US 2596183 A
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F. J. SOWA METHOD FOR INCREASING THE VOLUME OF SHREDDED TOBACCO Filed Dec. 2, 1944 2 $HEETS-SHEET l INVENTOR FRANK J. SOWA WW ATTORNEY May 13, 1952 F. J. sowA METHOD FOR INCREASING THE VOLUME OF SHREDDED TOBACCO Filed Dec. 2, 1944 2 SHEETS-SHEET 2 F IG. 2
SPRAYING j DRYING I INVENTOR FRANK J. SOWA ATTORNEY Patented May 13, 1952 METHOD FOR IN CRE OF SHREDD Frank J. Sowa,
ic-an Machine ration of New Jersey Application December 2,
6 Claims. (Cl. 131-140) cause 1t to absorb substantial quantities of moisture, such as water, and thereby cause the tobacco so treated to have a greater filling power.
Filling power of shredded cigarette tobacco may be defined as the volume that a given weight of such tobacco occupies under a definite pressure, or in other words, the force exerted by a given weight of shredded cigarette tobacco in a given volume. An increase in filling power may, therefore, be termed the capacity of a smaller weight of shredded cigarette tobacco to occupy the same volume and exert the same expansive force as would a larger weight of untreated shredded cigarette tobacco.
I have discovered that; the filling power of shredded cigarette tobacco can be increased and thus contribute to manufacturing economy by subjecting a given quantity or a batch of tobacco to substantial quantities of moisture in excess of the quantity normally present as moisture consuch tobacco upward to 125 per cent of the cigarette tobacco treated.
while at the same time an adequate supply of such smoking articles can be maintained.
The increase in filling power of tobacco resulting from its subjection to absorption of substantial dipping,
ASIN G THE VOLUME ED TOBACCO Cranford, N. J assignor to Amerand Foundry Company, a corpo- 1944, Serial No. 566,365
It is an object of my invention, therefore, to provide an improved method of expanding tobacco, especially shredded cigarette tobacco.
It is a further object of my invention to expand a quantity or batch of shredded cigarette tobacco by applying thereto a liquid, such as water, in substantial quantities or in a quantity greater by weight than the amount of moisture normally present in tobacco being processed.
It is a further object of my invention to subject a quantity of shredded cigarette tobacco to moisture application to such an extent that the tobacco treated is enabled to absorb a substantially greater quantity of moisture than that normally present in tobacco about to be manufactured mto cigarettes, whereby the excess moisture the resulting product after the moisture content is reduced to normal, say 10-13 per cent, to have a greater filling power.
It is also an object of my invention to increase the physical size of shreds of cigarette tobacco by treating shredded tobacco with an excess of water over that normally present in the tobacco to be treated, say 10-13 per cent, and effect a concurrent deformation of shreds which results in an increased size of shred having a wavy appearance tending to resist crushing and flattening thereof. a
Other objects of my invention will be set forth in the following description and drawings which illustrate preferred embodiments thereof, it being understood that the above statements of the objects'of my invention are intended generally to explain the same without limiting it in any manner.
In the accompanying drawings which form a part of this specification, and in which like characters of reference indicate the same or like parts:
Figure l is a perspective view showing mechanism suitable for carrying out the process constituting the invention; and
Figure 2 is a view illustrating diagrammatically a modified method of performing the invention.
In carrying out the method of this invention,
regular cigarette tobacco leaf pieces are shredded into narrow crooked strands or shreds about one thirty-second to one fifty-second of an inch in width, which when out may be as long as the length or width of the leaf piece from which the shreds are cut. Referring to the drawings, Figure 1 shows a preferred method in which a chute Ill feeds shredded tobacco S into a hopper l2 delivering to an inclined elongated revolving cylinder l4 of anysuitable conventional type, turning on flanged rollers 18 mounted in brackets 20 fixed to cross bars 2| secured to side frames 22. Cylinder [4 may be provided with a ring gear 23 which meshes with a driving gear 2% mounted on a shaft (not shown) connected in any suitab1e manner with drive shaft 26 journalled in bearings 28 carriedby side frames 22, and provided with a pulley 3i driven by belt 32 by a suitable source of power, such as a motor (not shown). Cylinder I4 is rotated at any desirable speed suitable for uniform moisture application.
As indicated in Figure 1, the interior of the cylinder id is furnished with a plurality of baffle plates 35, preferably spirally arranged, and extendin longitudinally within cylinder 14, which engage the tobacco passing through the cylinder M, and tumble it around in order that liquid, such as water, may come into intimate contact with the tobacco being treated as it passes through the cylinder Hi from hopper 12 onto conveyor 35. In the illustrated embodiment, there are provided a plurality of spraying nozzles 38, preferably designed to apply moisture as a spray or mist, fixed to a pipe 40 provided with valves 32 by means of which the supply of water to the nozzles may be controlled. Nozzles 38 may be of any suitable conventional type adjustable to control the kind of Spray; that is, from a heavy spray to a. mist. A tank 44 fed from a source of supply by a pipe it and supported by straps ts above the cylinder [4 insures an adequate quantity of water at all times.
The amount of shredded tobacco passing from hopper 12 into cylinder M preferably is determined before it enters the cylinder. In a similar way the quantity of water to be applied thereto may be measured into tank 44 so that the proper percentage of water can be applied to a given batch of tobacco undergoing treatment. For example, if a batch of one hundred pounds of shredded cigarette tobacco is being treated, and a twenty-five per cent water treatment is to be given, then twenty-five pounds of water will be sprayed through nozzles 38 upon the tobacco being passed through cylinder It. The speed of rotation of cylinder Hi and setting of nozzles 38 determines the time of application of moisture to the batch of tobacco being processed. Other percentages of water can be applied as desired. Tests actually show that applications of moisture from 25 per cent up to 125 per cent by weight resulted in permanent increase in size of shred of tobacco treated although the most substantial increases occurred when quantities of moisture range between 50 and 125 per cent by weight. The results of tests are tabulated hereinbelow.
Shredded cigarette tobacco treated with substantial quantities of moisture is discharged from cylinder M onto conveyor 36 is traveled beneath rotating star wheels fixed to shaft 52 mounted for rotation in side frames 53, and provided with a pulley 54 on which runs a belt 56 driven by a motor or other suitable source of power (not shown).
Conveyor 36 runs upon pulleys 58, 6E. Pulley 58 is mounted on a shaft 52 mounted for rotation in side brackets 53. Pulley 69 is mounted on a shaft 66 supported by brackets 58 secured to the exterior of drier D (Figure l). Shaft 62 is provided with a sprocket it on which travels a sprocket chain 12 running on a sprocket 14 on shaft 56. Conveyor 36 is driven by means of a sprocket 16 secured to shaft 62 by meansof a sprocket chain 18 runnnig on a sprocket (not shown) fixed to shaft 25. In this manner conveyor 36 is driven in proper timed relation at any suitable speed requisite for proper drying of the tobacco to convey the spread-out wetted tobacco to and through a drier D which may be of any well-known conventional design. Drier D is provided with vents which allow moisture to escape therefrom. Tobacco issuing from the drier contains approximately 10-13 per cent moisture, preferably approximately 12 per cent. The moisture content of shredded tobacco about to be manufactured into cigarettes is generally so controlled according to temperature and relative humidity within the factory that the desired moisture content of between 1013 per cent, preferably approximately 12 per cent, is maintained substantially constant. For example, the desired moisture content may be maintained with a room temperature of 70 F. and relative humidity of about 57 per cent. Obviously other temperatures and relative humidity variations can be made according to climatic or manufacturing conditions.
As indicated in Figure 1, conveyor 36 may be made of a foraminous material such as wire mesh which allows ready circulation of heat within the drier D through the tobacco spread out thereon.
The effect of the water upon each shred of tobacco is such that the cell walls expand'permanently and give greater volume or filling power thereto. Microscopic examination of samples of specimens treated demonstrate this increase. For example, average of three tests shows:
Per Cent Shred Per Con" increase in shred Sample 1120 width wid Units 0 5. 5 1 75 8.5 59.1 increase over 0 sample. 2 9. 1 65.4 increase over 0 sample.
The increase in the size, especially the Width (thickness) of the individual shreds apparently is caused by the swelling of the side walls or the mesophyll, as well as the interior cells of the leaf or shred when wet with water. The removal of water, however, does not result in a shrinkage or return of shred to the condition prior to water application and treatment. In other words I have found that because of this treatment, treated tobacco is always of increased size relative to a comparative untreated sample, and therefore, has greater filling power. 7
According to'the modified method shown in Figure 2, the shredded cigarette tobacco is processed in substantially the same manner as in Figure 1. That is, the shredded tobacco is subjected to moisture absorption beyond that normally present in tobacco at usual temperatures and relative humidity, as indicated at I with any desired amount of water, substantially greater in weight than the weight of water normally present in the shredded tobacco to be treated. The amount of water applied may range upward from 25 per cent to say 125 per cent of water by weight depending upon the results desired by the processor, although best results are obtained with quantities of moisture ranging from 50-125 per cent by weight. Following the moisture applying operation, the tobacco is dried as at 2 in the same type of drier D as indicated in Figure 1. However, as distinguished from drying in Figure 1, the moisture is reduced to 5 per cent or less after which the tobacco is placed in a rehumidifier 3 of conventional design in which the moisture content is raised to a fixed amount, say 10-13, preferably approximately 12 per cent, when it is ready for manufacture into cigarettes.
In order to show conclusively the increase in volume of the tobacco treated in the manner described, several batches of tobacco were processed.
moisture content, it is considered that a closer control of the final moisture content for testing purposes can be effected than if attempts are made to dry rapidly to, say 10-13 per cent moisture content, and then make a comparison.
The above referred to samples were tested somewhat as follows: A weighed quantity of 8.500 shredded cigarette tobacco was height of the tobacco in the cylindrical container during compression. The height was directly proportional to the volume. Therefore, by measvolume was computed. The scale indicator would move more rapidly at first, and then slow down to a point where no appreciable movement was noted. Readings were taken at this point. The results of the series of tests are shown in the accompanying table.
B, the samples were dried to establish a moisture content of approximately 5 per cent after which may be varied approximately 5%, and then increasing the moisture content of said tobacco to substantially its original content.
2. The method of expanding tobacco in shredded form which comprises the steps of providing Volume after 3 35 -2 3 33? Weight Water added, drying to 5% ax 3 5 21 Test liters humidiper cent by and humidity in com arison A fled to H37 bacco weight of ing 70 hours to with mal moisture 0 sample humidified increase mois- Volume g content (grams) tobacco ture content to t t H375 ea men m N a N0. 1-. 66. 4 8. 500 0 69. 2 4. 2 N0. 2.. 68. 4 8. 500 25 72. 4 5. 9 N0. 3.. 67. 2 8. 500 50 74. 3 10. N0. 4-. 5B. 0 8. 500 75 77. 2 l3. 5 NO. 5.. 67. 2 8. 500 100 73. 2 8. 9 N0. 6-. 68. 8 8. 500 125 73. 9 7. 5 inertial: were We added. Test liters humidibacc 2 and then rein comparison B ltis t sample humidified z fi it t v i tfl r e content (grams) tobacco 10-13% treatment M a NO. 1.. 66. 4 8. 500 0 70. 0 5. 4 N0. 2.. 68. 4 8. 500 N0. 3-. 67. 2 8. 500 79. 2 17. 9 N0. 4.. 68. U 8. 500 80. 4 18. 2 N0. 5-. 67. 2 8. 500 85 4 27. 2 NO. 6.. 68. 8 8. 500 85 4: 24. 2
In the table, test A was made from samples dried for a period of time sufficient to reduce the It was considered that this treatment would result in a more uniform distribution of moisture throughout each sample tested. In test 0 then increasing the moisture content of said tobacco to substantially its original content.
not less than the total Weight of said shredded tobacco, permitting said additional water to remain with said tobacco until said tobacco has substantially completely absorbed said water, and then reducing the moisture content of said tobacco to substantially its original content.
4. The method of expanding tobacco in shredded form comprising providing shredded tobacco having a moisture content of approximately 10-13%, adding thereto only a quantity of water having a weight not less than 50% of the total weight of said shredded tobacco, permitting said additional water to remain with said tobacco until said tobacco has substantially completely absorbed said water, and then reducing the moisture content of said tobacco to substantially its original content.
5. The method of expanding tobacco in shredded form comprising providing shredded tobacco having a moisture content of approximately 10-13%, adding thereto only a quantity of water having a weight not less than the total weight of said shredded tobacco, permitting said additional Water to remain with said tobacco until said tobacco has substantially completely absorbed said water, reducing the moisture content of said tobacco to approximately 5%, and then increasing the moisture content of said tobacco to substantially its original content.
6. The method of expanding tobacco in shredded form comprising providing shredded tobacco having a moisture content of approximately 10-13%, adding thereto only a quantity of water having a weight not less than 50% of the total weight of said shredded tobacco, permitting said additional water to remain with said tobacco until said tobacco has substantially completely absorbed said water, reducing the moisture content of said tobacco to approximately 5%, and then increasing the moisture content of said tobacco to substantially its original content.
FRANK J. SOW'A.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 155,333 Rivero Sept. 29, 1874 1,567,031 Buensod Dec. 29, 1925 1,585,477 Febles May 18, 1926 1,789,435 Hawkins Jan. 20, 1931 1,958,863 Rapeanu May 15, 1934 2,179,644 Rundell Nov. 14, 1939 2,309,975 Moseley et a1 Feb. 2, 1943
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