|Número de publicación||US3009518 A|
|Tipo de publicación||Concesión|
|Fecha de publicación||21 Nov 1961|
|Fecha de presentación||28 Mar 1958|
|Fecha de prioridad||28 Mar 1958|
|Número de publicación||US 3009518 A, US 3009518A, US-A-3009518, US3009518 A, US3009518A|
|Inventores||Broyles Otis T, Taylor William B|
|Cesionario original||Broyles Otis T, Taylor William B|
|Exportar cita||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Citas de patentes (5), Citada por (5), Clasificaciones (9)|
|Enlaces externos: USPTO, Cesión de USPTO, Espacenet|
Nov. 21, 1961 w. B. TAYLOR ET AL FORMATION TESTER 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed March 28, 1958 W////am 5 Tag/0r Of/J 7T Bray/es INVENTORS d wn?! 2.31 BY LJQAMQMJ Nov. 21, 1961 w. B. TAYLOR ET AL 3,
FORMATION TESTER Filed March 28, 1958 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 Nov. 21, 1961 w. B. TAYLOR ET AL 3,009,518
FORMATION TESTER Filed March 28, 1958 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 6 W////0m 5. Toy/0x l Of/J [Bray/es INVENTORS M '7 AM BY 4mm axwld M A. m
A TfO/P/VE m United States Patent 3,009,518 FORMATION TESTER William B. Taylor, 3804' Gramercy St., and Otis T. Broyles, 623 Sulphur, both of Houston, Tex. Filed Mar. 28, 1958, Ser. No. 724,685 6 Claims. (Cl. 166-100) This invention relates to an apparatus for testing formations of oil, gas and like wells and, more particularly, relates to such a formation tester in which the means for engaging and testing a formation traversed by the well bore is operable hydraulically.
In the completion of oil and gas Wells it frequently becomes necessary to test various strata traversed by the well bore for possible production of oil and gas. Normally such tests are made when the well bore is filled with drill fluid. In many cases the more porous formations which are penetrated are blocked off by the drilling mud due to the static pressure of the column of drilling mud in the well bore, as well as by the pressure applied thereto during normal drilling operations. It is therefore desirable to provide a formation tester which may be lowered into mud laden well bores to test various strata traversed thereby in order to determine the pore content thereof and to provide such an assembly in which the testing means engaging the wall of the well bore may readily, positively and easily be set for testing and released. In some instances it is also desirable to obtain a closed sample of the pore content of the formation under substantially the same pressure and temperature conditions existing in the formation tested.
It is therefore an object of this invention to provide a tester which includes formation engaging means which is operable by hydraulic pressure to engage a wall of a formation in the well bore at any point in the well bore.
Yet a further object of the present invention is the provision of formation engaging means operable hydraulically from the surface for engaging a wall of a well bore and for retracting it therefrom in order to obtain uncontaminated pore content therefrom.
Yet a further object of the present invention is the provision of an improved tester assembly which is easily, readily and positively operated, which consists of a minimum of parts, which is rugged and simple in design and which may be manufactured and repaired easily and inexpensively.
Still a further object of the present invention is the provision of such a testing apparatus which may be actuated hydraulically to separately test various formations without removing the apparatus from the well bore.
Various other objects, features and advantages of the present invention will be apparent from the following description of a presently preferred example thereof, given for the purpose of disclosure, and taken in conjunction With the accompanying drawings, where like character references designate like parts throughout the several views, and where FIGURE 1 is a side View, partly in section, illustrating a formation tester according to the invention shown in position as it is being run into or out of a well bore,
FIGURE 2 is a view similar to that of FIGURE 1 illustrating the tester in sample-receiving position with the sampler being removed to the surface,
FIGURE 3A is an enlarged, elevational view, in section, illustrating the upper portion of the tester as it is being lowered into the well bore,
FIGURE 3B is a view similar to that of FIGURE 3A but represents a continuation thereof showing the lower portion of the tool,
FIGURE 4A is a view similar to that of FIGURE 3A but illustrates the tester in sample-taking position,
FIGURE 48 is a view similar to that of FIGURE 4A illustrating the lower portion of a tool in sample-taking position,
FIGURE 5 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line 55 of FIGURE 3A,
FIGURE 6 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line 66 of FIGURE 3A,
FIGURE 7 is a sectional view, in elevation, taken along the line 7-7 of FIGURE 3B,
FIGURE 8 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line 38 of FIGURE 7, and
FIGURE 9 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line 99 of FIGURE 3A.
Referring now to the drawings, and particularly to FIGURE 1, the formation tester is generally designated by the reference numeral 10 and it is lowered into the well bore 12 by means of an operating string of pipe 14 extending to the surface, not shown.
In general, the tester 10 includes a body portion 16 provided with the formation engaging means or testing shoe 18 disposed adjacent its lower end which is moved hydraulically into engagement with the formation to be tested as hereinafter described.
If desired, a sampler or other sample taking assembly 20 is provided which is seated in the body 16 to receive the sample of pore content from the formation, such as indicated at 22 (FIGURE 2). The sampler 20 is provided with a head 22 so that it might be engaged by the overshot 24 and retrieved to the surface by means of the wire line 26.
Referring now to FIGURE 3A, the lowermost section of operating string 14 is threadedly secured to the generally tubularly shaped sleeve 25 which is slidable and rotatable in the upper end of the body 16. The sleeve 25 has a generally cylindrically-shaped groove 27 which serves as a keyway for the key 28 secured to the upper portion of the body 16 for the purpose of permitting limited axial and rotational movement of the sleeve 25 relative to the body 16 for the purpose of placing the tester in and out of sample taking position as later described.
Slidably disposed in the sleeve 25 is a valve seat 30 for receiving and seating the annular valve 32 adjacent the lower end of the sampler 29. The slidable seat 30 is yieldingly held in an upward position by means of the coil spring 34 engaging the lower end 36 of the valve seat 30 and the upwardly facing shoulder 38 at the inner lower end of the sleeve 25.
In order to provide hydraulic pressure for actuating the testing shoe 18, as will be described in more detail later, an annular passage 40 is provided in the inner passage 42 of the sleeve 25, which annular passage 40 is connected to the drilied passages 44 which are connected to the pipe members '46 at their lower ends.
It is noted that the upper portion of the body 16, in effect, comprises a sleeve member 48 to slidably receive the lower end of the sleeve 25 and includes the drain hole 59 so that fluid may enter and be ejected from the sleeve like portion 48 of the body member 16 as the sleeve 25 is manipulated therein.
Referring again to the sample container 20, there is threadedly or otherwise secured to its lower end a mandrel 52 which has a reduced diameter portion 54 adjacent its upper end to slidably receive the spring prwsed latch 56 disposed in the sleeve 25. The latch 56 is so arranged that as the sleeve 25 is moved downwardly into the upper portion 48 of the body 16, the plunger 58 is forced inwardly and held there in the reduced diameter portion 54 to securely latch the sampler 20 in position.
As previously mentioned, the mandrel 52 includes the downwardly facing annular valve 32 which seats against the valve seat 30 in the sleeve 25. There is also provided a generally tubular shaped nassageway 68 which is slidably secured in the mandrel 52 of the sampler 29 and which is releasably held in position therein by means of the spring-loaded latch 62. The latch 62 is yieldingly held in the notch 62a of the sample passageway or tube 60. This serves to keep the valve 97 of the sampler 28 in closed position when going into or coming out of the hole to prevent contamination of the sample. The lower end of the passageway 60 has the seating element 63 and includes the coil spring 64 bearing between the seating element 63 and the lower end of the passageway 60 so that the passageway 60 will return to the position illustrated in FIGURE 3A after a test so that the valve 97 is again latched in closed position.
A valve member 65 is rotatably disposed in the central portion of the body 16 and includes a series of openings for receiving the projecting pipe members 46, passageway 60 and seating element 62. To this end, the generally axially extending passages 66 and 68 are pro vided to slidably and sealingly receive the pipe members 46, passageway 60 and seating element 62, respectively.
The intermediate portion 67 of the body 16 has the passages 70 communicating with the openings 66 to apply and release hydraulic pressure in the pipe members 46, which passages 70 are connected to the hydraulic passage 72 which is connected by the hydraulic passages 74 and flexible hose 76 to the hydraulic actuating means 78 (as best seen in FIGURE 7) which actuates the testing shoe 18 as presently described.
Thus, a hydraulic pasageway is formed so that hydraulic fluid, such as drilling mud and the like, in the op erating string 14 may be pumped along a passage between the sleeve 25, into the annular passage 40, drilled passages 44, pipe members 46, openings 66, passages 78, 72 and flexible hose 76 into the hydraulic actuating means 78, the detailed functioning of which will be described later in connection with the operation of the tester.
The valve member 65 is rotatably secured in the intermediate portion 67 of the body 16 by the pin 69 which is received in the annular slot 71 so that the valve member 65 may be rotated for the purpose of bringing the passage 86 into and out of engagement with the sample taking passage 88 drilled in the intermediate portion 67 of the body 16. As shown in FIGURE 3A, when going into the hole, this passage is closed by the spring pressed ball 90 seating against the upper end of the passage 88.
The sample passage 88 is connected to the sample passage 89 which, as best seen in FIGURE 3B, is connected to a pipe member 90 which slidably extends into the opening 91 of the tester shoe 92 of the tester assembly or formation engaging means 18.
The tester shoe 92 has a series of ports or openings 93 which communicate with the passages 94 which, in turn, communicate with an annular and generally cylindrically shaped passage 95 which opens into the passage 91 by means of the ports 96. Thus, content from the formation being tested enters the ports 93, passes through the passages 94, passage 95, ports 96 into the passage 91, tube 90, passage 89, passage 88 (FIGURE 3A), passage 86, when in sample taking position, into the interior of the mandrel 60, through the ports 60a, when the valve 97 is in an upward position, into the interior of the sample container 20.
Referring again to FIGURE 3B, the hydraulic actuating means for moving the testing shoe 92 includes a piston rod 98 pivotally secured by the pivot connection 99 to the lower end 100 of the lower portion 101 of the body 16. The piston rod 98 is hollow and has the passage 102 extending to its upper end, which passage is connected to the hydraulic line 76. The upper end of the piston rod 98 is provided with a piston 182 which is movably disposed within the piston cylinder 103 in the shoe 92, a portion of which is surrounded by the generally cylindrical passage 95, as previously described.
The testing shoe 92 is movably disposed in the lower portion 181 of the body 16 and includes an inclined slide surface 104 which slides against the cooperating inclined guide surface 185 so that as the testing shoe 92 is moved upwardly it will be moved outwardly into engagement with the wall of the well bore and when it is lowered, it will be retracted from engagement with the well bore. This upward and downward movement is provided by means of applying hydraulic pressure to the interior pussage 102 of the piston rod 98 which causes the cylinder 103 and thereby the testing shoe 92 to be elevated and expanded as illustrated in FIGURE 4B and, upon release of the hydraulic pressure and a slight upward movement of the body 16, the testing shoe 92 is moved downwardly relative to the lower portion 101 of the body 16 and thereby retracted.
While not shown, of course, if desired, the testing shoe 92 could be splined or keyed to the inclined guide surface 104 for strength and stability although satisfactory results have been obtained by the arrangement illustrated.
It is noted that all the parts are suitably packed off and no detailed description thereof is deemed necessary as any suitable and desired packing arrangement may be utilized to pack off the various parts where necessary or desired.
In operation the tester 10 is lowered into the well bore (FIGURE 1) by means of the operating string 14 with the parts in the position illustrated in FIGURES 1, 3A and 3B. The sampler 20 is in position as illustrated in these figures or it may be lowered into position later.
When it is desired to test a particular formation, pump pressure is applied to the fluid within the operating string 14. This causes fluid under pressure to be forced into the hydraulic passageway formed in the operating string 14, along the passage between the sleeve 25, into the annular passage 40, drilled passages 44, pipe members 46, openings 66, passages 70, 72 and flexible hose 76 into the hydraulic actuating means 78 which includes the internal passage 102 and the piston rod 98. This causes the formation engaging means or testing shoe 18 to move upwardly and engage the side of the well bore as best seen in FIGURE 2. At the same time the fluid pressure in the operating string 14 acts against the top of the sampler 20 causing a downward movement of the sampler 20 relative to the sleeve 25. Thus, the formation engaging means 18 has engaged the side of the well bore and the operating string can then be lowered causing a downward movement of the sleeve 25 relative to the body 16 since the body 16 is now fixed against movement.
With the downward movement of the sampler 20, the mandrel 52 and its key slot 54 is moved downwardly so that the plunger 58 of the latch 56 will move into this key slot as the sleeve 25 moves downwardly into the upper portion 48 of the body 16. This looks the sampler 20 in the sleeve 25 as best seen in FIGURE 4A. Also, the spring-pressed latch 62 is moved out of the notch 62a so that the mandrel or valve stem 60 is moved upwardly unseating the valve 97 so that a sample can be obtained in the sampler 20.
When the testing shoe 92 has engaged the wall of the formation 22, as illustrated in FIGURE 2, the body 16 is fixed from rotation. The operating string 14 is then rotated which puts the parts in the position illustrated in FIGURE 4A. This rotation serves to open the valve member 65 bringing the passage 86 into alignment with the sample passage 88 so that sample from the formation 22 flows up into the sample container 29, as previously described.
When a sample has been obtained, preferably the parts will be rotated back 180 to close off the sample passage 88 and then the sleeve 25 may be elevated by raising the operating string 14 so that the latch 56 is released and the latch 62 is re-engaged in-the notch 62A to lock the valve 97 in closed position to avoid contamination of the sample obtained. As best seen in FIGURE 2, an overshot 24 may be lowered into the operating string 14 to engage the head 22 of the sample container 20 and remove it to the surface for the purpose of analyzing or inspecting the sample.
If desired, the tester may remain in set position while the sample is analyzed at the surface or it may be released by merely releasing the hydraulic pressure and raising the tester slightly to permit the testing shoe 92 to retract.
If desired, another sampler, such as the sampler 20, may be lowered into the tester in position as previously described and a further test made of the same formation or another formation in the well bore. This may be accomplished as many times as desired and the formation tester then removed from the well bore.
Also, if desired, fluid may be pumped from the interior of the operating string to clean out the testing ports or to clean the wall cake from the well bore before taking a sample.
When bringing the tester out of the well bore, in order to avoid pulling a wet string, the parts may be rotated to the position shown in FIGURE 4A so that the passages 86 and 88 are in alignment so that fluid may drain out of the interior of the operating string 14 out the testing shoe by reverse flow in the sample passages.
It should be noted that while the sample container 20 is advantageous, if desired, this may be omitted so that a flow test may be made from the formation through the testing shoe 92, the sample passages previously described into the interior of the body 16 and on up the operating string 14 to the surface. Also, while a valve operable by rotation is presently preferred to close the sample passages, obviously, any type of valve may be utilized for example the valve arrangement illustrated in United States Patent No. 2,688,369 or, in some cases, the valve may be omitted entirely or placed somewhere else in the operating string. 7
Also, of course, the hydraulic actuated formation engaging means or testing shoe may be utilized with other types of formation testers, it only being necessary to provide means by which hydraulic pressure is applied to the piston and cylinder arrangement for moving the shoe for expanding it and retracting it into and out of engage ment with the wall of the well bore.
In some instances, it may be desirable to provide an additional or additional wall engaging elements or shoes which are also set hydraulically. For example, a dummy shoe similar to the shoe 18 may be provided to center the tester or to permit the same tester to be operated in various-sized well bores, in which event, the travel of the formation engaging means or shoes may be varied to fit the circumstances.
The present invention, therefore, is well suited and adapted to attain the ends and objects and has the features and advantages mentioned as well as other inherent therein. While only presently preferred embodiments of the invention have been given for the purpose of disclosure, numerous changes in details, construction and arrangement of parts may be made which are within the spirit of the invention as defined by the scope of the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. An apparatus for testing a well hole when attached to a string of pipe comprising, a body, formation engaging means movably carried by the body, said formation engaging means movable into and out of engagement with a wall of the well bore, hydraulic means for moving said formation engaging means into said engagement with the wall, said hydraulic means including a cylinder, a piston movable in the cylinder, one of said piston and cylinder connected to said body and the other to the formation engaging means, hydraulic passage means in the body communicating the piston and cylinder with the interior of the pipe so that hydraulic pressure in the pipe is applied to the piston and cylinder for moving the formation engaging means, a valve member connected to said pipe, said valve member rotatable in the body, said valve member, body and formation engaging means provided with sample taking passages, the end of said passages in the rotatable valve member and the body being adjacent each other and being axially eccentric whereby said passages in the valve member and body are movable into and out of communication with each other upon rotation of the valve member relative to the body by the pipe.
2. A tester for testing a well hole when attached to a string of pipe comprising, a body, an inclined guide surface on the body, a testing shoe movably mounted on the guide surface, movement of the testing shoe on the guide surface moving it out into and away from engagement with a wall of the well bore, a cylinder, a piston rod provided with a piston movable in the cylinder, one of said cylinder and piston rod connected to the body and the other to the testing shoe, said body provided with a hydraulic passage connecting the piston and cylinder to the interior of the pipe, a sleeve rotatably and axially movable in the upper portion of the body, connecting means on said sleeve adapted to connect said sleeve to said pipe, a valve seat in the sleeve, a sampler disposed in said pipe and extending into said sleeve, a valve on the sampler adapted to seat on the valve seat in the sleeve, latch means on the sleeve engaging the sampler on downward movement of the sampler relative to the sleeve and on downward movement of the sleeve relative to the body, a valve member rotatably disposed in the body below the sleeve, said valve member and testing shoe having sample passages normally out of engagement but movable into engagement on rotation of said valve member, and means con necting the sleeve and the valve member so that rotation of the pipe imparts rotation to the sleeve and to the valve member.
3. A formation tester for testing a well hole when attached to a string of pipe comprising, a body provided with a sample taking passage, a sleeve having a passageway, said sleeve slidably positioned in and connected to said body, thread means on said sleeve for connecting said sleeve to the pipe, a sampler slidably positioned in said sleeve passageway, releasable interlocking means on said sleeve and said sampler releasably interlocking said sampler with said sleeve when the sampler is moved downwardly relative to the sleeve, said sampler having a fluid chamber, valve mean connecting the sampler chamber in fluid communication with the body sample taking passage, said valve means being actuated on relative movement between the sleeve and the sampler, formation engaging means movably carried by the body, said formation engaging means movable into and out of engagement with a wall of the well bore and provided with a sample taking passage interconnected with the body sample taking passage, hydraulic means for moving said formation engaging means, said hydraulic means including a cylinder, a piston movable in the cylinder, one of said piston and cylinder connected to said body and the other to the formation engaging means, and hydraulic passage means communicating the piston and cylinder with the pipe whereby hydraulic pressure in the pipe is applied to the piston and cylinder for moving the formation engaging means.
4. A formation tester for testing a well hole when attached to a string of pipe comprising, a body provided with a sample taking passage, a sleeve having a passageway, said sleeve attached to said pipe and slidably positioned in and attached to the body, a sampler slidably extending in said sleeve passageway, releasable interlocking means on said sleeve and said sampler releasably interlocking said sleeve to the sampler when the sampler is moved downwardly relative to the sleeve and the sleeve is moved downwardly relative to the body so that the body contacts and actuates the releasable interlocking means, said sampler having a fluid chamber, valve means connected to the sampler and in fluid communication between the sampler chamber and the body sample taking passage, said valve including a valve closure member and a valve seat, one of which is stopped against the sleeve whereby the valve is opened on downward movement of the sampler relative to the sleeve, formation engaging means movably carried by the body, said formation engaging means movable into and out of engagement with a wall of the Well bore and provided with a sample taking passage interconnected with the body sample taking passage, hydraulic means for moving said formation engaging means, said hydraulic means icnluding a cylinder, a piston movable in the cylinder, one of said piston and cylinder connected to said body and the other to the formation engaging means, and hydraulic passage means communicating the piston and cylinder with the pipe so that hydraulic pressure in the pipe is applied to the piston and cylinder for moving the formation engaging means.
5. The invention of claim 4 wherein the sleeve is rotatable in the body and including a rotary valve, said valve connected to said sleeve and rotatable in said body and having a sample taking passage, said rotary valve being 8 in fluid communication between the sample taking passage of the body and the fluid chamber of the sampler, one end of said rotary valve sample taking passage being axially eccentric, and one end of the body sample taking passage being axially eccentric.
6. The invention of claim 3 wherein the sleeve is rotatable in the body and including a rotary valve, said valve connected to said sleeve and rotatable in said body and having a sample taking passage, said rotary valve being in fluid communication between the sample taking passage of the body and the fluid chamber of the sampler, one end of said rotary valve sample taking passage being axially eccentric, and one end of the body sample taking passage being axially eccentric.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,128,352 Creighton Aug. 30, 1938 2,344,598 Church Mar. 21, 1944 2,500,252 Ice Mar. 14, 1950 2,612,346 Nelson Sept. 30, 1952 2,688,369 Broyles Sept. 7, 1954
|Patente citada||Fecha de presentación||Fecha de publicación||Solicitante||Título|
|US2128352 *||20 Oct 1936||30 Ago 1938||Creighton Thomas A||Method and apparatus for releasing fluid from drill pipe|
|US2344598 *||6 Ene 1942||21 Mar 1944||Church Walter L||Wall scraper and well logging tool|
|US2500252 *||31 Ene 1947||14 Mar 1950||Side wall coring device|
|US2612346 *||27 Jun 1951||30 Sep 1952||Standard Oil Dev Co||Device for obtaining samples from well bores|
|US2688369 *||16 Jun 1949||7 Sep 1954||Joseph R Crump||Formation tester|
|Patente citante||Fecha de presentación||Fecha de publicación||Solicitante||Título|
|US3396796 *||1 Dic 1966||13 Ago 1968||Schlumberger Technology Corp||Fluid-sampling apparatus|
|US3957117 *||5 Ago 1974||18 May 1976||Dale Clarence R||Method and apparatus for bottom hole testing in wells|
|US5622223 *||1 Sep 1995||22 Abr 1997||Haliburton Company||Apparatus and method for retrieving formation fluid samples utilizing differential pressure measurements|
|US5741962 *||5 Abr 1996||21 Abr 1998||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.||Apparatus and method for analyzing a retrieving formation fluid utilizing acoustic measurements|
|US5934374 *||1 Ago 1996||10 Ago 1999||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.||Formation tester with improved sample collection system|
|Clasificación de EE.UU.||166/100, 175/233, 166/117.5, 166/332.5, 175/81|
|Clasificación internacional||E21B49/00, E21B49/10|