US 2619829 A
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Dec. 2, 1952 B, TATUM 2,619,829
' INTERLOCKING HOLLOW BUILDING BLOCK Filed June 22, 1948 B. L. TATUM Y INVENTOR. v w V-77 v Attorneys Patented Dec. 2, 1952 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,619,829 INTER'LOCKI NG HOLLOW BUILDING BLGCK Bethel'L. Tatum, Corpus Christi, Tex. 7 Application June 22, 1948, Sofia/1N0. 34,503
(CI. 72-41) I 1 Claim.
My invention relates to improvements in building blocks which are used in interfitting relationship to build up a wall. 7
An object of the invention is to provide selfaligning and self-locking building blocks which may be easily cast of concrete, pumice, volcanic ash and other like materials.
Another object of my invention is to provide building blocks with an outer exposed wall facing of a decorative and harder material than used for the rest of the block.
A further object of my invention is to provide in such building blocks a decorative longitudinal groove in the outer exposed face of the block.
A still further object of my invention is to provide a building block with two end and two side vertically extending walls anda transverse vertical wall therein between the two side walls which provides a pair of vertically extending hollow passageways and with one end wall upper portion having a male projection extending outward from the block and with the opposite end wall having a recess therethrough of like size and in alignment with the projection so as to lockingly receive a like projection on an adjacently placed block.
A further object of my invention is to provide in a building block as just above described, a recess in each side wall with the recesses of like size and shape to the end wall recess described and with the recesses extending entirely through the walls, oppositely disposed and wherein. these side wall recesses and their common axes lie in their respective side walls intermediate the transverse wall and the end wall having the recess.
A further object of my invention is to provide in the bottom surfaces of the end and transverse walls of such a block as referred to above, an aligning groove and in the upper surfaces of the walls, aligning projections of like size and shape and positioned directly above the grooves in the bottom surfaces.
Another object of my invention is to provide a building block with two end and two side walls and a, transverse wall between the side walls withta male projection on the outer face of one end wall and a recess extending entirely through the other end wall from outer face to inner face and adaptedto receive a, similar male projection on a similar block joined therewith and'with the two side wallshaving recesses therethrough in like manner tosaid endwall recess with each recess also being adapted to receive a filler. block era juncture block which isadapted toitie two suchblocksgtogether; when their recessed walls "are brought into abutting relationship.
Still further objects and the entire scope of applicability of the present invention will become apparent from the detailed description given hereinafter; it should be understood, however, that the detailed description and specific examples are given by way of illustration only and, while indicating preferred embodiments of theinvention, are not given by way of limitation, since various changes and modifications within the spirit and scope of the invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art from this detailed description.
For a more complete understanding of the nature and scope of my invention, reference can be had to the following detailed description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings wherein like characters refer to similar parts and in which;
Figure 1 is a perspective view of a corner block according to my invention with side wall juncture recesses;
Figure 2 is a perspective view of a regular or intermediate block depicting one sidewall faced with a different material and having a decorative groove in the face thereof;
Figure 3 is a half block which may be used to make up or fill up an odd length of wall space and to position a partition block;
Figure 4 is a partition block having sides with recesses for receiving partitions joined normal thereto;
Figure 5 is a plugv block to plug off or fill a recess in a block where the recess is not neces sary; and
Figure 6 is a juncture plug which is used in the abutting recesses of two blocks placed with their recesses abutting. I
The blocks shown in Figures 1, 2-and 4 are each cast in metal or other types of molds of concrete, pumice, volcanic ash, or any other suitable material and will now be described as respects their common features. Each block is cast with two oppositely disposed vertically extending end walls I0 and II and. two oppositely disposed vertically extending side walls I2 and I3, integrally joined with the end walls l0 and I l. Each of the blocks in Figures 1, 2 and 3 is provided with a vertically disposed transverse wall 14 extending between and integral with the side walls l2 and I3, whereby two vertically extending hollow. passageways are formed. in each block.
All of the blocks have the top and the bottoms ofv their walls horizontally disposed and lying in a horizontal plane common top and a horizontal plane common bottom.
II has formed integral therewith, as does the other blocks, a male projection I5. This projection I has its top I6 lying in the common horizontal plane containing the tops of the walls; it has vertically disposed sides I! which diverge outwardly from the outer face of the wall II so as to form a dove-tailed shaped projection; and its bottom l8 lies in a horizontal plane X which, as shown in Figure 4., extends through the block approximately midway between the top and bottom of the walls of the block. This corner block may have joined therewith a wall extending normal to the wall within which the corner block is contained. In order to provide for connecting or interlocking such a wall which may extend from either side wall of the blocks, as in Figures 1 and 4, I cast into the block two oppositely disposed recesses, recess 26 in side wall I2 and recess 2| in side wall IS. The recesses extend down into each wall from the plane of the tops of the walls to the common mid-plane X as shown in Figure l. The recesses 20 and 2| are of like size and shape to that of projection I5 which would be on a block as shown in Figure 2 that would abut and interlock therewith in forming the side wall. Each of the recesses 25 and 2| have their side limits defined by the vertically extending wall faces 22 and 23 in their respective walls which faces diverge in each recess from the outer face of their containing wall to the inner face thereof in a dove-tailed shaped manner. The recesses are in common alignment as shown by their common axis YY in Figure l. The recesse 25 and 2| lie in their respective walls intermediate the transverse wall I4 and the end wall II) as also does their common axis YY. When the corner block I has the side wall joined thereto by its recess 25 in its side wall I2 and wall I3 becomes the exposed and outer wall, recess 2| may be plugged if desired by use of the block 25 shown in Figure 5 which has like shape and size to the projection I5 and the recesses so as to completely fill the recess. Suitable cement would be used to permanently secure this block 24 in the recess as is used in laying up the blocks.
In Figure 2 I have shown a regular or intermediate block similar to the end block in Figure 1 but without the side wall recesses. There is formed in the end wall I5, opposite to the end wall I I, a recess 25 similar to the recesses 26 and 2! as heretofore described. This recess 25 is of like size and shape to the projection I5 and is oppositely disposed thereto and in alignment therewith. The bottom of the recess 25, as indicated 25', lies in the horizontal plane X as indicated for the block in Figure 4, thus the bottom 25 of the recess 25 is in the same horizontal plane as the bottom surface I8 of the projection I5.
The blocks shown in Figures 2 and 4 are formed with centering or lining up grooves 26 in each of the bottom surfaces of the end walls II] and I I and the transverse wall It. These grooves are in common alignment, extend across each wall thickness and are parallel with the side walls. Vertically above each of the grooves 26 in the bottoms of the end wall II and the transverse wall I4 are complementary aligning projections 2'! of like size and shape to the grooves 25 formed when the block is cast. The projection in the end wall II extends also along the top surface It of the projection I5. These grooves 25 and projections 21 are shown as having an arcuate cross section, however, they may be of other suitable shapes so long as they will interfit on adjacent blocks placed above or below so as to line up the 4 blocks forming the wall. In the positions shown these grooves 26 and projections 21 lie along the center line of the block intermediate the planes of the side walls I2 and I3.
In Figure 2 there is shown as a feature of my blocks, a facing 28 on the outer surface of side wall I3. This facing may be of decorative material such as clay or material suitable for baking or glazing or it can be colored cement or colored composition. I form this facing by slipping into the mold a spacer of suitable thickness on the face side and then pour the block. After the material of which the block is poured has set to a. suitable condition, the spacer can be removed from the top of the mold and the space left by the spacer can then be filled with other selected materials, as described above, thus giving the face of the block a different effect without casting the whole block of the same material which is desired for the face.
Also in the block in Figure 2 there may be formed in the facing 28 a decorative groove 29 which extends lengthwise of the face and parallel to the top and bottom surfaces of the block. This can be done by slipping into the mold, thru suitable end apertures, a half-round or a triangular rod and when the material forming the facing has sufficiently set, the rod is withdrawn.
In Figure 3 there is illustrated a half block having a male projection I5 on its end wall II and a recess 25 in its opposite end wall II] as in the regular block shown in Fig. 2. An aligning groove 26 and a projection 2'! are formed in the wall I I, as in wall I I, of the block in Fig. 2 which is described above. This half block in Fig. 3 may be used to vary the length of a course of blocks so as to make up an odd length to receive in the course of blocks the partition block shown in Fig. l which will'presently be described.
Referring to Fig. 4 there is shown a partition receiving block according to my invention. This block is similar to the end block in Fig. 1 having the projection in wall I I, the recess 25 in wall I2, recess 25 in wall I3 and in addition a recess 25 in end wall I8 as described for block 2. All of the bottoms of the recesses 21!, 2I and 25 and the bottom I8 of projection I5 lie in a horizontal plane X which extends through the block midway between the top horizontal surface of the wall of the block and the bottom horizontal surface of the walls of the block. Thus this block becomes a partition receiving block for a partition wall may be joined with either recess 20 in side wall I2 or recess 2! in side wall I3. The recess not used may be plugged by the plug 24, see Fig. 5, as described above for sealing off one of the recesses of corner block of Fig. 1.
Still referring to the block in Fig. 4, a groove 29 for decorative purposes may be formed in the outer face of wall I3 as described above for the block in Fig. 2. V
In building up a wall there may occur two adjacent abutting blocks in a course which have their recessed end walls adjoining. In order to lock these blocks together, I provide a special oppositely projecting dove-tailed shaped plug 38 as shown in Fig. 6. This plug 30 has oppositely projecting portions 36 and 39 of like size and shape to the projection I5 of the blocks in the other figures as well as a shape like that of the recesses which it serves to connect.
I have provided by my invention interlocking blocks which may be easily cast and used in various manner to build up a side wall, join on an end wall and hook in'a partition wall. The blocks have interlocking dove-tailed shaped joints which provide for tightly interlocking the blocks and centering grooves and projections for lining up the blocks to make a plumb wall.
In the claim:
A building block comprising a pair of oppositely disposed vertically extending side walls and a pair of oppositely disposed vertically extending end walls integral with the adjacent ends of said side walls, each of said walls terminating in horizontal top and bottom surfaces, a transverse vertical wall extending between and integral with said side walls whereby a pair of vertically extending passageways are provided in said block, one of said end walls having an integral projection on the outer face thereof bounded by a top, a bottom, an end vertical face and two vertically extending sides with its top in horizontal alignment with the horizontal top surface of said end wall and its bottom surface disposed in a horizontal plane extending through said block and lying approximately midway the distance between the horizontal top and bottom surfaces of the end and side walls, said vertical sides of the projection diverging outwardly so as to provide a dovetail shaped projection, the other of said end walls having a recess extending down from the plane of the top surface of the wall to a horizontal bottom lying in said horizontal plane containing the bottom of said projection and said recess extending entirely through that wall from a plane containing the outer face to a plane containing the inner face with oppositely disposed vertical sides diverging from each other as they extend inward from the plane containing the outer face of their containing wall whereby a dove-tail shaped recess is provided of like size and shape to said male projection and lying in alignment with said projection adapted to receive a like male connecting projection on a similar second block when 7 said second block is slid into place so that its end wall having the male projection abuts the end wall of said first block having said recess, each of said side walls upper portions having oppositely disposed aligned recesses of like size, dove-tail shape and use as said recess in said end wall and extending down from a plane containing the top of said side Walls to a horizontal bottom lying in said horizontal plane containing the bottom of said projection and extending entirely through their respective walls from a plane containing the outer face to a plane containing the inner face of said side walls and with these recesses in said side walls lying in portions of said side walls intermediate said transverse wall and an end wall of said block.
B. L. TATUM.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 460,177 Cook Sept. 29, 1891 729,023 Vordtriede May 26, 1903 950,140 Lucke Feb. 22, 1910 1,449,529 Meadors Mar. 27, 1923 1,571,849 Long Feb. 2, 1926 1,578,091 Perkins et a1 Mar. 23, 1926 1,794,572 Wyatt Mar. 3, 1931 1,844,828 Willson Feb. 9, 1932 1,902,178 Nelson Mar. 21, 1933 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 176,031 Great Britain Oct. 13, 1920 166,623 Great Britain of 1921 527,585 France of 1921
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