US 2545017 A
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March 13, 1951 Patented Mar. 13, 1951 UNlTEDv-'r-STATKES PATENT `OFFICE.
2,545,017 'HYPOD'ERMIC sYRINGE Gordon D. Billingsley, Los Altos, Calif. Application June 2,1947, seriaiNo. 751,742
This invention relates to hypodermic syringes and, more particularly, to improvements in hypodermic syringes of the character adapted to inject liquid medicaments intramuscularly or sub-v cutaneously.
Itis an object of the present invention to pro-` vide a hypodermic syringe adapted to be utilized to vinject liquid medicaments of relatively high viscosity intramuscularly or subcutaneously with minimum trauma towthebody tissues in which the needle of the syringe is injected.
. Certain liquid medicaments, such as penicillin,
are'. often administered hypodermically in a medium of beeswax. and peanut oil, or similar substances, to prolong the action of themedicament after injection andare diflicult and dangerous to administer by conventional1 manually ollcrable hypodermic syringes without vpainful andinjurious movement ofthe hypodermic needle embedded in the patients flesh, in view of movement of the needle caused by. the necessity o f exerting manual pressure of a high order-'against the plunger of the syringe to expel the, medicament. It is, therefore, a specic object of the self-contained actuating means whereby liquid.
medicaments of relatively high viscosity may be injected into the flesh of the patient with a minimum of movement ofthe injected needle on the part of the operator and, more specifically, to.
provide a hypodermic syringe provided with a gas-producing medium, selectively operable to inject a liquid medicament into the flesh of the patient without undesired movement of the injection needle. y Y
It is a further and more specic object of the present invention to provide a hypodermic syringe adapted for injection of relatively highv vis-l cosity medicaments, of 'the character of penicillin dissolved in oil and wax, contained in a sterilecartridgev or package.
.e furthe @netonne-,presenvmveneon is e;
Itis a further object ofthe present invention 4 Claims. (Cl. 12S-173) been initially properly positioned. y y
provide a hypodermic syringe of the character, mentioned of relatively low cost, simple construe# tion, and which is easy of operation and Vsubject to-strictest standards of sanitary maintenance. Other objects and advantages will become 'ap-1 parent upon reference to the specification andr accompanying drawings, in which similar characters of reference represent corresponding parts in the several views. f
Referring to the drawings: Fig. 1 is a longitudinal, sectional view ofthe syringe before actuation thereof. y Fig. 2 is'a longitudinal, sectional view of the; syringe after a liquid medicament has been ejected therefrom. ij The invention comprises, essentially, a hypo` dermic syringe containing a gas-producing me; dium; adapted for Yselective actuation in order to expel a liquid medicament from a sanitary container through a rtulcuilar hypodermic needle into',` the flesh of the patient after the said needle has `AReferring to thekdrawings, the device comprises a cylindrical, tubular casing member Y2, provided Vwitlisuitable exterior threads at its .upper end to' receive threadedlya cap 3 provided With`acen tral bore 4 vto receive slidably the shank 5 of ani operating trigger 6..y The opposite end of casing: 2is provided-with an vaperture to receive a plug; 1 in liquid-tight relation thereto. The plug 1, in
turn, carries a tubular injection needle 8, of con-7*.
ventional type, embedded in said plug'and im-AJ movable relatively thereto. The needle 8 is pro-T vided With a flesh-piercing points, at one end," and a piston-piercing point Il, at the end oppo'f"R site thereto. The end Il'projects above the plug l and'within'the body of the syringe for a pur; pose hereinafterl described. V f
Positionedfremovably and slidably within'the casing 2is a second cylindrical, tubular casing I5, whichexteiids from top to bottom of ,.casingZ'.' The inner casing l5 is provided with a vent aper-z; ture I6 approximately medially thereofY for av purpose hereinafter described. Seal l1, formed of rubber or the like, having a hole provided centrally therein to receive slidably the shank 5` of trigger member 6, is disposed movably within the said secondary casing adjacent to' the top. thereof. lThe rubber seal Al'l forms a fluid-tight connection at the top'of secondary casing I5.4
Disposed below the seal piece l1 'is a piercing', element I8 movableQslidably within the Inei'nberr l5. lBelow the piercing element `l8 and adjacentv to the piercing Y.portion thereof is a chemical disk portion I9. Aformed of sodium bicarbonate Vfor.
other suitable chemical, adapted to combine with another chemical contained in` a capsule to produce gas. I have found that a liquid chemical such as dilute hydrochloric acid contained in a suitable acid-resistant capsule, which said capsule is easily punctured by the piercing element I8, is suitable for the herein described purposes. As illustrated in the drawings, a second chemical disk 2| is provided immediatelylbelow the capsule 20 and is'forme'd of the same vchemical as disk I9. Obviously, many combinations of chemicals are adapted for use in my invention as a gasforming means. For example, disks formed of carbide can be substituted for the sodium-lifcarbonate disks and a capsule containing ,water for the hydrochloric acid, as herein described. Further, it is contemplated that'a cartridg'ecortaining a compressed gas, such as carbondiqxide, may be substituted for .the disks I9 and `2l and capsule 20, which said cartridge is positioned and formed to be punctured Aor broken by'fthe 4piercing element I8 upon movement of the trigger ele'- ment longitudinally .of the casing 2. "It may 'be noted atths point that the piercing `element I'8 may comprise a part of the seal i1 or may be, as Aherein illustrated, a separate element.
Disposed below 'the gasforming Ichemical lor chemicals'is a rubber piston 25, positioned in uid-tight, slidable relatOIl with the secondary casing I5. Preferably, the piston is formed of soft rubberbr similar suitable material provided with a central well portion '26, ,the open end of which is disposed .adjacent to the gas;- forming chemical orchemicals, so that whengas is produced within the area in which the vgasforming chemical or chemicals are' contained, the said' gasesy will force the" said piston 25 downwardly and simultaneously urge the piston into gas-sealing position withregarrl tothe 'inf terior of the cylindrical .casing IS.
'Positioned below thepston 25 is a spacer member 21, illustrated here as a'tube formed or glass' or plastic or other suitablelprieferably 'nfonresilient substance.' Below the spacer member 2T i's'disposed a piston 2 of the sa'rnfCharac'tQer mentioned with respect to piston 25 and which slidable within the cylindrical casing I5. Spacd below piston 28 is 4another identical pistdn, and, in a chamber 3l, defined by pistons vz'and 29 and casing i5, is contained the liquid medic: amont 32. y
It to be noted that, in accordance with con,- vefntional practice, the pisto'ns'fiy and 2.5L Pfc,- vided with well portions l2 8F and 2S?, respectively,
are 'disposed facing the' medicament' comentas therebetween. The point' Il of needlel gis'- posed immediately below piston 219. A chamber 34 is provided between plus 7 and the bottom of piston 2S, within which chamber the piston-piercing/portion of the Vneedle pro; jects. It is to be noted that the casing tZ'kind the inner casing l5 may be formed of any suitable material, but it is incumbent that,finsofar` as chamber 34 is concerned, visual accessthrough casings 2 and I5 be provided at that region vfor the reason that upon injection of the needle B into the flesh of a patient a means must bepro vided to determine whether or not the said needle has punotured' a Vblood vessel. Forexamplejin the administration of certain c lrugs,"auch as penicillin dissolved in o il and 1wax,"theneedle ipniauy positioned in the ness 'come patient and. if a blood vessel is entered, blood espaps' through' 'the tubularA needleito the Chamber" therby warning the userpiv the 's'yringef th position of the needle before injection of the drug to be administered. The provision of visual access within the syringe adjacent to the injection needle 8 is important in that certain drugs can not be injected, without ill effects, into a. blood vessel.
The inner casing I5, together with associated medicament chamber 3|, spacer member 21, piston 215, seal ll, Vpiercing ,element I (and gasfdrmi'ng chemicals; mayQbe formed as a unit for package insertion'I in the c`asing'2, which said `casing 2 may be adapted for re-use. On the other hand, the package insertion may comprise merely fthe' said'c'a'sing I5, provided with a vent I6 and ,a medicament ldisposed therein between pistons `I28a'n`d 29; In the latter case, the spacer member 121,. piston 215, gas-forming chemical or chemicals, piercing element, seal piece and trigger may be arranged within the casing 2 by the user of the syringe.' It is to be noted that needle' Vand plug'll in which it is embedded, .are adapted for removalland disposal after .each irl-- jection. 'The vent I5 is" .disposed approximately medially .of the inner casing I5 .for escape .of gas produced by the gas-producing chemicals there, through after the 'piston 25 has been depressed by the gas toa pcint-belowthe said vent v(see Fig; 2), The gas may escape -to atmosphere through vent I E and thence vthrou'ghvent 36 provided -in the outer casing 2 in register with the .said vent I5.
VIn operation, .the needle .positioned .the flesh of the patient and,l after determining thatv the needle is properly positioned, i. e. visual ex-` amination ci cham-ber 3i to determine that no blood is passing thereinto, the trigger 6 .is depressed' manually, thereby moving fthe seal H1 connected thereto, against the piercing element I8. The 'piercing'eleinent I8, which abuts against' ,or is formed as4 a part O'f the seal ILpunctures the Y ga's-pi'oducing capsule or cartridge 20, there? by'instigating the chemical reaction adapted lto produce "gas 4and V,the resultant gas pressure which: movesthem iston 25".'again`st`t`he spacer member' 2 andcauses piston 2Std be' depressed against the medicament `332 'conta'ied'in the chamber' 3-I Pressure piston 28` against the medicarnent 32 causesthe piston 29 -to :nove downwardly against' point II of needle 8, theby'puncturing the saine. Continued movement'f the-piston 28 downwardly causes "the liquid medicament *to be' discharged into the vtubular needle' ,fior desired injection -into the patient. The position "of thevfvariou's partsafter operation, assuming the piercing element to `be unattachd' to theseal I1 andthe gasforming chemicals to have dissipated, is 'indicated iFgz.: Y,
` I-he preferred embodiment of the present 4'in'' Vention enables reinovafof'th' inner casingV I5` and parts containdtherin :from the outer'cajs# ing 2 as unit Illiir'ther;*theplug V'Ia'nd'ne'edle 8 may be removed v'easily from the casing 2 for oo'rwenient'rlisjgios'l` i The vassemblyA of the unit may comprise the steps of, 'ijirstffinsertin'g tle'e'edle and Aplug in nested position in the bottombf 'casing 2; then, inserting 'the inner casing I5y containing the liquid medicament, spacer. member, piston? Sleat# Producing chemical "or 'chemicals *piercing e'lement I8 r'and seal "I'I':Y and,'then;' positioning lthe i ,and assorted essere ae are@ sie. i ,It iS '9.0 .kef'llgfd fha YCFPYSEI,liirii l'eans'mv be provided to induce flow oflblcodthrough Atrie needle ,into the sums@ iniericeftr ir'italrosi tional means presently in use comprises a diaphragm member, or the like, adapted to accelerate the otherwise rather slow flow of blood into a syringe, and is obviously sometimes desirable for the purpose of accelerating the operation of the drug administration.
It is noted that the pistons disclosed herein are of the characLer to provide a. fluid-type seal with the cartridge or inner tubular casing with which they may be associated, in order to prevent effectively the passage of gas therebeyond.
The outer casing may be formed of a suitable plastic substance or glass or metal, while the inner casing is, preferably, formed of glass. Ol*- viously, the various parts may be formed oi materials found to be suitable in the economic manufacture of the device and I do not intend to limit myself to the specic materials herein mentioned. Again, the arrangement of the several parts herein set forth in particular detail for the purposes of clarity of example and description, is not intended as a limitation as various changes, modifications and variations may be practiced and are intended to be practiced within the spirit of the invention and the scope of the appended claims.
1. A hypodermic syringe comprising an outer tubular casing, an inner tubular casing slidably disposed within said outer casing, a tubularinjection needle removably disposed within said outer casing and having a portion thereof projected into an end of said inner casing, a liquid medicament contained within said inner casing between spaced members slidable relative to said inner casing, another member slidably disposed within said inner casing and spaced from said liquid medicament, gas-forming means contained in said inner casing, and means comprising a trigger to actuate said gas-forming means whereby gas pressure is produced within said inner casing to force said liquid medicament downwardly against said injection needle.
2. A hypodermic syringe, according to claim l, and wherein vent means is provided to vent gas produced by said gas-producing means to atmosphere after said liquid medicament has been moved against said needle.
3. A hypodermic syringe comprising an outer tubular casing, an inner tubular casing disposed within said outer tubular casing, a tubular injection needle disposed in the lower end of said outer casing and having a piston piercing point proj ecting into the lower end of said inner tubular casing, a lower chamber in the lower end of said inner tubular chamber, said lower chamber being dened by the inner wall of said inner tubular chamber, by a lower movable piston and by an upper movable piston, said lower movable piston normally being spaced upwardly from said piston piercing point, an upper chamber in the upper end of said inner tubular chamber, said upper chamber being defined by the inner wall of said inner tubular chamber, by a lower movable piston and by an upper seal, the lower movable piston of said upper chamber being rigidly spaced from 55 said upper movable piston of said lower chamber, a liquid medicament in said lower chamber, gas
forming chemicals in said upper chamber, and trigger means to actuate said gas forming chemicals to generate gas pressure, whereby the gas pressure so generated is exerted downwardly on said upper piston of said lower chamber in sequence iirst to urge the lower chamber downwardly thereby to cause said piston piercing point to pierce the lower piston of said lower chamber and second to expel medicament contained in said lower chamber through said needle.
4. A hypodermic syringe comprising an outer tubular casing, an inner tubular casing disposed within said outer tubular casing, a tubular injection needle disposed in the lower end of said outer casing and having a piston piercing point projecting into the lower end of said inner tubular casing, a lower chamber in the lower end of said inner tubular chamber, said chamber being dened by the inner wall of said inner tubular chamber, by a lower movable piston and by an upper movable piston, said lower piston normally being spaced upwardly from said piston piercing point, an upper chamber in the upper end of said inner tubular chamber, said upper chamber being dened by the inner wall of said inner tubular chamber, by a lower movable piston and by an upper seal, a spacer member separating the lower movable piston of said upper chamber from said upper movable piston of said lower chamber, a liquid medicament in said lower chamber, gas forming chemicals in said upper chamber, an open vent in each of said inner and outer tubular members, the vent in said inner tubular member being located so that it is normally between the upper and lower chambers and so that it is above the lower piston of said upper vchamber and communicates with the upper chamber when said interconnected pistons are at the lowermost point of their travel, trigger means to actuate said gas forming chemicals to generate gas pressure whereby the gas pressure so generated in sequence firstly is exerted downwardly to urge the lower chamber downwardly thereby to cause said piston piercing point to pierce the lower piston of said lower chamber, secondly is continued to be exerted downwardly to expel medicament contained in said lower chamber through said needle and thirdly is automatically vented to atmosphere after said liquid medicament has been discharged through said needle.
GORDON D. BILLINGSLEY.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 2,322,244 Lockhart June 22, 1943 2,322,245 Lockhart June 22, 1943 2,390,246 Folkman Dec. 4, 1945 2,459,875 Folkman Jan. 25, 1949 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 399,313 France June 26, 1909
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