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Número de publicaciónUS3092170 A
Tipo de publicaciónConcesión
Fecha de publicación4 Jun 1963
Fecha de presentación22 Jul 1959
Fecha de prioridad22 Jul 1959
Número de publicaciónUS 3092170 A, US 3092170A, US-A-3092170, US3092170 A, US3092170A
InventoresWilliam L Ellis
Cesionario originalWilliam L Ellis
Exportar citaBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
Enlaces externos: USPTO, Cesión de USPTO, Espacenet
Automatic door
US 3092170 A
Imágenes(6)
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Descripción  (El texto procesado por OCR puede contener errores)

W. L. ELLIS AUTOMATIC DOOR June 4, 1963 6 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed July 22, 1959 INVENTOR.

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W. L. ELLIS AUTOMATIC DOOR June 4, 1963 6 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed July 22, 1959 M m R o N m M M L 1 A l l vm, L. \\\\\n\\||l/nun/ Dm, m "MHH M /U H U M Y/f ow Yn.^,\- w B June 4,

Filed July 22. 1959 W. L. ELLIS AUTOMATIC DOOR 6 Sheets-Sheet 3 WMM/655@ W. L. ELLIS AUTOMATIC DOOR June 4, 1963 6 Sheets-Sheet 4 w/L/AM L 2L/s Filed July 22, 1959 w. l.. ELLIS 3,092,170

AUTOMATIC DOOR 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 June 4, 1963 Filed July 22. 1959 W. L. ELLIS AUTOMATIC DOOR June 4, 1963 6 Sheets-Sheet 6 Filed July 22. 1959 United States Patent O M' 3,092,170 AUTMATIC DUUR William L. Ellis, Livonia, Mich. (1709 Cherrywood, New Castle, Intl.) Filed July 22, 1959, Ser. No. 328,848 14 Claims. (Cl. 16d-26) This invention relates to an automatic door and more particularly to a horizontally flexible door suspended from a continuous track having door closure and spiral storage sections.

In the preferred embodiment, a flexible drive chain is connected to the upper edge of the door along its entire length and is driven by a pin extending upwardly `from the spiral track end of the door through a drive shaft and arm centered relative `to the spiral track engageable with the pin throughout its spiral travel. The drive shaft is driven in a door closing direction by an electric motor through reduction gearing and an electro-magnetic clutch, a power spring being connected to the drive shaft intermediate the clutch and door which is energized during door closure `and serves to rapidly open the door upon de-energizing of the clutch.

A matching vertically aligned lower horizontal track serves as a guide for the lower edge of the door throughout its travel, the drive shaft extending downwardly to the center of the lower track spiral and having an arm adapted to also drive the lower inner edge of the door. Vertical rods extending the full height of the door provide pivotal connections for the drive chain as well as a yskeleton for hanging the flexible door body and the lower ends engage the guide track. A tubular pillar housing having a vertical slotted opening for passage oi the door is connected to the upper and lower tracks for r-- ing a rigid C frame and is pivotally mounted on the vertical -axis of the drive shaft for emergency swinging movement of the complete C frame and vdoor assembly in any closed or partially opened position of the door.

The door is adapted for automatic or semi-automatic operation through conventional actuators such as electric eye or traftic sensitive carpet controls.

From the above brief description it may be understood that one object of the invention is to permit passage of traic through the automatic door in both directions whether a single Aor opposed double door unit is employed.

Another object is to provide an automatic door applicable to wide store front service in banks of two or more single or double units in line or side-by-side without the necessity for traffic choice or selection between in and Out doors.

Another object of the invention is to provide for emergency panic release of the door regardless of whether it is in closed or partially opened condition.

Another object is to overcome the inconsistent edect of external wind pressures and/ or internal air pressure within the building on the desired normal operation of automatic doors such as occur in the opening and closing of automatic swinging doors.

Another object is to overcome certain hazards to trahie incident to the use of conventional powered swinging doors.

Another object is to reduce to a minimum the time required for door `actuation and the loss of heat and conditioned air incident to pumping or tanning laction typical of conventional automatic swinging doors.

Another object is to provide a full or semi-automatic door having the utility and security features of conventional doors and which also can be used as an auxiliary automatic door supplementing existing conventional doors of either swinging or sliding types.

Another object is to reduce the wall and oor space required by conventional automatic doors by eliminating 3,092,170 Patented June 4, 1963 ICC" the need for two directional openings to accommodate two-way traflice, inside floor space taken up bythe arc of an ln swinging door, the requirement for a deep entrance vestibule to avoid interference with passing sidewalk trathc in the case of an Out swinging door, and by reduction of wall space or side clearance required by the open position of a conventional sliding door.

These and 'other objects will be more readily understood from the following detailed description of a preferred embodiment of the invention with reference to .the drawings wherein:

FIGURE l is a front elevation of a typical automatic door installation showing the door in closed position;

FGURE 2 is a sectional plan view taken along the line 2--2 of FlGURE l;

FEGURE 3 is a sectional end elevation taken along the line 5-3 of PGURE 2;

FIGURE 4 is a partial sectional front elevation taken along the line 4 4 of -FlGURE 2;

FlGURE 5 is a fragmentary sectional end elevation showing the pivotal connection of the lower drive arm to the drive shaft taken along the line 5 5 of FIGURE 4;

FlGURE 6 is a fragmentary sectional end elevation showing the drive connection of the lower drive arm to the door taken along the line 6--5 of FIGURE 4;

FlGURE 7 is a fragmentary sectional end elevation of the upper track and door suspension taken along the line '7 7 of FIGURE 4;

FlGURE 8 is a sectional end elevation `of the lower guide track and door and taken along the line S-S `of FIGURE 2;

FIGURE 9 is a sectional plan view of the upper spiral track, drive arm and drive chain taken along the line 9-9 of FiGURE 4;

FIGURE l() is a fragmentary sectional plan View of the upper housing taken along the line lil-lit of FIGURE 4;

PlGURE l1 is a perspective front View of the door in partially open condition and with the door frame swung open illustrating `an emergency release condition;

FIGURE l2 is a fragmentary vsectional plan View of `one alternative type `of door section employing `a continuous ilexible sheet metal outer surface covering a relatively more elastic flexible plastic door -body section;

FGURE 13 is a fragmentary front elevation of the door construction shown in FIGURE 12;

FGURE 14 is another alternative form `of door construction employing pivotal door panels;

FlGURE l5 is a fragmentary front elevation of the door construction shown in FGURE 14; and

FiGUPcE i6 is a fragmentary sectional plan View of another alternative door construction employing pivoted metal panels.

Referring to FIGURE l, a typical single door installation incorporates a main C frame comprising a vertical pillar housing Ztl, an upper track 21 and a lower track 22; a door 23 capable of rolling within the housing 201 and preferably incorporating a flexible window panel 24; together with a stationary motor housing 2S and base plate 26. The main C frame 28, 2l and 22 is stationary in normal operation as shown in FIGURE l but is pivoted for emergency swinging movement as shown in FIGURE ll with the main pillar housing 2li rotating relative to the stationary motor housing 2S and stationary base plate 26.

The pivotal suspension for the pillar housing 2l) is best shown in FlGUiES 3 and 4 wherein it is seen that a head casting 27 rigidly associated with the upper track 21 is suspended `from the permanently stationary motor housing 25 by means of an annular split ring bearing 28 secured by screws 29 to the inner lower end of the motor housing 25 after assembly in the manner of a snap ring into the retaining groove 36 at the upper end of castingV 27. The tubular pillar housing 2t? is suitably secured as by screws 3l to the casting 27 and at its lower end by screws 32 to a lower spiral track casting 33 Vpivotally mounted on stationary base plate 26 having an outer retaining ilange 54 as well `as an inner bearing ange 35 for engaging an annular hub 3e at the center of casting e3. An upper spiral track 37 having an enlarged `roller track 37a is formed in the upper casting 27 :and a match` ing `spiral track 3S is formed in :the lower casting 33, the plan views of which are respectively shown in FIGURES 9 and 2. The pillar housing 2t? is a tubularV cylinder, the l.sectional conguration of which is best shown in FiG- URE 2, having a vertical opening 2da for accommodating door passage into and out of the housing. The skele- .tn of the door consists of la series of rods 39 suspended by nylon rollers 40 suitably secured thereto from the spiral roller track 37a and the extension thereof el formed in the upper track member 2l.

It will be apparent from a later more detailed description that various forms of a horizontally flexible door may be adapted for suspension on and operation by the rods 39 which are provided with upward extensions connected to the links of drive chain i2y and a further upward extension of the innermost rod is provided with a drive roller 43 which engages the slot i4 in a drive arm 45k drivingly connected to drive shaft 46 Supported by a ythrust washer 47 on the upper casting. The drive shaft; 46 is piloted in hearings de and extend downwardly to a lower bearing 49 in the lower casting 33. As best shown :in FIGURES 4, and 6, a lower drive :arm 50 having yoke shaped ends is pivotally connected at El to drive shaftY 46 and through a universal lconnection S2 to the lower end 53 of the innermost rod 39. Thus it will be seen that as the drive shaft 46 is rotated, the drive arms 45 and 56 will drive the innermost rod around Ithe spiral tracks which will in turn through the link chain 42 drive the remainder of the rodsY 39 through either push or pull action in their path around the spiral track fand the straight extension thereof di at the end of the spiral track. Accordingly, any form of horizontally flexible door carried lby the skeleton rods 39, such as that illustrated in FIGURE 2, will. be caused to follow the spiral track in rolling into the pillar housing Ztl or torbe eX- tended into door closure position -along the straight ex- .tension .trackrZl depending on theY direction ofY rotation Vof the drive shaft 46.

It is important to note that in the rolling yand unrolling action, the door segments are not wound against each other but rather in a spaced condition established by the spinal track so that no interference, m'arring or scnatching is possible. .Y

With :reference to FIGURE 3, the door is preferably driven 'in a closing direction by an .electric motor reduction :gear drive extending from an electric motor 5S with a worm 56, through a worm gear 57, an electro-magnetic clutch 58, spur gears 59 and e@ to an upper `drive shaft 45a which is keyed at 61 to lower drive shaft 46, the dr-ive shaft being connected to a power spring 62. which -is energized dur-ing ythe door closing operation of the electric motor. Upon release of lthe electro-magnetic clutch 5S, the power spring 52 opens the door which isV axially on a stationary sha-ft 68.

The electric motor gearing yand power springmay of course be designed for any rate of actuation desired in both opening and closing a door; however, it should be the outer end of the drive arm 45 (as best seen in :FIG-V URE. 9) and with a progressively reduced rate of linear drive `as the drive roller dftV winds into the spiral track. rfhis produces a highly desirable rapid initial opening land reduced rate cushioned final opening of the door. In this connection, the nylon rollers 4G with bushing extensions are desirable lfor their low friction, wear resistance, and quiet operating characteristics.

It will be understood that conventional automatic electrical controls may be readily Iadapted to `dts-energize :and release the electro-magnetic clutch 58 in response ,to electric eye-,or carpet detection or tralc approach to the door from either side with a re-engagement of such clutch land energizing Iof the electric motor 55 responsive to la brief time delay following the end of any trafc detecting Signal and with deenergizing of the electric motor responsive to a limit switch, not shown, :actuated at the end of the door closure cycle.

As previously menti-cned, a number of alternative constructions may be provided for the door per se, the construction illustrated in FIGURE 2 incorporating a continuous sheet of flexible molded plastic material '76 having vertical passages for .the rods 39 together With ribs for engaging extruded or roll formed outer metal panels 7l. The end panel 72 is formed as a U shaped member extending around the end of the inside of the door. As

illustrated in .phantomin FIGURE 2, :the tapered anges of the panel segments provide sufficient clearance for the rolling action of the door into -a spiral form up to the innermost position shown at 71a. As shown in FIGURE S, the lower ends of the rods 39 extend into the slotted cap of the threshold 73 provided by the lower tuack member ZZ serving .to guide the lower `edge of the door throughout its travel. Y

With respect to lthe' conditions Yof operation, as where blocking of ya commercial building exitk could not be tolerated, it will be noted that fan electrical power failure would result in the de-energizing of the electro-magnetic noted Vthatrwith the drive arrangement described, the

power spring `62 will be wound tightest when the door is closed providing a relatively high energy for initial acoeleration and opening rate which is further augmented by the relativelyV high linear rate of actuation provided at clutch 58 `and automatic spring opening of the door; neventheles's, in order to satisfy code regulations for panic release in the unlikely event'V of ya mechanical fail-V ure preventing the normal opening of the door, the C frame is adapted :to release as shown in FIGUREk l1, in response to traflc contact pressure on the door overcoming the `spring loaded ball detent '75 which is adapted to normally retain the upper outer end of the track Zliu the door jamb,rthe lower track 22 being also free to swing outwardly with the door. VIt will be understood that since the main pillarr housing 2) .asY Well as the upper casting V2:7 under these conditions also swing as an integral unit with the upper and lower tracks 21, 22, the door may be completely closed or at any intermediate position of `opening at .thev time of emergency exit-without in any way interfering with the panic release feature.

In the alternative door body construction shown. in FIGURES l2 and 13, a continuous exible thin met-al sheeting 7 6 is secured to the outer face of a exible plastic door body 77 y'asv/'ell as to the vertical rods 39a by =a series of rivets 78 passing therethrough. In the 'modif iication of FIGURES 14Y and l5, metal extrusions 79' are employed as an outer f-ace having tubular sleeves 80 for accommodating pivot rods 39b and with integral inner and outer wing flanges 81 adapted .to provide necessary flexibility in traveling ythe spiral path. In FIGURE 16, a similar modification is shown having inner' and outer wing flanges 83 extending gin opposite directions.

While a preferred embodiment of .the 'automatic door with several modifications of the door body construction have been illustrated and described above :in detail, it

will `be understood that numerous changes might be re-V sorted Ato without departing from the scope of my invention as :donned in the lfollowing claims.

I claim: Y l. A door installation comprising a wall with a door opening, a continuous horizontal track having :a spiral sec- .tion at one side of said door opening and -a connecting section extending above the door opening, a horizontally exible sliding door, means suspended from both sections of said track supponting said door substantially across .its entire width for alternating movement between said sections, a lower matching vertically aligned horizontal guide track engaged by at least a portion of the lower edge of said door throughout its movement, a vertical tubular pillar housing extending between the upper and lower spiral track sections having a vertical slotted opening for passage of the door and surrounding any portion of the door in rolled engagement with said spiral track sections, the upper and lower track sections and vertical pillar housing being yconstructed as -a rigid C frame assembly, fixed means for pivotally mounting the upper and lower ends of said C frame on a vertical axis substantially coinciding with the centers of the respective upper and lower spiral track sections, and releasable means for holding the C frame in alignment with the door opening for normal door operation along said track sections while providing for emergency swinging movement of the entire door and C frame assembly about said pivot-a1 axis in -any closed or partially opened condition of the door relative to said track sections.

2. A door installation comprising a wall with a door opening, a continuous horizontal track having a spiral section at one side of said door opening and a connecting section extending above the door opening, a horizontally flexible sliding door, means suspended from both sections of said track supporting said door substantially across its entire width for alternating movement between said sections, a vertical tubular pillar housing depending downwardly from said spiral track section having a vertical slotted opening for passage of the door and surrounding any portion of the door in rolled engagement with the spiral track section, the track sections and pillar housing being constructed as a rigid inverted L frame, iixed means for pivotally mounting said frame on a vertical axis passing substantially through the center on said spiral track section, and releasable means for holding said frame in alignment with the door opening for normal door operation along said track sections while providing for emergency swinging movement of the entire frame and door assembly about said pivotal axis in any closed or partially opened condition of the door relative to said track sections.

3. A door installation comprising a wall with a door opening, a continuous horizontal track having a spiral section at one side of said door opening and a connecting section extending above the door opening, a horizontally iiexible sliding door, means suspended from both sections of said track supporting said door substantially across its entire width for alternating movement between said sections, a drive shaft extending along a vertical axis passing through the center of said spiral track section, power actuated means for rotating said drive shaft relative to said spiral track, and drive means between said drive shaft and door adapted upon alternating rotation of said drive shaft in opposite directions to move said door along said track away from the door opening into the spiral section and back to a door closure position, said drive means comprising a drive arm extending radially from the drive shaft above the upper edge of the door and a member extending upwardly from the inner end of the door engageable by said drive arm throughout all positions of spiral movement thereof along said spiral track.

4. A door installation comprising a wall with a door opening, a continuous horizontal track having a spiral section at one side of said door opening and a connecting section extending above the door opening, a horizontally flexible sliding door, means suspended from both sections of said track supporting said door substantially across its entire width for alternating movement between said sections, a drive shaft extending along a vertical axis passing through the center of said spiral track section, power lactuated means for rotating said drive shaft relative to said spiral track, and drive means between said drive shaft and door adapted upon alternating rotation of said drive shaft in opposite directions to move said door along said track away from the door opening into the spiral section and back to a door closure position, said drive means including a radially extending driving arm pivotally connected to said drive shaft to accommodate displacement of the outer end thereof to varying distances from the axis of said shaft, means for drivingly connecting the outer end of said arm to the inner edge of said door at an intermediate vertical position in a manner whereby the driving end of said arm can follow the spir-al path of the edge of said door throughout the extremities of door movement.

5. A door installation comprising a wall with a door opening, a continuous horizontal track having a spiral section at one side of said door opening and a connecting section extending above the door opening, a horizontally iiexible sliding door, means suspended from both sections of said track supporting said door substantially across its entire width for alternating movement between said sections, a drive shaft extending along a vertical axis passing through the center of said spiral track section, power actuated means for rotating said drive shaft relative to said spiral track, and drive means between said drive shaft and door adapted upon alternating rotation of said drive shaft in opposite directions to move said door along said track away from the door opening into the spiral section and hack to a door closure position, said drive means including a coiled power spring having a fixed outer end and an inner end connected to said drive shaft in a manner whereby rotation of said shaft in a door closing direction progressively energizes said power spring.

6. A door installation comprising a wall with a door opening, a continuous horizontal track having a spiral section at one side of said door opening and a connecting section extending above the door opening, a horizontally flexible sliding door, means suspended from lboth sections of said track supporting said door substantially across its entire width for alternating movement between said sections, a drive shaft extending along a vertical axis passing through the center of said spiral track section, power actuated means for rotating said drive shaft relative to said spiral track, and drive means between said drive shaft and door adapted upon alternating rotation of said drive shaft in opposite directions to move said door along said track away from the door opening into the spiral section and back to a door closure position, said drive means including a coiled power spring having a fixed outer end and an inner end connected to said drive shaft in a manner whereby rotation of said shaft in a door closing direction progressively energizes said power spring and an electric motor reduction gear drive adapted to rotate said drive shaft in a door closing direction.

7. A door installation comprising a wall with a door opening, a continuous horizontal track having a spiral section at one side of said door opening and a connecting section extending above the door opening, a horizontally flexible sliding door, means suspended from both sections of said track supporting said door substantially across its entire Iwidth for alternating movement between said sections, a drive shaft extending along a vertical axis passing through the center of said spiral track section, power actuated means for rotating said drive shaft relative to said spiral track, and drive means between said drive shaft and door adapted upon alternating rotation of said drive shaft in opposite directions to move said door along said track away from the door opening into the spiral section and back to a door closure position, said drive means including a coiled power spring having a fixed outer end and an inner end connected to said drive shaft in a manner whereby the rotation of said shaft in a door closing direction progressively energizes said power spring, an electric motor reduction gear drive adapted to rotate said drive 7., shaftY in a door closing' direction, and a disengageabie clutch interposed in the drive line between said electric motor and said power spring'whereby when said clutch is engaged and said electric motor operated said drive shaft will be rotated in adoor closing direction energizing said power spring and whereby the release of said clutch will permit said power spring to open said door.

8. A door installation comprising a wall with a door opening, a continuous horizontal vtrack having a spiral section at one side of'said door opening and a connecting section extending above the door opening, a horizontally exible sliding door and means suspended from both sections of said track ,supporting said door substantially across its entire Width for alternating movement between said sections, said means including a plurality of rods extending throughout the full vertical height 'of the door.

9. A door installation comprising a wall with a door opening,.a continuous horizontal track having a spiral section at one side oflsaid door opening anda connecting section'extending above the door opening, a horizontally -exible sliding door and means suspended vfrom `both sections of said track supporting said door substantially across its entire width for `alternating movement between said sections, said means including aV plurality of rods extending throughout the full vertical height of the door,

said rodsrbeing provided with rollers near their upper ends Y for engaging said track throughout the doors travel.

10. A door installation comprising a wall with a door opening, a continuous horizontal track having a spiral section at one side of said door opening and a connecting section extending above the door opening, `a horizontally flexible sliding door and means suspended from both sections of said track supporting said door substantially across its entire width vfor alternating movement between said sections, said means'including a plurality of rods extending throughout the full vertical height of Vthe door,

Vsaid rods beirig provided with rollers near their upper ends for engaging said track throughout the doors travel, said track being slotted for vertical passage of said rods, and Y an enlarged slot beingv provided for engagement by the periphery of said rollers. i

l 1. A door installationv comprising a Wall with a door opening, a continuous horizontal track having a spiral section at one side of said :door opening and a connecting section extending above the door'opening, a horizontally exible slidingjdoor and means suspended from both sections of said track supporting said door substantially across its entire Width for alternating movement between said sections, Ysaid means including a plurality'of rods extending Vthroughout the ,full vertical height of t-he door, said iexible door being constructed with a metal outer surface and a exible moulded plastic body accommodat-v ing said rods.

12. A door installation comprising a wall with a door opening, a continuous horizontal track having a spiral section at one side of said door opening and a connecting i section extending above the door opening, a horizontally flexible sliding door and means suspended from both sections Lof saidV track supporting said door substantially across its entire width for alternating movement between said sections,'said means including a plurality of rods ,extending throughout the full vertical height of the door,

said exible door being constructed with a metal outer surface and a flexible moulded plastic body accommodating said rods, said outer metal surface comprising a plurality of vertical channel sections having the channel legs tapered to provide clearance for arcuate movement within the spiral track section, together with rigidity against bending out of the plane of said track and substantially continuous metal coverage of the outer door surface.

13. A door installation comprising a wall with a door opening, a continuous horizontal track having a spiral section at one side of said door opening and a connecting section extending above the door opening, a horizontally exible sliding door and means suspended from both sections of said track supporting said door substantially across its entire width lfor alternating movement between 14. A door installation comprising a wall with a door Y opening, a continuous horizontal track having a spiral section at one side of said door opening and a connecting section extending above the door opening, a horizontally exible slidingV door and/,means suspended from l both sections of said track supporting said door substantially across its entire width for alternating movement between said sections, said means including a plurality of rods extending throughout the full verticalV height of the door, said door including a plurality of vertical metal panels connected to said rows with metal Iwing extensions providing overlapping relation between adjacent panels.

References Cited inthe le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 558,577 Spaulding Apr. 21, 189s 889,910 Cuntz `lune 9,Y 1908 1,621,717 Grant et al Mar. Z2, 1927V 1,835,644 Grassi s Dec. 8, 1931 2,323,612 Lombardi et al. July 6, 1943 2,726,911 Mason Dec. 13, 1955 Y FOREIGN PATENTS Y 483,163 ItalyV July 17, 1953

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Clasificaciones
Clasificación de EE.UU.160/26, 160/133, 160/232, 160/309, 160/323.1, 160/264, 160/195
Clasificación internacionalE06B9/08, E05F15/12
Clasificación cooperativaE06B9/08, E05Y2800/11, E05Y2201/462, E05Y2900/132, E05F15/121, E05Y2201/216, E05Y2201/422, E05Y2201/246, E05Y2800/252, E05Y2800/25
Clasificación europeaE05F15/12B, E06B9/08