US 2858830 A
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N034, 1958 r J. s, ROB-INS 2,858,830
SURGICAL DRESSING Filed 001:. 1, 1956 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 22 Fig. 7
John S. Robins ATTORNEY Nov. 4, 1958 J. s. ROBINS SURGICAL DRESSING Filed Oct. 1, 1956 2 Sheets-Shet 2 p 28 D 5 a d 22' T, T fl A I Fig. I2 35 2:
John S. Robins BY ATTORN'EY United States Patent G SURGICAL DRESSING John S. Robins, Denver, Colo., assignor to Frank C.
This invention relates to surgical dressing and more particularly to that class of surgical dressings which include a facing of absorbent compressible contacting material, a primary object of the invention being to provide a novel and improved surgical dressing having a facing of contacting material expansibly reactive to moisture and "characterized by enhanced efficiency and facility of use.
A further object of the invention is to provide a surgical dressing having a facing of contact material susceptible of imparting a light, but uniformly consistent pressure upon an area covered by the dressing without the necessity of extensive, tight bandages to hold the dressing facing in place against the selected area.
A further object of the invention is to provide a surgical dressing having a facing of contact material of high absorptive capacity and expansibility to bear against the irregular surfaces of a wound or like laceration to hold loose tissue portions in place and to fill gaps and pocks.
A further object of the invention is to provide a surgical dressing having a facing of contact material of high absorptive capacity and expansibility which is remarkably effective as a hemostatic compress and as a poultice to draw out the infectious fluids and serum of a boil or the like.
A further object of the invention is to provide a surgical dressing which may be used for pressure bandages and which will impart a selected, uniformly consistent, non-resilient pressure against a limb so bandaged regardless of the manner or efiiciency of the wrapping of the bandage.
, A further object of the invention is to provide a surgical dressing having a facing of contact material of remarkable softness and freedom from adhering to healing tissue when protecting and contacting such tissue.
, A further object of the invention is to provide a surgical dressing that is simple and inexpensive of production from readily available materials in any desired appropriate type, size or form, that is wholly non-irritating and comfortable in use, and that is advantageously positive and effective in attainment of the ends for which designed.
Yet other objects of the invention are to provide a novel and improved series and correlation of steps'constituting methods for the production of surgical dressings.
With the foregoing and other objects in view, my invention consists in the construction, arrangement, and
operative combination of elements, and in the nature washed to elimination of thepore-forming substance z a finger with the patch wrapped thereon, illustrating a typical use of the patch.
Figure 4 is a perspective underside view of the patch, similar to Fig. 2, but illustrating the expandible elements thereof as being fully expanded.
Figure 5 is a sectional detail somewhat diagrammatic in nature, as taken from they indicated line 5-5 atFig. 3 but on an enlarged scale and illustrating expandible elements thereof as being partially expanded reactive to the effect of moisture.
Figure 6 is a perspective view of another embodiment of my invention, wherein the concepts of the invention are applied to form a surgical wrapping strip.
Figure 7 is a fragmentary sectional detail as taken from the indicated line 7-7 at Fig. 6.
Figure 8 is a fragmentary sectional detail, similar to Fig. 7, but illustrating expandible elements thereof as being fully expanded. i
Figure 9 is a perspective view of an individuals leg with the strip being wrapped thereon, illustrating a typical use of the strip. I.
Figure 10 is a sectional detail, somewhat diagrammatic in nature, as taken from the indicated line 10-10 at Fig. 9, but on an enlarged scale and illustrating expandible elements thereof as being partially expanded reactive to the effect of moisture.
Figure 11 is a composite perspective view, diagrammatic in nature illustrating a series of sequential steps in the formation of a surgical patch such as the embodiment illustrated at Fig. 1 to 5.
Figure 12 is a diagrammatic sectional view depicting a continuous process for the formation of surgical dress.- ing such as the embodiment illustrated at Figs. 6 to 10.
Surgical dressings are prepared in many forms and for many different uses, and the basic elements that might be considered as constituting a surgical dressing include a pad or facing which may be applied to a wound or surface which is being dressed and a wrapping or cover which functions to hold the facing in position. Conventionally, the facing is usually a form of gauze or similar soft relatively absorbent material while the cover may be a simple cloth strip or, as in the case of surgical patches, an adhesive strip such as the commonly known surgical adhesive tape. In some instances, the cloth cover may even constitutethe facing where an extensive wrapping is necessary. Regardless of the type of dressing used, the common gauze facing has certain limitations of absorbability, tends'to stick to tissue and is difficult to apply with a uniformly consistent delicate pressure so often desirable intsurgical dressings. With such in 'view,"the present invention was conceived and developed in order to correct certaindeficiencies in conventional surgical dressings and to impart entirely new characteristics and capa bilitiesto surgical dressings distinguishedby advantageous facility and en; hanced effectiveness of use; and incidental thereto the invention conceives and contemplates improved and simplified methods for the production of such improved sur-v gical dressings, all. as more fully hereinafter. described in detail.
-It was discovered that artificial sponge materials .of regenerated cellulose type as conventionally produced and commonly available have properties of texture, porosf ity, resilience and absorptivity eminently suiting them for use as facing or contact material against fleshas in the facing of a dressing. Of somewhat diverse particue larity, artificial sponge materials appropriate ,for, the processing and uses hereinafter described result from the coagulation by means of heat and possible chemical ac-' tion of an initially plastic mass of viscose, fibres and a' soluble, pore-forming substance such as salt particles. Where a body of such sponge is formed, coagulated',
dried, the coagulated mass is an artificial sponge of moderate rigidity having a rather rough, scratchy surface texture and a high absorptive afiinity for moisture, which, when wet, is resiliently pliable and gently surface adher- When properly molded, the surface of the mass defined by the mold boundaries forms a smooth, though absorptive skin, which, when wet, has a delicately soft texture. Applying the known and peculiarly suitable properties of conventional cellulosic, artificial sponge materials to convenient and advantageous use in and for the production of surgical dressings and facing therefor, the product of the instant invention is developed from, and the method of the invention isapplied to, any such available material-having the characteristics and attribute above noted.
It has been established that conventional, cellulosic artificial sponge material yields promptly and readily to pressure with a consequent compaction and major reduction in bulk which becomes set and persist after the pressure is removed when the material is thoroughly dry, or dried, as through the application thereto, while under compression, of moderate heat effective to expedite dehydration thereof. Further, it has been determined that the material when compressed and set retains a high absorptive affinity for moisture which reacts through capil- 'lary penetration thereof to release the set and to restore the material to substantially its original bulk and to the resilient, pliable, surface soft condition characteristic of the original material when wet. Uniquely utilizing and correlating the attributes and potentialities of the artificial sponge materials above discussed, the present invention resides in a novel working of such material to form and condition practical and convenient use as surgical dressing and facing therefor and in the distinctive products so formed.
Referring more particularly to the drawing, Figs. 1 to 5 illustrate a common patch type surgical dressing constructed in accordance with the invention to provide for enhanced efiiciency of use. The patch consists of an elongate, rectangular cover strip 11 and a smaller facing pad 12 afiixed to the central portion of the underside thereof. The underside of the extended ends of the strip 11 are coated with a pressure sensitive adhesive of a type adapted to adhere to skin as is commonly used in such dressings and these ends form attaching flaps 13 for application of the patch to a body member. Such adhesive coating may extend across the entire underface of the strip 11 and serve as a binder to hold the facing pad in position. Since the strip 11 is of conventional material which may be tightly woven cloth or plastic film and the adhesive itself is substantially impermeable, the strip 11 is perforated above the pad 12 as by orifices 14 for ventilation and to facilitate wetting of the pad 12 as with antiseptics.
The facing pad 12 comprises a block of cellulosic, artificial sponge material which is preferably rectangular and is suitably proportioned in length and breadth to conform with the strip 11 and is of substantial thickness in its expanded natural state. Taking advantage, however, of the natural ability of the sponge to be compressively set, the pad 12 is carried upon the patch 10 as a flat dehydrated wafer having a thickness not substantially greater than the thickness of the cloth strip 11 since the compressed wafer may be in the order of one-twentieth of the original thickness of the sponge block. -In use, this pad will react with moisture to release the set and to expand to substantially its original bulk as hereinafter described in detail.
Figure 11 illustrates, diagrammatically, a convenient sequence of steps for the manufacture of a patch-type surgical dressing as illustrated at Figs. 1 to 5. To initiate'the operation, the strip 11.and sponge block 12' are prepared to size. Next, the strip 11 is prepared by coatwithadhesive and the orifices 14 are cuttherein. At the same time, the sponge block 12' is compressed, dehydrated and set to the form of a wafer 12. Finally, the wafer is afiixed in position upon the strip 11 and held thereto by the adhesive coating. It is to be understood that variations of such process are possible such as, for example, the operation may be continuous with the material forming the strips and sponge wafers being supplied as rolls which move together and are cut to size. Another variation is possible where the adhesive used on the strip 11 is of a thermal-curing type, the block 12' may be set in position and compressed and set to a wafer form at the same time the adhesive is being cured.
A typical use of this improved patch type surgical dressing as for a finger dressing is illustrated at Figs. 3 and 5. The patch 10 is wrapped about an individuals finger F with the facing pad 12 over a laceration L or cut or similar wound, with the attaching flaps 13 extending about the finger and overlying each other. Moisture which may exude from the wound and skin will act upon the facing pad 12 to commence an expansion with the-result of the bandage filling all gaps within the laceration holding skin flaps and flesh portions and the like gently in place and taking up any slack space that inevitably occurs when the bandage is applied as being wrapped about the individuals finger. Likewise, moisture may be applied externally to expand the pad. As a distinct improvement over the conventional type bandage which has to be wrapped tightly to snugly hold a facing against a wound, and which is uncomfortable because of such tightness, this improved bandage with such facing may be wrapped about an individuaPs finger or the like in a rather loose manner with the expansion of the facing pad assuring a snug fit.
The facing pad 12 may also be quickly expanded by the application of liquid medication as through the orifices 14 after the patch is in place, and the manner in which medication may be applied in conjunction with the pores of the artificial cellulosic sponge block beforeit is compressed into a wafer and it is within the contemplation of the invention to so prepare and incorporate medicaments into the sponge block 12' when it is being prepared for use and before it is compressed into a wafer. For example, iodine carried in polyvinylpyrrolidone has exceptional properties as a medicament, and the incorporation of such into the sponge block 12' follows the simple steps of saturating the block 12' with the medicament in liquid form, then dehydrating and compressing it into a wafer as hereinbefore described. In such incorporation, it was discovered that it would be desirable to effect substantial dehydration of the sponge material before the compressing step is effected and as such differs in the sequence of usual compression and dehydrationof cellulose sponge.
As a further refinement to the surgical patch above described, it is within the contemplation of the invention to select and use cellulosic sponge material of any selected porosity, and it is further contemplated that the porosity may vary in the sponge block 12', such as, for example, from a fine texture at the outer surface of the block 12' to a coarser texture within the body of the block. In the conventional formation of such cellulosic sponge material, the boundary walls of a block of sponge so formed are usually molded against smooth wall molds and such boundaries are of extremely fine porosity and smoothness which may best be described as a rudimentary skin. This skin is of a delicately gentle softness and smoothness when wetted that is gentle to the'tenderest tissue. Therefore, as a further modification of the in vention above described it is within the contemplation to provide s'ponge blocks 12' having a rudimentary skin outer contact surface.
'The surgical dressing illustrated at Figs. 6 through 10 is a roll type bandage 20 which is generally used for wrapping a body member F such as. a foot and leg as illustrated at Fig. 9. The roll type bandage is formed with a cloth backing web 21 and a facing 22 of compressed cellulosic, artificial sponge material in accordance with the principles of the invention. The web 21 is preferably a cotton or linen gauze-like material of a cellulose substance similar chemically to the facing 22, and the facing 22 may be aflixed to the web by glue or even aifixed thereto as an incident of the formation of the sponge material as hereinafter more fully described. When compressed, the facing 22 forms a thin, flat dehydrated skin on one side of the web which will expand when moistened from the state illustrated at Fig. 7 to that illustrated at Fig. 8 in the manner hereinbefore described. As such a product, the bandage 20 has several important uses as hereinafter set forth.
Wrapped about an individuals foot and leg F, or elsewhere, the bandage 20 performs several functions not previously known. When moistened, the sponge portion will expand and fill up any gaps between the bandage and the individuals leg and hold the leg with a moderate degree of snugness. As such, this construction replaces elastic bandages and wraps and supports the tissues of the member under a light uniform compression regardless of how tight the bandage itself was initially wrapped.
Modifications in the construction of this bandage 20 are possible by incorporating medications or by forming the same with a rudimentary skin as hereinbefore described. The thickness of the sponge facing 22 may be varied to correspond with the use desired. A comparatively thick facing may be best for deep wounds and lacerations while a thin facing may be suitable for gentle protection of burned skin surfaces and it is obvious that the many inherent applications for this type of bandage will be quickly realized.
Figure 12 illustrates, diagrammatically, a preferred sequence for the manufacture of a roll type bandage 20 from raw materials from which the sponge itself is originated. A vat 25 contains a charge 26 of uncured plastic viscose and fibres containing soluble pore forming substances in a homogenous mixture. This charge is forced under pressure as by piston 27 through a suitably rectangular orifice 28 to provide for an extruded flow of sponge material. A reel of cloth 29 provides a continuous web 21 which moves toward the underside of the extruded flow of sponge material, forcibly contacting and blending into the same by movement around a roller 30.
This prepared mass then moves through a curing oven 31 and the viscose is set to the fibres within it and also to the cloth material forming web 21. Next, the cured mass passes over suitable rollers 32 and into a leeching vat 33 where the pore forming substances are dissolved out leaving only the sponge mass 22 and the web 21. It is to be understood that a series of such vats may be used to fully effectuate this leeching operation if such is desired and necessary.
Finally, the prepared sponge 22 afiixed to Web 21 is moved over suitable rollers 34, through wringers 35 and finally through heated irons and compressors 36 which compress, dehydrate and heat set the sponge material into the thin facing 22 hereinbefore described.
Alternate steps to this process may be easily devised where it is desired to apply medicaments to the sponge material, such as, for example, the medicament may be applied as a liquid form to saturate the sponge after it has moved through the wringers 35 and the sponge may then partially be dehydrated without being compressed to thicken the solution of medicament within the sponge, followed by complete dehydration upon the compression operation.
While I have described and illustrated the invention in considerable detail, it is obvious that its varied'use's .and many applications render it possible for others to construct, devise and arrange alternate and equivalent constuctions, methods and steps which are within the spirit and scope of the invention; hence I desire that my protection be limited only by the proper scope of the appended claims.
I claim: 7
1. A surgical dressing substantially as set forth comprising a cover strip and a compressed facing pad formed as a wafer of compressed cellulosic, artificial sponge material expansively reactive to moisture and adhesive means attaching the facing pad to the cover strip.
2. A surgical dressing comprising a cover strip and a compressed facing pad secured thereto, said pad being of absorptive, compressible sponge-like material characterized by the property of retaining a compressive set when dehydrated and being expansively reactive to moisture to a porous sponge-like structure.
3. A surgical dressing comprising a cloth, web-like cover strip, a .compressed facing of cellulosic artificiab sponge material expansively reactive to moisture and adhesive means attaching the facing to the strip.
4. A surgical dressing comprising a Web-like cover strip and a facing at one side thereof of compressed sheet of cellulosic, artificial sponge material expansively reactive to moisture integrally associated therewith.
5. A surgical dressing comprising a web-like cover strip of cellulosic like fibres and a compressed facing skin of cellulosic artificial sponge material of a type which may be compressed to a thin sheet and being expansively reactive to moisture, afiixed to cover strip.
6. A surgical patch substantially as set forth, comprising an adhesive coated cover strip and a compressed facing pad formed as a wafer of cellulosic artificial sponge material expansively reactive to moisture.
7. In a surgical patch formed as a cover strip carrying a compressed facing skin of cellulosic artificial sponge material adhesively secured thereto and being expansively reactive to moisture wherein said facing skin is impregnated with medicament.
8. A surgical dressing comprising a web-like cover strip and a sheet of compressed dry facing pad of cellulose artificial sponge material expansively reactive to moisture aflixed to the cover strip.
9. The dressing defined in claim 8, wherein said facing pad includes a face having, when said pad is expanded, a smooth surface of considerably finer texture than the body of the pad.
10. The dressing defined in claim 8 wherein said facing pad includes dry medicaments within the body of the pad.
11. In a process for preparing a medicated surgical dressing formed as a cover strip carrying a compressed facing skin of cellulosic artificial sponge material expansively reactive to moisture, including the steps of saturating the sponge facing skin when expanded with a medicant in liquid form, substantially dehydrating the medicamentin the facing skin to substantially solid state and compressing the substantially dehydrated cover strip and dehydrating the same to a set condition.
12. A process for preparing a surgical dressing including a cover strip and a facing of cellulosic artificial sponge of the type which is formed by coagulating a mixture of uncoagulated plastic, fibre and soluble pore forming substances and then dissolving out the pore forming substance, and including the steps of extruding said matrix to the shape of the facing, laying the extrusion against the cover strip, coagulating said matrix, dissolving said pore forming substances, and dehydrating compressing and setting the resulting cellulosic sponge material as a flat sheet against the cover strip.
13. The process defined in claim 12 including the steps of drying out the dressing, prior to compressing and setting, saturating the sponge with a medicament, and dehydrating the same in conjunction With' said compressive step. I v j '14. The dressing defined in claim 2 wherein said fading pad is characterized by having a variable sponge-like pore texture, with the pore texture at the surface of the pad being considerably finer than the pore texture Within the bodyof the pad.
1,074,245 Casevitz Sept. 30, 1913 3 a Eustis Oct. 18, 1-938 Overton et al Feb. 6, 1951 'Hammon Nov. 24, 1953 Hollingsworth Jan. 17, 1956 FOREIGN PATENTS Great Britain Dec. 13, 1937 OTHER REFERENCES Payne: The Use of Cellulose Sponge in Surgery,
Surgery, pp. 803-809.
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