD FOR ROTARY DISKS 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed May 50, 1944 Enocntbr William 1'1. Woodward @21 B Feb. 7, 1950 w. H. WOODWARD GUARD FOR ROTARY DISKS I5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed May 50, 1944 w H J m 7 .m m. 3 w fi 1950 W. H. WOODWARD GUARD FOR ROTARY DIsKs 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed May 50, 1944 V Inwentor wllha'm filwooclwarc r (Ittorncg Patented Feb. 7, 1950 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE GUARD For; ROTARY msxs William H. Woodward, Detroit, Mich.
Application May 30, 1944, Serial No. 537,991
This invention relates to circular saw machines and particularly guards for circular saws, and improves upon mechanism disclosed by my Patent 2,328,244, granted August 31, 1943.
.An object of the invention is to so thorough y safeguard a circular saw .as to practically eliminate the possibility of an operator being out by the saw.
Another object is to dispose a vertically .movable guard for a circular saw beneath the saw table and to bias such guard up ardly s that it may be held down by pressure of work advancing to the saw and will rise immediately when cleared by the work, preventing engagement of the hand or arm of the operator with the saw.
A further object is to curve said guard conformingly to the saw periphery and to adapt it to pivot about the saw axis in its up and down movement.
A further object is to conform a guard at the rear of the saw substantially to the saw periphery and to mount such guard to move up and down through the saw table and maintain its proper relation to the saw in all working positions of the latter.
A further object is to associate with the last mentioned guard, a third guard pivotally mounted above the table and adapted to ride on the work, said guard at the rear of the saw coactin with the third guard to safeguard the latter from contact with the saw.
These and various other objects are attained by the construction hereinafter described and illustrated in the accompanyin drawin s, wherein:
Fi 1 is a top plan view of the improved saw machine.
Fig. 2 is a ri ht side view .of the machine. partially in section on the line fe -210i Fig. 1, showing a piece of work being .fed toward the saw.
Fi 3 is a leftside view showing said work partially severed.
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary view, substantially duplicating a portion of Fi 3, but showing a more advanced Position of the work.
Fig. 5 is a perspective detail of the mounting of one of the saw guards.
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary vertical section taken on the line 65 of Fig. 2, showing-the relation'of the saw and an overlyin shoe to the table.
Fig. '7 is a top plan view of the machine in a modified form, with the work table removed.
Fig. 8 is a side elevational view of the modified construction, partially in section.
Fig. 9 is a sectional detail on the line 9-9 of Fig. '7.
In these views the reference character I designates a vertically disposed circular saw and 2 a work table having a slot 3 through which a workengaging upper portion of the saw may project. The table surmounts and covers a rectangular saw housing fastened by bolts 5 or the like to a work bench 6 or other suitable support.
The saw I is suitably fixed on one end of a horizontal mandrel 1, having a drive pulley 8 fixed on its other end, and an elongated bearing sleeve 9 engages the mandrel between the saw and pulley. The bearing sleeve is rigidly and preferably integrally carried by an elongated rocker arm l0 rearwardly extending from said sleeve and accommodated in a vertical slot II in the rear wall of the housing. Said arm is fixed at its rear end in any suitable manner on a rock shaft l2 parallel to the saw mandrel and spaced rearwardly from the housing. Said rock shaft is journaled in a sleeve bearing l3 integrally formed on the rear end of a bracket I l rigidly and preferably integrally projecting from the housing. Upon an end portion of the rock shaft is clamped an arm l5 extending from said shaft in a rearward and upward substantially semicircular curve and projecting forwardly from its curved portion to approach the vertical axis of the saw at an acute angle to the saw plane, as best appears in Fig. 1. It will be noted that the arms It and I5 together with the rock shaft [2 form a yoke pivotal about the shaft axis.
Formed integral with or otherwise rigidly carried by the arm l5 at its forward end is a downwardly projecting shank H5 rigidly carrying a triangular guard shoe I! having an apex normally seating on the table 2 at a point above the saw center. Said shoe is materially wider than the saw and bisected by the central rotational plane of the saw and presents to work advancing toward the saw an edge extending for- "wardly and upwardly from the table-engaging apex of the shoe, such edge thus forming an acute angle with the table. Thus work advancing along the table to the saw must encounter the shoe I1 and raise the latter to a seat on such work, before the saw takes effect. The seating apex of the shoe is upwardly channeled, as best appears in Fig. 6, to assure that the saw may cut completely through the work without encountering the shoe.
As so far described, the arrangement is such that the shoe I 1 is raised by the work a distance equal to the work thickness, the saw being concurrently raised the same distance, since the shoe and saw are both carried by the same rigid yoke. To reduce and nicely regulate the effort involved in raising the shoe, yoke, and saw, it is preferred to subject the yoke to a spring largely counter-balancing the gravitational turning moment of said parts. As illustrated, a coiled spring I8 is rearwardly and upwardly extended from an anchoring bracket So on the housing to a short arm |9 secured to and downwardly projecting from a set collar IHa fixed on the shaft I2.
4 is advanced to the saw, it first encounters and raises the shoe |1, thereby raising the saw. Presently the shoe surmounts the work, the saw in the meanwhile having penetrated the forward edge portion of the work. Continued advance oi the work efiects complete severing thereof, the exposure of the saw above the table being controlled by the thickness of the work, since the shoe rides on the work and controls the extent of such exposure. This assures that there will be no exposure of the saw teeth above the work in excess of the slight amount necessary to sever the work, the few exposed teeth being well guarded by the shoe I1. 3
The shoe |1, however, is no satisfactory safeguard against such exposure of the saw as occurs rearwardly of the work in completing a severing Obviously, other types of springs or weights might serve the same purpose. The set collar I90. further coacts with the arm it to restrain the shaft from endwise shifting.
As so far described, the construction is substantially that disclosed in my Patent #2328344 before mentioned, and my present improvements consist of additional safety features. Thus the slot 3 of the work table is elongated forwardly far enough to permit a guard having upper and lower portions 20 and 2| to work up and down through the table. Said guard is formed preferably of sheet metal, its upper and lower portions being respectively elongated lengthwise of the slot 3 and arcuately curved about the saw axis and slightly outward from the saw periphery. This guard is pivoted on the mandrel 1 by a pair of arms 22 and 23 engaging the mandrel at opposite ends of thesleeve 9, said arms converging to rigidly engage the lower end of the member 2|. The arm 23 has an extension beyond the mandrel, downwardly urged by a coiled spring 24 having its lower end anchored to a horizontal pin 25 rigidly carried by the housing. Said spring urges the guard 20, 2| upwardly tending to project it through the slot 3, and response of the guard to the spring is limited by engagement with the shoe 11 of a wedge-shaped rearward extension 25 of the guard formed at the intersection of its portions 20 and 2| and having a slight upward divergency to the portion 20.
Rearward of the upper portion of the saw is disposed a substantially arcuate guard 21 disposed in the plane of the saw and having a thickness slightly less than that of the saw, such guard having its upper end slightly below the level of the uppermost saw teeth and being rigidly mounted at its lower end on an arm 28 laterally carried by the armill. The guard 21 is vertically slotted, as indicated at 29 for engagement by the bolts 30 which clamp said guard to the arm 28, this permitting of a slight vertical adjustment, the purpose of which is hereinafter explained.
A third guard 3| is pivoted at 32 upon the shank I6, extending rearwardly from said shank and normally resting on the saw table just above the upper end of the guard 21.
In use of the described saw machine, the shoe I1 normally rests on the table 2 and acts through the yoke comprising the arms l0 and Hi to support the saw slightly below the top face of the table. Under these conditions the guard 20, 2| is also just below the top face of the table, its extension 26 engaging the shoe l1 to maintain this position. As a board 33 or other piece of work operation, and as best appears in Fig. 3, the guard 20, 2| avoids such exposure. The last mentioned guard is without effect when work is advancing above such guard, being held down by such work.
Immediately, however, upon an advance of the work beyond its extension 26, the guard 20, 2| rises through the slot 3, following the arc of the saw, and preventing exposure of the saw teeth. Just before the work clears the shoe 1, the guard 20, 2| clears the work and establishes limiting engagement withsaid shoe. As the shoe drops to the table after clearing the work, it carries the guard 20, 2| down with it returning such guard to its described normal position appearing in Fig. 2.
The guard 21 is exposed above the table only when the saw is so exposed and to the same extent. When the advancing work reaches the guard 21, the latter enters the kerf and overcomes any tendency toward a contraction of the kerf while severing is being completed. This avoids such pinching of the saw by the work as would tend to kick back the work toward the operator. It is desirable that the guard 21 penetrate the kerf equally with the saw, but it should not project higher than the saw as then it would interfere with advance of the work in case the latter were not being sawed entirely through, from bottom to top. The 'slots 29 afford a slight downward adjustment of the guard 21, whenever this may become necessary in compensation for filing of the saw teeth. It is here to be understood that the arms III and I5 may be adjusted relatively on the rock shaft l2 to increasingly space thesaw and shoe |1 when it is desired to out only partially through a piece of work.
The guard 3| normally rests on the table but is raised when the saw is raised and to substantially the same extent, due to supporting effect exercised by the guard 21. Jointly, the guards 21 and 3| fully cover such saw teeth as are exposed during a sawing operation rearwardly of the vertical plane of the saw mandrel. As the Work advances under the guard 3|, the latter is slightly raised to ride upon the work, and drops 'of its own weight when the work has passed.
The described guard arrangement achieves a maximum of safety, the guards automatically adjusting themselves to the work and entailing no special skill or training in use of the saw and no retardation of sawing operations. A feature of the construction is that the tension of the spring 24 is increased proportionately to the raising of the saw. This is desirable since the extent of downward tilting of the guard 2|], 2| and its supporting arms 22 and 23 is proportionate to raising of the saw and such tilting tends to shorten the efiective leverage exerted by the '5 spring 24. The shortening of leverage is compensated for by the increased tension of the spring, so that a substantially constant effect is derived from the spring the various positions of the saw.
In the modified construction shown in Figs. 7, 8 and 9, the guard 28', 2|, positioned in front of the saw I is rigidly mounted upon and preferably integral with a single supporting arm 23, radial to the saw. Fixed upon the arm 23 is a pin 34 aligned with the saw mandrel 1 adjacent to the saw-supp r in en f uch m n r l. Said pinis journaled in a bearing 35 formed on the front end of an elongated arm 36 extending to the rear of the saw and there rigidly mounting the guard 21 such as is used in the first described construction. The arm 36 is then extended to the rocker arm III which supports the mandrel bearing sleeve 9', being clamped to such rocker arm by a thumb screw 31. A rigid connection between the arm 36 and rocker arm H3 is assured by fitting a base portion 38 of the arm 36 snugly between upper and lower ribs 39 formed on the rocker arm. To yieldably urge the guard 20', 2| upwardly about the pin 35, a torsion spring 40 is mounted on the outer end portion of said pin, reacting between the pin and the bearing 35.
As thus modified, the construction has the advantage that the guards ZU, 2i and 2'! form an assembly unit with the arm 35, which unit may be much more easily installed or removed than is true of the first described guards. If for any reason it is desired to use the machine without said guards, it is necessary only to loosen the thumb screw 3'! to permit removal of the assembly unit.
It is to be noted that my improved guard provision is applicable to abrasive cutting disks as well as to circular saws, it being very vital to safeguard such disks, since they are subject to breakage and may cause injury through flying fragments as well as by cutting.
What I claim is:
l. A rotary cutting disk machine comprising 'a rotary cutting ldisk, a table for supporting work :fed to the disk, the axis of disk rotation being below the table level and the disk extending peripherally above said level to engage the work, a guard disposed in advance of the disk and normally positioned substantially below the work-supporting surface of the table, whereby the work rides over said guard in approaching the disk, means urging said guard upwardly, whereby it rises immediatel behind advancing work, and an element disposed above said table, a mounting for said element affonding it an up and down travel such as to gravitationally dispose said element at the lower limit of such travel in the path :of work advancing to the disk and also in the path of upward travel of said guard, said element being upwardly displaceable by advancing work, whereby said element in its lower limiting position limits upwand travel of the guard, but is raised b the work to permit the guard to rise behind the work.
2. Ina rotary cutting disk machine as set [forth in claim 1, means for raising and lowering the disk to vary the extent of its exposure above the table, said means urging the guard upward-1y being a tension spring, and an anchorage for said spring, fixed with reference to the up and down movement of the disk.
3. In a rotary cutting disk machine, the combination with a rotary cutting disk and a table for supporting work fed to the disk, the disk being normally disposed substantially in its entirety below the work surface rof the table, of a control element normally in the'path of-work advancing to the-disk and movable by the work to clear said path, a connection from said element to the disk forraising the disk aproportionately to the movement ofsaid element, whereby the extent ofexposure of thedi-sk above the table is regulated by the actuation of said element, a guard disposed in advance of the disk and normally positioned below said work surface, whereby the work rides over said guard in approaching the disk, means urging the guard upwardly whereby it rises immediately behind advancing work, said control element being disposed in the path of upward travel of the guard and thus limiting response of the guard to said urging means.
4. In a rotary cutting disk machine, the combination with a rotary cutting disk and a table for supporting work [fed to the disk, the axis of disk rotation ibeing below the table level and the disk extending peripherally above said level to engage the work, a guard disposed in advance oi the disk adjacent to the disk periphery, means carrying said guard and adapting it to swing substantially about the axis of the disk, an arm substantia'lly radial to the disk axis and effective on the last-named means to swing said guard about said axis, a coiled spring efiective on said arm to urge said guapd upwardly, said spring extending to a material degree downwardly from the arm, an element normally limiting upward response of said guard to the spring, said element being engageable and movable by advancing work to increase such response, means for raising and lowering the disk to regulate its exposure above the table, and an anchorage for said spring fixed with relation to the raising and lowering of the disk, whereby said spring is increasingly tensioned as its efiective leverage is decreased due to swinging of said arm incident to raising of the disk.
5. A rotary cuttin disk machine comprising a rotary cutting disk, a table for supporting work ied to the disk, the axis of disk rotation being below the table level and the disk extending peripherally above such level to engage the work, a support for the disk movable up and down to regulate exposure of the disk above the level of the table, a guard disposed in advance of the disk and normally positioned substantially below the work supporting surface of the table, whereby the work rides over said guard in approaching the disk, a support for the guard removably carried by the first mentioned support solely at one side of the .plane of the disk and remote from the disk axis and extending to the disk axis at the other side of the plane of the disk, a member rigidly carrying the guard, means pivotingsaid member on the guard support substantially c0- axially with the disk, and means yieldably urging the guard-carrying member upwardly about its ipivotal axis.
6. In a rotary cutting disk machine as set forth in claim 5, a guard carried by said removable support and upwardly extending at the rear of the disk adjacent to the disk periphery.
'7. In a rotary cutting disk machine, the combination with a rotary cutting disk, a support for work advancing to said disk, a guard positioned to underlie work advancing to the disk, means pivoting said guard substantially at the disk axis for up and down movement, means yieldably urging said guard upwardly whereby it may [b pressed upwardly against work being fed to the disk, and a second guard for the disk disposed substantially in its entirety above said support and having a position in the path of work ad varrcing on the support and also in the path of REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date Pfeil Oct. 29, 1907 Reinhold May 29, 1917 Wallace Oct. 2, 1917 M-cMichael Aug. 22, 1922 Drummond Aug. 14, 1923 WaJppat Apr. 5, 1927 Crowe Feb. 12, 1929 Drummond May 7, 1929 OBanion Jan. 9. 1934 Woodward Aug. 31, 1943
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