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Número de publicaciónUS2702615 A
Tipo de publicaciónConcesión
Fecha de publicación22 Feb 1955
Fecha de presentación15 Jun 1951
Fecha de prioridad15 Jun 1951
Número de publicaciónUS 2702615 A, US 2702615A, US-A-2702615, US2702615 A, US2702615A
InventoresJohn F Morse
Cesionario originalJohn F Morse
Exportar citaBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
Enlaces externos: USPTO, Cesión de USPTO, Espacenet
Dual control for marine craft
US 2702615 A
Imágenes(5)
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Descripción  (El texto procesado por OCR puede contener errores)

Feb. 22, 1955 J. F. MORSE DUAL CONTROL FOR MARINE CRAFT 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed June 15, 1951 not INVENTOR.

ATTORNEYS JOHN F MORSE I 1; HI

J. F. MORSE DUAL CONTROL FOR MARINE CRAFT Feb. 22, 1955 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed June 15, 1951 INVENTOR.

JOHN F: MORSE ATTORNEYS Feb. 22, 1955 J. F. MORSE DUAL CONTROL FOR MARINE CRAFT 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed June 15, 1951 INI'ENTOR. JOHN F. HORSE ATTOR/IEVS Feb. 22, 1955 J. F. MORSE 2,702,615

- DUAL.CONTROL FOR MARINE CRAFT Filed June 15, 1951 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTOR.

JOHN E MORSE ATTORNEYS Feb. 22, 1955 J. F. MORSE DUAL CONTROL FOR MARINE CRAFT 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed June 15. 1951 INVENTOR JOHN E MORSE BY T 3! ATTORNE United States Patent O DUAL CONTROL FOR MARINE CRAFT John F. Morse, Hudson, Ohio Application June 15, 1951, Serial No. 231,781 14 Claims. cuss-.096

The present invention relates to control mechanism to be used primarily for the operation of the clutch and throttle of marine engines and, while it is shown and described as installed and operated on a power boat, the principles thereof may be applied to other uses than the control of marine engines.

In my prior application Serial No. 78,029, filed February 24, 1949, now Patent No. 2,588,650, there is shown and described a mechanism for controlling the operation of the clutch and the throttle of the engine by a single lever with interlocking and control devices which insure that the clutch is operated while the throttle is at low idling speed, the speed of the engine being regulated by continued movement of the lever after the clutch has been shifted to forward or reverse. The invention to which the present application is directed is primarily intended for use in combination with a control mechanism similar to that shown in the said prior application. While sufficient details of the mechanism shown in the prior application are incorporated in the present application to complete the operative combina' tions, reference is made to the said prior application for such further details as may be desirable or necessary to a complete understanding of the present invention.

The purpose of the present invention is to devise a control mechanism which will be used where two stations are provided on the boat from which the engine may be operated selectively. It becomes necessary under certain conditions to install one control unit in one part of the boat and a second or auxiliary control unit in another part of the boat. This occasion usually arises where one control'is on the bridge and the second control is in the closed cabin.

The mechanism shown herein makes it possible to control the operation of the engine from either station selectively. One of the purposes of the invention is to provide, with the dual control device, means for preventing the operation of the engine from one station while it is being operated from the other station. The prevention of interference which would arise if the control unit at one station were .not rendered inoperative while the control unit at the other station is being operated is an important feature of this invention. If, for example, the inoperative control could be moved while the operative control is in forward, with the throttle fully opened, the clutch would be disengaged, which would cause the engine to accelerate to a dangerous speed and result in severe damage to the reverse gear when the control lever was returned to neutral.

It will be seen, therefore, that in adapting the engine control device to a dualcontrol installation it is essential for safe operation to make it impossible for the engine control to be operated from two stations at the same time. 4

The mechanism which is the subject of the present invention prevents any person other than the one who is in actual control of the engine from interfering with that control. In craft such, for example, as deep sea fishing boats, where, as a rule, the pilot is located on the upper deck of the cabin, it is essential for safety that the control mechanism in the enclosed cabin be rendered inoperative to prevent a passenger from tamp ing with the engine.

In the drawings and the description is shown the best known and preferred mechanism for accomplishing the purposes .of the invention, but it is understood that the 2,702,615 Patented Feb. 22, 1955 the scope thereof as set forth in theappended claims. It is also understood that the invention is not limited to use on power boats if other uses become apparent.

Referring to the drawings:

Fig. 1 is a layout of the complete installation showing the connections from the two separate control stations. In this view, one of the control units which will be designated as the bridge control is given the letter A, while the other or cabin control unit is given the letter B.

Fig. 2 is a view showing one of the control units in position when the clutch is in forward and the throttle opened for full speed ahead.

\ Fig. 3 is a detail of the interlocking gearing in a conis? unit when the clutch is in neutral and the engine 1 ing.

Fig. 4 is a similar view showing the position of the interlocking gears when the clutch is engaged and the throttle is opened.

Fig. 5 is a view of the clutch operating unit when in neutral.

Fig. 6 is a view showing the position of the parts when the clutch has been moved to forward by the operation of the control unit A.

Fig. 7 is a view showing the position of the parts when the clutch has been moved to forward by the operation of the control unit B.

Fig. 8 is a view showing the throttle operating unit when the throttle is closed or at its low idling speed.

Fig. 9 is a view showing the position of the parts whenAthe throttle is opened by the operation of control unit Fig. 10 is a view showing the position of the parts when the throttle is opened by the operation of the control unit B.

Fig. 11 is a cross section through the clutch operating The control units As has been indicated above, there are provided two control units, one of which is indicated at A and the other at B. These control units are identical in construction and follow the disclosure of my prior application Serial No. 78,029, now Patent No. 2,588,650. So much of the construction of a control unit is given as will enable the present invention and its relation thereto, and the general combination, to be understood. Each control unit is characterized by the presence of a single manually operated control lever 1, mounted on the end of a shaft 2 mounted in a housing 3, carried on a plate 4, which is located at the pilots station either in the cabin or on the bridge, or other place, as explained.

The power plant of the boat may therefore be operated by the pilot at either location on the boat.

Within the housing there is fixed to the shaft 2 a master gear 8. At one side of the shaft 2, here shown as below, is located a second shaft 9 which is connected to and operates the clutch; at the other side is a third shaft 10 which is connected to and operates the throttle, as will be. described. The master gear 8 is of the Geneva type, having two toothed segments a and b separated by a smooth segment c Opposite the smooth segment c is a shorter toothed segment I which is separated from the segment b by a smooth segment d and from the segment a by a smooth segment 2.

On the shaft 10 is fixed a small gear 12, the greater part of which is provided with a toothed segment g which is adapted to be brought into mesh with either gear segment a or b on gear 8, depending upon the direction of rotation of the shaft 2. There is also provided on the periphery of gear 12 a smooth segment h which is adapted to ride on the smooth segment c while the clutch is in neutral and until it has been engaged in.

either forwarder reverse, depending upon the direction of movement of the control lever 1, as shown by the arrows in Fig. 1. After the clutch is fully engaged, continued rotation of the shaft 2 will cause rotation of the shaft opening the throttle to the extent desired by the pilot. Usually, the throttle is set so that when the clutch is in neutral the engine will be at its low idling speed. The purpose of the control unit is to insure that the clutch is engaged while the engine operating at the proper speed. It will also be noted that the throttle cannot be moved independently of the operation of the lever 1.

Referring now to the clutch control. On the shaft 9 long sleeve 41, through which the core 23 extends. The

imparted to those devices.

is fixed the disk 15 which is provided with a short toothed segment i which is in mesh with the toothed segment f on the gear 8 when the clutch is in neutral and the throttle at low idling speed. At the sides of the segment i are smooth segments i, one of which is adapted to ride on the smooth segment d or 2, depending upon the direction in which the lever 1 is operated, after the clutch is fully engaged.

It will be seen from the foregoing that when the lever l is moved in one direction or the other from its upright or neutral position, the clutch will first be shifted, either to forward or reverse, and on continued movement of the lever the throttle will be opened. The clutch is held in its engaged position by the engagement of either segment 1' with segment d or e, but this does not interfere with the free operation of the throttle after the clutch is engaged.

Further description of the details of the control unit far end of the core 18 secured in a thimble 42, the outer end of which is threaded. The inner end of the thimble 42 is smooth and is rotatably mounted in a tube 44 being held from longitudinal movement with respect to the tube by a ridge 45 pressed down from the stock of the tube and entering a groove 46 in the thimble. The tube 44 is telescopically received over the sleeve 41 so that it may move thereon with the movement of the core 23. The construction just described forms a rigid support for the end of the core so that the flexible core is prevented from buckling at or near the point of its attachment to any of the operating devices whereby a direct thrust is The coil spring extension 37 permits sufficient flexibility of the cable to allow for the rocking of the entire telescoping assembly.

The central portions of the plates 27 and 28' are cut out to form openings 50 and located above each of those openings is a long relatively narrow slot 52. Located at these slots and between the two plates 27 and 28 is a double lever 54, at the center of which is a pivot pin 55 extending at either side thereof and riding in the two slots 52.

At each extremity of the rocker arm or lever 54 is pivotally attached by a pin 57 a clevis 58, in the closed free end of which is threaded the thimble 42 which is are not considered to be necessary, other than to state that the shaft 10 is extended through the casing 3 and is provided with a rocker arm 16 which hangs vertically when the clutch is in neutral so that movement of the lever 1 in either direction will operate a flexible control cable which extends to the throttle operating unit. In Fig. 1 the throttle cable assembly for the unit A is marked 18a andfor the unit B is marked 18b. The shaft 9 likewise extends beyond the casing 3 and to it is secured the rocker arm 19 which, when the clutch is in neutral, extends horizontally but will rock up or down depending upon whether the clutch is placed in forward or reverse. The outer end of each arm 19 is connected to a clutch operating cable, that extending from the unit A being marked 20a and that from the unit B being marked 20b.

The cables are of any preferred type of flexible push pull cable, each having the usual outercovering or flexible casing 21 and the inner core or cable 23 which is movable longitudinally in the casing and is connected to the operating parts of the device at either end. The cables are attached at appropriate places to the boat or other structure by clips such as shown at 22.

Clutch operating unit The two units which have been designated as the clutch operating unit and the throttle operating unit are quite similar but, due to certain requirements peculiar to clutch operation, the clutch operating unit is modified in certain details and will be first described. The clutch operating unit is given the general reference character 24 and the throttle operating unit is given the general reference character 25 These units are located at points adjacent the engine.

Referring to the clutch operating unit:

This unit 24 is housed and operated in a bracket composed of two oppositely turned plates 27 and 28 vertically set and spaced apart. Each plate is formed with a flange 29 along its lower edge by which the unit is fixed in its location on the boat. The two plates are held in spaced relation by a block 30 located in the upper corner of the plates and riveted to the plates at 31 and by sleeves 32 held in place by through rivets 33. Press-fitted in the block 30 is a stout rod 34, the outer end of which is received in a bore formed in a clamping plate 35 and held in position therein by bolts 36. On either side of the plate 35, coiled spring wire extensions 37 of the two cables 20a and 20b are firmly clamped by plates 38 held to the wings of the plate 35 by the bolts 39. By this means the termini of the cables 20a and 20!) are held in their proper position with respect to the clutch operating Oh the end of each casing 21 is swaged or otherwise fixed a collar 40 in which is rigidly supported a relatively held in the clevis by-a lock nut 59. When the unit is assembled and the clutch in neutral position, the pin 55 is located at the midway point of the slot 52, the requisite adjustment being secured by the setting of the clamps 38 on the plate 35. For convenience, the central point is indicated by suitable markings on the unit.

Over the pin 55 at the sides of the lever 54 are mounted links 60 which extend toward the rear of the clutch operating unit where they are received over a pin 61 which passes through a sector plate 63 located between the ends of the links. Washers 65 are located on the pin 55 between the links and the inner surfaces of plates 27 and 28.

The sector 63 is pivotally mounted on a pin 66 in the lower rear corner of the unit, washers 67 being located at either side of the sector plate to guide it during its rocking movement. The outer rim of the sector plate is provided with a series of holes 69 in any one of which may be secured a pin 70, on one end of which is the ball formation 71 which forms a rocking mounting for a thimble 72 mounted on the end of a connecting rod 74. The pin 70 may be secured in any one of the holes 69 by a lock nut 75 threaded on the end of the pin. This arrangement permits the link 74 to be adjusted to the correct point for operation of the clutch.

The clutch, which is not shown, may be of any standard type with provisions for shifting from neutral to forward or reverse. It is operated by a shaft '78 from the rod 74 through the lever arm 79 clamped to the shaft 78 and attached at its outer end to the rod 74 by the clevis 80.

Extending from the sides of the lever 54 between the pin 55 and the upper pins 57 is a pin a which extends on either side of the lever and is free to move for a limited distance in the space above the plates 27 and 28. Located in a like position below the pin 55 and extending into the space 50 at either side of the unit is a similar pin 85b. It will be noted, as shown in Fig. 12, that the ends of the pins will clear the plates 27 and 28.

For the clutch operating unit there is attached, by screws 84, to the top of each plate 27 and 28 an escutcheon or stop plate 86. This stop plate has a centrally located horizontal slot 87 which corresponds to and is located in register with the slot 52. On the top and bottom edges of each plate 86 are inturned flanges 88 which overlie the adjacent edges of side plates. As shown in Figs. 11 and 12, these flanges project toward one another and are deep enough so that the flanges along the upper edges of the stop plates will lie in the path of the pin 85a. Similarly, the flanges along the lower edges of the stop plates will lie in the path of the pin 85b. The purpose of the pins 85a and 85b and the flanges on the stop plates is to arrest the movement of the lever 54 in the manner which will be set forth in the following description of the operation.

Operation The clutch is in neutral position as shown in full lines in Fig. 1, with the lever arms 19 on the control units in horizontal position and with the pivot pin 55 at the central position in the slot 52, as shown by the arrows on the stop plate. It is desired now to shift the clutch into forward by the operation of the control unit A, the control unit B and its lever arm 19 being undisturbed. The pilot now moves the lever 1 on control unit A to the left, which lowers the arm 19 and a thrust to the left is exerted on the upper end of the rocker arm 54, which, through pivoted sector 63 and link 74, rotates the lever aim 79 to the left into the position of the parts as shown in Fig. 6. During this movement, the arm 54 has been pivoting about the lower pin 57 which is fixed at the time through its connection to the unit B. At the same time, the pin 55 has been moving to the left hand end of the slot 52, causing the sector plate 63 to rock through the operation of the links 60. In this operation the pin 85a has cleared the upper flanges on the stop plates 86 but .he pin 85b is brought in contact with lower flanges of the stop plates at the end of the shifting movement.

The boat will now be moving forward, the speed depending upon whatever further movement is given to 20 the lever 1. Should some unauthorized person seekto tamper with the control unit at station B, any movement of the lever 1 at that station will be effectively blocked by the contact of the pin 85b.

The above is clear from the showing of the parts in Fig. 7 where the clutch has been shifted into forward by the operation of the control unit B. In this case, the movement of the lever 1 causes the lower cable 20b to move to the left, whereupon the upper pivot pin 57 is the fixed point, but the pin 55 again moves to the left hand end of slot 52. In this case, the pin 85a moves into contact with the upper flanges on the stop plates at the end of the shifting movement.

Assuming that the parts are in the position shown in Fig. 6 and that someone is tampering with the control lever 1 at station B, he cannot move the lever 1 to shift the clutch into forward because it is already in forward. Neither can he move the control lever 1 in the other direction, which would normally cause the cable 20b to move to the right and the clutch to return to neutral or reverse, because the pin 85b cannot move to the right due to the interference of the flanges on the stop plate.

The movement of the parts on shifting from neutral to reverse is the opposite of that shown in Figs. 6 and 7, respectively. Operating from either station A or B, the appropriate control cable will move to the right, causing either end of the lever 54 to shift to the right and the pin 55 to move to the right hand end of the slot 52. In this case likewise the pin 85a or the pin 85b will act to prevent unauthorized movement of the clutch control unit while the clutch is in reverse. The position of the parts in reverse is shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 6.

Throttle operating unit With a few exceptions, the throttle operating unit 25 is of the same general construction as the clutch operating unit 24; however, it will be noted that there is no possibility of unauthorized tampering with the throttle. This is because, due to the construction of the control unit, the throttle cannot be operated while the lever 1 is in neutral position, and it is only after the clutch has been engaged that the throttle is capable of operation. As the mechanism which has been described in connection with the clutch operating unit prevents unauthorized operation of the clutch by the unit not under control of the pilot,

the throttle cannot be operated at that unit. Hence the stop plates 86, omitted from the throttle operating unit 25, and the pins 85a and 85b perform no function and may be eliminated if desired. I

It is not necessary to give a detailed description of most of the operating parts of the throttle operating units as they are the same as for the control units and bear the same reference numerals. One difference is that the throttle operating unit is set so that the pin 55 is at the left hand end of slot 52 when the throttle, which is operated by the shaft 90, is closed or in its low idling position. Movement of the cables to open the throttle 'is always to the right whether the clutch is in forward or reverse.

If the boat is being operated from control unit A, movement of the lever 1 to open the throttle will cause the lever 54 to rock about the lower pivot pin 57 in clockwise direction, the pin 55 moving to the right in slot 52 and the sector plate 63 likewise moving as shown by a comparison of Figs. 8 and 9.

On operating from station B, the upper pivot pin 57 is stationary and the lever arm 54 moves counterclockwise, but the resultant movement of the sector 63 and the throttle shaft is the same. This is shown in Fig. 10.

It .is believed that the'operation. of the device will have been made clear by the foregoing. It will be seen that there has been created a combination of elements which prevent accidents because of the presence of two control units on a boat. The pilot who is operating the 10 boat cannot be interfered with by tampering with the idle control unit.

Many of the details and refinements shown and described herein are subject to change and modification, and it is not intended that the invention shall be limited to the specific mechanism shown. While the type of control unit which is the subject of the copending application is preferred, other control units may be substituted therefor provided the objects and purposes of this invention are attained.

What is claimed is:

1. Control mechanism for power craft or the like having an engine provided with a clutch, said mechanism comprising two control units each having a single manual control device, clutch shifting means, means to actuate the throttle, means operated by said devices to shift the clutch of the engine from neutral to forward or reverse,

said, last named means including a movable arm connected to the clutch shifting means, operating connectionsfrom each control device to the arm and to the throttle actuating means, and a stop device to prevent the movement of the arm by one control unit after the arm has been moved by the other unit to shift the clutch out of neutral. 3r 2. Control mechanism for power craft or the like having an engine provided with a clutch, said mechanism comprising two control units each having a single manual control device, clutch shifting means, means operated by said devices including a movable arm connected to the clutch shifting means to shift the clutch of the engine from neutral to forward or reverse, means to actuate the throttle only after the clutch has been shifted from neutral, operating connections from each control device to the arm and to the throttle actuating means, and a stop device to prevent the movement of the arm by one control unit after the arm has been moved by the other unit to shift the clutch out of neutral.

3. Control mechanism for power craft or the like comprising two control units each having a single manual control arm, a clutch operating unit and a throttle operating unit each having a control lever, mechanical connections from each control unit to the clutch operating lever and mechanical connections from each control unit to the throttle operating lever, and stop means in the clutch operating unit to prevent operation of the clutch operating lever by both control units simultaneously.

4. Control mechanism for power craft or the like comprising two control units each having a single manual control arm, a clutch operating unit and a throttle operating unit each having a control lever, mechanical connections from each control unit to the clutch operating lever and mechanical connections from each control unit to the throttle operating lever, stop means in the clutch operating unit to prevent operation of the clutch operating lever by both control units simultane ousiy, and means in the control units for preventing operation of the throttle operating unit by both control units simultaneously.

5. Control mechanism for operating the clutch of an engine comprising a clutch operating unit having a shaft operatively connected to the clutch, a pair of manually operated control devices each connected to the clutch operating unit, said clutch operating unit having a movable element and connections from said element to the clutch operating shaft, and a stop device in said clutch operating unit to arrest reverse movement of the said element by one of said control devices after the clutch has been shifted out of neutral by the operation of the other control device.

6. Control mechanism for operating the clutch of an engine comprising a clutch operating unit having a shaft operatively connected to the clutch, a pair of manually operated control devices each connected to the clutch operating unit, said clutch operating unit having a movable element and connections from said element to the clutch operating shaft, a stop device in said clutch 0pcrating unit to arrest reverse movement or the said element by one of said control devices after the clutch has been shifted out of neutral by the operation of the other control device, and a throttie operating unit and mechanical operating connections from each of said control devices to the throttle Operating unit.

7. Control mechanism for operating the clutch of an engine comprising a clutch operating unit having a shaft operatively connected to the clutch, a pair of manually operated control devices each connected to the clutch operating unit, said clutch operating unit having a rocking lever, connections from said lever to the clutch operating shaft, and a stop on the lever and movable into contact with a part of the clutch operating unit when the clutch has been shifted from neutral by the operation of one of said control devices to prevent reverse movement of the lever by the other control device.

8. Control mechanism for operating the clutch of an engine comprising a clutch operating unit, a rocking lever in said clutch operating unit, a clutch operating shaft, connections from the lever to the clutch operating shaft, two manually operated control devices, a connection for rocking the lever extending from one end of the lever to one of said control devices, a second connection for rocking the lever extending from the other end of the lever to the other manually operated control device, and a stop engaging the lever after it has been rocked by either of said control devices to prevent movement of the lever by the other of said control devices.

9. Control mechanism for operating the clutch of an engine comprising a clutch operating unit, a rocking lever in said unit, a cable pivotally connected to each end of the lever, two manually operated control devices, one of said cables being connected to one of said control devices and the other cable being connected to the other control device, clutch shifting means operated by the movement of said lever by either control device. and a stop engaging the lever after it has been rocked by either of said control devices to prevent movement of the lever by the other of said control devices to shift the clutch out of neutral.

10. Control mechanism for operating the clutch and throttle of an engine comprising a clutch operating unit, a throttle operating unit, a rocking lever in each unit, clutch shifting means operated by the lever in the first said unit, a cable pivotally connected to each end of each lever, two manually operated control devices, each of said control devices being connected to the lever in the throttle operating unit and to the lever in the clutch operating unit, and means to prevent the movement of the lever in the clutch operating unit by one of said control devices after it has been moved by the other control device to shift the clutch out of neutral.

11. In a mechanism for controlling the operation of a marine engine comprising two manually operated con trol devices, each of said devices having a single opcrating arm, a throttle operating device and a clutch operating device, means actuated by the single move ment of either operating arm to actuate the clutch operating device and thereafter to actnatethe throttle op crating device, and a stop in the clutch operating device movable upon the shifting of the clutch out of neutral by either control device to prevent reverse movement of the clutch by the other control device.

12. In a mechanism for controlling the operation of a marine engine, a clutch operating device and a throttle operating device, two independent manually operated control devices each having a single operating arm, means operated by the movement of either arm to actuate the clutch operating device to shift the clutch from neutral to forward or reverse, and means operated after the clutch has been shifted out of neutral by a continuation of the movement of the arm to actuate the throttle operating device, and a stop in the clutch operating device movable upon shifting of the clutch out of neutral by either control device for preventing movement of the clutch by the other control device. a

13. In a device for controlling the operation of a marine engine consisting of two independently operable manual control devices, a clutch operating unit and a throttleoperating unit, both of said units being oper able by either control device, mechanical means in each control device to shift the clutch out of neutral into forward or reverse and then to operate the throttle, and

means in the clutch operating unit for inhibiting the operation of one control device after the clutch operating unit has moved the clutch out of neutral.

14. In a device for controlling the operation of a marine engine consisting of two independently operable manual control devices, a clutch operating unit and a throttle operating unit, mechanical connections between each control device and the clutch operating unit and the throttle operating unit to actuate the said units in succession, and means for inhibiting the operation of one control device'after the clutch operating unit. hi1"; moved the clutch out of neutral, said last named means including a stop in the clutch operating unit movable on the shifting of the clutch into position to arrest rcverse movement of the clutch operating de ice,

References Cited in the file of this patent.

UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,625,563 Payne Apr. 19, 1927 2,077,150 McWhirter et al. Apr. 13, 1937 2,358,094 Panish Sept. 12, 1944 2,444,364- Panish June 29, 1948 2,588,650 Morse Mar. 11, 1952

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Clasificaciones
Clasificación de EE.UU.477/113, 74/490.15, 74/483.00R, 440/86, 114/144.00R, 192/83, 74/DIG.800, 74/30, 440/87
Clasificación internacionalG05G11/00, B63H21/22
Clasificación cooperativaY10S74/08, G05G11/00, B63H21/213
Clasificación europeaB63H21/21B, G05G11/00