US 2635359 A
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April 211, 1953 H. H. BROSCIOUS BUILDING MODEL 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Sept. 7, 1950 IN V EN TOR egybfimmazzs, M2 65 2.11
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Patented Apr. 21, 1953 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE BUILDING MODEL Henry H. Broscious sunbury, Pa. Application September 7,1950, Serial N0.'183',616
This invention relates to building models and to methods of making same. More particularly the invention relates to a practical building model of a character suitable for demonstrating in three dimensions the visual appearance of a building design and serving as a complete set of working drawings also showing in three dimensions all the structural details necessary to erect the building, in a manner readily understood by skilled builders or laymen. While my invention is directed more particularly to construction of houses, garages, cabins, guest houses, and the like, it is effective for use in connection with buildings of other character. Prospective purchasers of homes and other buildings are frequently unfamiliar with twodimensional drawings such as conventional building plans and the like. Such Want of familiarity sometimes leads to misunderstanding concerning the eventual appearance and structural details of the building planned. It is accordingly one object of the invention to provide a practical model serving to eliminate such misunderstandings and to portray realistically the appearance and structural details of the building.
Many prospective purchasers of buildings are benefited in selecting a building design by ascertaining readily the precise total cost of materials for each design contemplated. In accordance with conventional procedures quite some time is required for computation of the materials costs involved in efiecting even a relatively minor change in design. Another object of the'invention is to provide a plurality of building models adapted to be combined in a wide variety of ways to represent many different building designs, shapes and sizes. Still another object is to provide .a plurality of building models, each representative of adefinite quantity of materials selling at a definite unit price, which may be pieced together to form a three dimensional representation of a building design. A further object of the invention is to provide a method for making such building models. Other objects and advantages of the invention, including the simplicity and economy attributable to the use of the same in the design and construction of a building, will appear in further detail hereinafter.
I have discovered that highly effective results are attained by designing a building as a combination of a plurality of standard building units. Such units may be assembled in accordance with the wishes of the purchaser and also desirably have standardized dimensions for ready interchangeability. For each building unit a definite number of definite parts is required, and accord-- ingly the cost for such materials is a definite'and fixed quantity. I have found that a very large number of different home and building designs may be produced by putting together a very small number of difierent or similar building units. For any such building the total cost of materials is easilyascerta'ined by merely adding the material' costs for the separateunits constituting the several portions of the selected building.
In connection with the foregoing, I find it advantageous -to providedrawings showing the structural details of each unit'of the building. Such-drawings are-applicable for the construction of a particular building unit without regard to the manner in which said unit is combined with others. The drawings, when the units are combined to form the selected building, are complete working drawings showing the building structure in a form suitable for use in erecting the building.
For demonstration of the highly desirable features of my building development program, I have created a building model having novel features as disclosed herein.
In summary, the invention constitutes a building model having a basic block element shaped to represent a building unit and adapted to be marked with representations of the structural details of the building unit and a separate cover piece having walls adapted to fit snuglyover the block element and to' re'presentthe outside of thebuilding unit.
Of the drawings:
Fig. 1 represents in perspective one embodi ment of a building model in the form of a block together with an attached piece of sheet material, a part of which is broken away in order more clearly to disclose important details of the block;
Fig. 2 is a view similar to Fig. 1 representing a building model block of different form;
Fig. 3 represents the building model block of Fig. 1 together with a cover piece of sheet ma"- terial; v Fig. 4 represents a cover piece of slightly difierent form;
Fig. 5 represents a building model including a model block similar to that of Fig. 2 in combination with a cover piece similar to that of Fig. 4, parts being broken away as indicated;
Fig. 6 represents a building model similar to that of Fig. 5, but of different form;
Fig. 7 is a perspective view of four building models of-the character represented in Figs. 5
and 6, illustrating the manner in which they may be placed together for representation of a building;
Fig. 8 is a perspective view of four building models slightly rearranged to represent a building of different form;
Fig. 9 is a bottom view of two building models of the character illustrated in Fig. 5 which are placed together to represent the roof portion of a building; and
Fig. 10 is a bottom view of two building models of the character illustrated in Figs. 1 and 6 which are placed together to represent the main portion of the building.
In describing the forms of my invention exemplified by the accompanying drawings, specific terms will be employed for the sake of clarity, but it is to be expressly understood that the scope of the invention is not thereby limited, each such item being intended to embrace all equivalents which perform the same function for an analogous purpose.
With specific reference to Figs. 1 and 2 of the drawings, there is shown the block II], which may be of rigid material such as pulp board, wood, or the like, and may consist of solid or hollow material as desired. Block I preferably consists of a plurality of block units II which are all of equal size and are arranged in abutting relationship in a form representative of a building or portion thereof. The number I2 represents a piece of sheet material such as paper or the like. Such sheet material I2 has marked thereon a drawing representing the structural details of the elements of the building, such as the studs I 3, corner braces I4, and joists I5, for example. It is to be understood that the elements I3, I 4, I are not structural elements themselves but are actual representations of structural elements, marked on the piece of sheet material I2. Desirably the sheet material I2 constitutes originally a flat paper sheet, print, or the like bearing drawings illustrating the structural details of the building. The shape and character of such sheet will be readily apparent.
The piece of sheet material I2 is affixed to the block sections II as by gluing or the like and covers the entire exposed surface of the assembled block units II. Sheet material 12 thus holds the block units II together in the form of the buildin unit represented.
As indicated in Figs. 1 and 2, the overall size of each demonstration block may be modified by cutting the sheet material I 2 along lines corresponding to the planes of division intermediate the selected block sections II. This frees the composite units designated 24, 24a, which are runner units intermediate the ends, from the original block and any such composite runner unit 24, 24a may be removed from the block as indicated. The dimension of each block unit I I is predetermined with precision and corresponds to a definite number of structural pieces such as studs I3 and joists I5 which are represented on sheet material I2. Accordingly by cutting along lines corresponding to the planes of juncture of the block units II the structural pieces such as the studs I3 and joists I5 are also bisected. After the runner unit 24 has been removed, composite block end units 25, 25a and the remainder of the block model may be brought together. The bisected members such as studs I3 and joists I5 accordingly fit together to represent one full stud I3 or joist I5 and the units otherwise fit together for accurate representation of a building having a reduced size.
Referring particularly to Fig. 2, it will be apparent that the block units Ila may have triangular as well as rectangular faces for representation of the roof or other portion of a building. The block units I I, I la may extend longitudinally of or laterally of the building unit. As will become more fully apparent hereinafter, it is highly desirable in using the building models of the invention to have at hand at least two models of each building block, one of which has block units disposed laterally of the building model and the other of which has block units disposed longitudinally of the building model.
While the drawings or other markings on the sheet material I2 may be representative merely of basic structural parts of the building, such structure is conveniently and quickly modified by pasting or otherwise aflixing supplemental strips ISa, I91), I91: to sheet material I2. In Fig. 1, supplemental strip I9a represents the structural elements for constructing a large window, and is pasted on or otherwise afiixed to sheet material I2 thereby obscuring the markings on sheet material I2. Similarly, supplemental strips I9b and IBc represent respectively another window and a door. The structural details of supplemental strips Illa, I 91), I are all represented on the same scale and all parts are drawn to the same basic dimension as the drawings appearing on sheet material I2. Accordingly the drawings of sheet material I2, as modified by the drawings on the supplemental strips, constitute a complete, accurate set of working drawings in three dimensions and in a form readily understood by the layman. Since all the parts are drawn to the same basic dimension they may all be procured with convenience from a common source and the plans appearing on the model may be used by an inexperienced builder for erecting the building selected,
Having reference particularly to Fig. 3, the building model has a cover piece I 6 desirably constructed of sheet material such as paper or the like. Cover piece I6 is preferably formed from a suitably cut paper sheet, the shape and character of which will be apparent, and has markings representing the architectural appearance of the outside of the building. Such markings are preferably in the form of drawings and may represent siding, shingles, brick, stone, block, stucco, or the like. The cover piece IB has side walls I1, end walls 20, top 2| and an open bottom and is shaped to fit slidably and closely around the sheet material l2 which is attached to block I0, and to conform to the size and shape of the building model. The members I1, 20, 2I are preferably formed integrally from a blank folded along the edges 22 of top piece 2|, the free edges 23 being aflixed together as folding and by gluing. It will be understood that the cover piece I6 is separate from the block ID and from the piece of sheet material I2 aflixed to block I0, and that the walls I! and 20 are constructed and arranged to fit slidably over the sheet material I2 which is applied to the block sections I I, as indicated by the arrows appearing in Fig. 3.
It will be observed that the cover piece I6 has markings in the form of a plurality of parallel lines I8 disposed at uniformly spaced intervals on the upper surface of top 2I Such lines are placed in locations corresponding to the positions of structural members such as joists I5 and the like, and are also useful in determining the desired lo.-j cations of interior partitions. l,
Cover piece l6 also carries supplemental strips 29a, 29b, 290 which represent the architectural appearance of the windows and doors of the building and correspond in size, shape and loca-- tion to the supplemental strips l9a, I91), I90. Thus the modification in appearance, resulting from a modification as to structure, will be readily apparent.
Having reference to Figs. 4 and 5, it will be observed that cover piece 16a has triangular end Walls 20a together with sloping top members 2 la which are formed integrally with one another. Flaps'32 are formed integrally with the individ-' ual top members cm. The cover piece 16a represents the architectural appearance of the roof of a building and carries markings preferably in the form of drawings representing roofing material such as slate, shingles, or the like. Cover piece 16a is likewise constructed and arranged to fit slidably and closely upon the sheet material l2 of the corresponding block Illa and to be removed therefrom in order to demonstrate the structural details of the building represented by the model. Supplemental strips 30 and 31 may be applied in the manner previously described.
Having reference to Fig. 6, it will be observed that the planes of division between block units I I run longitudinally of the block lil, rather than laterally of block H! as in Fig. 1. It will be appreciated that wide varieties of size reductions to produce large numbers of different building models can be accomplished by the use of blocks of alternate form, examples of which appear in Figs. 1, 2 and 6. The cover pieces l6, [6a may also be cut along corresponding lines and reassembled for attainment of a close fit on the block members so reduced in size.
As indicated in Figs. 7 and 8 the building models of the invention are also adapted to be fitted together in a wide variety of ways in order to portray in three dimensions the appearance and structure of buildings of difierent sizes and shapes. Rectangular building models 26 may form supports for block models 26a each having a triangular cross section representative of the roof portion of a building. In Figs. '7 and 8 there are represented two of a wide variety of building designs which may be portrayed by rearranging the models of this invention and substituting certain models for others. In Fig. 7 four building model units are placed together to represent the actual appearance of an L-shaped building. By merely shifting the block models 26a and substituting one roof model for another the building model of Fig. '7 may readily be modified to assume the form represented in Fig. 8.
Referring to Figs. 9 and 10, it will be observed that structural details of the bottom elements of the respective portions of the building are represented on the bottoms of the corresponding models. Thus, the building models of the invention show all the structural details necessary for actual construction of the building. The structural elements represented on the bottoms of the models are all drawn to the same basic dimension as the structural elements represented on the sides and tops of the models and are spaced accordingly and in such manner that substitution and rearrangement of block units will be easily and realistically accomplished.
The model units are constructed on multiples of a basic dimension of 16 inches and are readily and conveniently interchangeable. Moreover, with each interchange or modification of design the purchaser is continuously made-aware of the effect of the change on the appearance of the building, and on the overall-cost of materials therefor. Moreover, he is at all times provided with a realistic three dimensional set of ele-- vations and structural details for the construction for the building.
It will be appreciated that, while the separate cover pieces of the apparatus are defined (in certain of the claims) as having walls which are constructed and arranged to fit closely over the exposed surface of the inner block, the term walls is intended to include the sheet or other elements which contact the side-walls. roof, cornices, and other elements of the building represented by the model, and is not restricted to those portions of the separate cover pieces which represent the side walls of a building as contrasted to its roof, for example. Such walls may be rectangular, angular, curved or of any other shape which corresponds to the surface shape of the particular building model over which it is to be fitted.
While I have shown and described in detail the apparatus and method constituting one form of my invention, it will be appreciated that modifications in the sequence of steps of the method, and modifications as to the form of the apparatus, including substitution of mechanical equivalents, reversals of parts and the use of certain parts independently of the use of others, all fall within the spirit and scope of the invention as denfied in the appended claims.
Having thus described my invention, I claim:
1. A model of a building unit comprising a block divided into a plurality of separate adjacent block units, a fixed cover piece of sheet material afiixed to all said block units thereby holding the block units together, said fixed cover piece carrying markings on its exposed surface representing the structural details of the building unit, and a removable sheet material cover piece having a shape corresponding to the shape of the fixed cover piece, said removable cover piece being constructed to fit slidably over the fixed cover piece and carrying markings representing the outside of the building unit.
2. The model defined in claim 1 wherein the block, fixed cover piece and removable cover piece are all rectangular in shape, the removable cover piece having a top and four sides and being open at the bottom.
3. The model defined in claim 1 wherein the block, fixed cover piece and removable cover piece are all triangular in shape, the removable cover piece having inclined top portions and be ing open at the bottom.
4. The building model defined in claim 1 wherein the block units are all substantially identical in size, and wherein the markings on the fixed cover piece are located at the extremities of the block units, whereby a predetermined reduction can be made in the size of the model by cutting the sheet material along the markings corresponding to a block unit and removing the block unit from the model.
5. A building model comprising a block of material having a shape corresponding to that of a building unit, first sheet material affixed to the surface of said block, said first sheet material covering the block and being adapted to represent the basic structural details of the building unit, a strip of sheet material which is smaller than said first sheet material, means for atfixing said strip to said first sheet material to represent a modification of the basic structural details of the building unit a separate cover piece having walls constructed and arranged to fit slidably over the sheet material affixed to said block, said cover piece representing the outside appearance of the building unit, and a second strip of sheet material affixed to said cover piece in a position corresponding to the location of the first strip, said second strip having a size and shape corresponding to the size and shape of the first strip and being adapted to represent the outside appearance of the modified structure represented by said first strip HENRY-H.- enoscrous.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number 5 1,673,413 1,736,134 2,118,338 2,315,463 2,501,520 10 2,522,149
Number Name Date Marden June 12, 1928 Rutherford Nov. 19, 1929 Bolhuis May 24, 1938 Tingley Mar. 30, 1943 Howard Mar. 21, 1950 Tunstall Sept. 12, 1950 FOREIGN PATENTS Country Date Great Britain Aug. 21, 1942 Great Britain Sept. 8, 1942 Great Britain July 6. 1948
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