US 3114218 A
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1963 E. v. A. E. MACQUERE 3,
ROOFING STRUCTURE 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Feb. 12, 1960 INVENTOR.
EUGENE V.A.E. MACQUERE ATT NEYS Dec. 17, 1963 I E. v. A. E. MACQUERE 3,114,218
ROOFING STRUCTURE Filed Feb. 12, 1960 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 7 I i l l I I I I I I50 I I l; I l 5 i I 5 I I T i 5 I- I I I 9 i I I l I l i I I I I u l I i E F.2- q- A I I 0 I I lOu .5 I l I I l I INVENTOR.
J I EUGENE V.A.E. MACQUERE ATT NEYS 1963 v. A. E. MACQUERE 3,114,213
ROOFING STRUCTURE Filed Feb. 12, 1960 s Sheets-Sheet a INVENTOR- EUGENE V.A. E. MACQUERE ZZMMW ATTO EYS United States Patent 3,114,218 ROUFIN G STRUCTURE Eugene V. A. E. Macquere. Le Vesinet. Seineet-Uise. France, assignor to Compagnie de Saint-Goliain, Paris,
France Filed Feb. 12, 1960, Ser. No. 8,283 Claims priority, application France Feb. 19, 1959 4 Claims. (Cl. 50--198) This invention relates to a roof made of roof-covering pieces made of plastic material. More specifically, the roof of the invention is made up of a plurality of roofing tiles which automatically lock onto the battens of the roof frame, adjacent tiles overlapping at their edges to form a tight roof covering. In the roof structure specifically shown, the tiles include generally flat tiles for covering the broad surface of the roof, and ridge tiles for covering a peak of the roof.
Ceramic roof-covering tiles heretofore used have had a number of serious disadvantages: they are fragile, they are not transparent, they are heavy, and they are expensive to transport. Tiles made of plastic material have not been widely used because of their lightness and the lack of satisfactory means to secure them to each other and to the frame of the roof.
The present invention has among its objects the provision of rigid plastic tiles of such shape and elasticity that the tile assembly forming the roof provides a perfectly tight, solidly anchored roof.
In accordance with the preferred embodiment shown herein, the broad tiles have incurved flanges on their upper and lower ends, such flanges being half-closed and curved back on themselves; such tiles also have a raised portion midway of their lower edge. The ridge tiles have incurved flanges extending longitudinally of their lower edges, such incurved flanges also being half-closed and curved back on themselves. The broad tiles and ridge tiles can be rapidly afiixed upon the frame of the roof and to each other in an overlapping or nesting fashion. Such overlap is secured by providing enlargements on their lateral edges, such enlargements on successive tiles overlapping so as to assure the tightness of the roof covering. The broad tiles are automatically secured to the frame of the roof by providing spaced battens or cross members on the roof, such battens having a cross section such that the tiles may be locked thereon, the battens being spaced vertically on the roof regular distances corresponding generally to the vertical dimension of the tiles.
There is shown herein, merely as a preferred embodiment of the invention, one form of broad, roof-covering tiles and ridge tiles in accordance with the invention.
In the drawings accompanying the specification and forming a part thereof:
FIG. 1 is a view in plan of a broad, roof-covering tile made in accordance with the invention;
FIG. 2 is a view in transverse section through such tile, the section being taken along the line 22 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a view in longitudinal section through such tile, the section being taken along the line 33 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 is a view in plan of a ridge tile;
FIG. 5 is a view in transverse section through the ridge tile, the section being taken along line 55 of FIG. 4;
PEG. 6 is a View in vertical section through a roof provided with the broad roof-covering tiles and ridge tiles of the illustrated embodiment of the invention; and
FIG. 7 is a fragmentary view in perspective of the roof on FIG. 6.
In the embodiment shown, each broad tile 1 is, as shown in FIGS. 1, 2, and 3, of rectangular shape. Such tile is made of relatively thin plastic material, as shown. On each longitudinal edge, the tile 1 has an open-sided inwardly or downwardly open hollow enlargement, the size of the enlargement on the two edges being different so that an enlargement 2 fits fairly accurately within an enlargement 3. The enlargements shown are in the form of inverted channels. The smaller enlargement 2 of tile 1 fits within the larger enlargement 3 of the adjoining tile when the tiles are laid on the roof. Preferably the area of overlap does not exceed 5% of the total area of the outer surface of the tile. The upper edge of the tile is of bent or folded shape so as to form a downwardly or inwardly open semi-closed, reentrant angled flange 4. The outer side of the flange leaves the plane of the broad extent of the tile, is bent backwardly somewhat, and is then curved forwardly and then inwardly, as shown at 5 in FIG. 2. The end of flange 5 is disposed substantially inwardly of the broad extent of the tile, generally parallel thereto, and extending away from the body of the tile. As will be more fully explained in connection with FIG. 6, the tile can be sprung somewhat, by reason of the elasticity of the tile, so as to be affixed to the battens of the roof by the upper and lower flanges on the tile.
The lower edge of tile l. is bent or folded back on itself to form a downwardly or inwardly open semiclosed, reentrant angled hook-like flange 7. Flange 7 fits over the lower edge of a batten 16, as shown in FIG. 6. Batten 16 may be the lowermost batten on the roof (FIG. 6), or an intermediate batten, assuming that more than two (horizontal) rows of tiles are employed on the roof. The enlargements 2 and 3, along the longitudinal edges of the tile 1, at the location of the flange 4, 5, 6, at the top of the tile, and of flange 7, at the bottom of the tile, have shapes similar to those of the respective flanges. Each tile 1 has a slightly raised zone 3 at the center of its lower edge. Zone 8 may be of a convenient or desired shape; it is slightly larger than the larger enlargement 3 of the title so that the upper end of enlargement 3 of the next lower tile may be received within such raised zone 8, as shown in FIG. 7, when the tiles 1 are assembled on a roof frame with successive rows of tiles staggered, or out of alignment, by a distance equal to one-half the width of the tiles.
The ridge tiles 9, shown in FIGS. 4, 5, and 6, are of a length equal to twice the width of tiles 1, so that the ridge tiles may overlap one full tile and one-half of each of the tiles on each side of such full tile. Tiles 9 are generally semi-circular in shape. On each of its longitudinal edges tile 9 is provided with a flange 10, itla. Each such flange is in the shape of an inwardly open, reentrant angled hook, the body of the hook being bent somewhat backwardly at 11 toward the body of the tile and then being bent outwardly, then downwardly, and finally inwardly. At its lower end, each flange is bent sharply outwardly to lie generally horizontal, as shown in FIG. 5. The flanges 10, 19a are of such configuration as snugly and fairly accurately to receive the flange 4 of the uppermost row of broad tiles, as shown in FIG. 6.
Tiles 9 have on each of their sides an enlargement, one enlargement 12 being large and the other enlargement 13 being smaller. Enlargements l2, 13 are similar to enlargements 3 and 2, respectively, on tiles 1, and are designed to interfit or nest therewith to form a tight roof covering. The larger enlargement 12 extends through the flanges ill, The; the smaller enlargement 13, on the other hand, stops at the flanges Iltl, ltla. A narrow transverse groove 14 is positioned between enlargement 13 and the body of tile 9.
At a distance of one-half the width of a tile 1 from its ends, each ridge tile i has enlargements 15, 15a which are a little larger in size than the enlargements 3 of tiles 1. Enlargements 15, 15a extend across flanges l0, fltla; enlargements 15, 15a permit the enlargements on the adjoining tiles to be received therewith, whereby the ridge tiles 9 and the broad tiles 1 are nested and locked together when assembled as shown.
The tiles It are mounted on the roof frame in horizontal rows, the bottom row being mounted first, followed by succeeding horizontal rows, as in laying regular tiles. The battens employed with the tiles of the present invention, however, are of special shape. The lowermost batten 16 has a generally rectangular section; the lower outer edge of batten 16 is first rounded and is then flat (FIG. 6) so as to present a surface lying at a reentrant angle with respect to the upper surface of the batten, whereby such surface lockingly interfits with the inner surface of lower flanges '7 of tiles 1. The other, upper battens 17 have the same thickness as batten 11.6. Battens 17 have their upper edges chamfered at a suitable reentrant angle with respect to the upper surface of the batten, as shown, whereby lockingly to interfit with the lower inner portion of flange 4 at the upper end of each tile 1. The battens are so spaced as to hold the tiles under a light tension, whereby the tiles 1 are held securely on the frame of the roof. The enlargement 2 of each tile 1 covers the smaller enlargement 3 of the adjacent tile.
Each succeeding higher row of tiles 1 is staggered with respect to the adjoining lower row by a distance equal to one-half the width of tiles 1. The lower flanges 7 of the next higher row of tiles la overlie and interlock with the flanges 4- on the upper ends of the lower tiles 1 (FIG. 6). The upper ends of tiles in overlie and are locked upon a batten 17a, which is similar to batten 17. The resulting roof appears as it is shown fragmentarily in FIG. 7.
The ridge tiles 9 are nested and interlocked with the upper tiles on each side of the peak of the roof, the flanges 10, 1011 being snapped over the flanges 4 on the uppermost row of tiles 1a, the flanges 19, 10a resiliently yielding sufliciently to permit such mode of assembly. Any space that remains uncovered on the roof is covered by a half-tile.
Because the broad tiles and ridge tiles are not fragile, they are easily transported; their assembly is also very simple. Such tiles may be made of different rigid plastic materials such as polyvinyl chloride, shock-resistant polystyrene, polymethylmethacrylate, high density polyethylene, mixtures of suitable plastic materials, polyester resins, statified resins, etc. Such tiles may be transparent, opaque, or colored. When the tiles are colored, they may be of uniform color or polychrome, and such variously colored tiles may be assembled in various patterns, as desired.
The rigid plastic tiles l and 9 do not absorb water, and so cannot be damaged by freezing weather. Such tiles cannot ordinarily be injured by corrosive media, since chemical agents generally do not attack the plastic material of which they are made. Such tiles also are slippery and have an anticryptogarnic action, that is, are resistant to plants which do not produce flowers or seeds, such as. ferns, moss, and algae.
Because of such properties, roofs made of such tiles may have a low slope or pitch without sacrificing their tightness, since water cannot penetrate them by capillary action.
The frame of the roof can be made much lighter than with the usual roof coverings, since the weight of the tiles is very low. This decrease in weight of the roof is: not undesirable, however, because of the tightness with which the tiles are attached to the main members of the: roof frame by the battens. The broad tiles and ridge tiles. are easily but securely assembled after the battens have been put in place. No nails or hooks are necessary in such assembly. The tiles are locked to each other, thereby forming them into a unitary roof structure.
The tiles of the present invention may be used on all types of buildings, and are particularly useful for buildings of light construction such as greenhouses, hangars, shops, terraces, etc.
Although only one embodiment of the invention hasbeen illustrated in the accompanying drawings and de scribed in the foregoing specification, it is to be especially understood that various changes, such as in the relative dimensions of the parts, materials used, and the like, as well as the suggested manner of use of the apparatus of the invention, may be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as will now be apparent to those skilled in the art.
What is claimed is:
1. A roof structure comprising an inclined supporting structure, a plurality of horizontally extending battens secured in spaced apart rows to said supporting structure, a plurality of partially overlapping similar resilient tiles made of plastic material and arranged in overlapping parallel horizontal rows with the ends of each tile in each row overlying adjacent battens in at least two adjacent rows of said spaced apart rows, each tile being retained under tension between said adjacent battens, a downwardly open resilient first formation on one end of each tile and a downwardly open resilient second formation on the opposite end of each tile, one portion of the resilient first formation on each tile resiliently interlocked with one of said battens which it overlies, the resilient second formation on each tile overlying and resiliently interlocked with a second portion of the resilient first formation on a tile in the vertically adjacent row of tile wherein each tile in each row is removably retained in position under tension.
2. A roof structure as defined in claim 1 wherein each tile has downwardly open channel formations extending along each of its side edges, one of said side channel formations being of greater cross section than the other, the larger side channel having an upper surface lying substantially above the broad upper surface of each tile, and wherein the side channels of horizontally adjacent tiles in each row of tiles are overlapped with the smaller channel on one tile underlying and received within the larger channel on the said adjacent tiles.
3. A roof structure as defined in claim 2 wherein tiles in succeeding horizontal rows of tiles are staggered so that the side edges of the tiles in each horizontal row of tiles are out of alignment with the side edges of the tiles in adjacent horizontal rows, a short downwardly open cap-like formation secured to the end of each tile overlying said resilient second formation, and said cap-like formation positioned transversely on said tile end for receiving therewithin the upper end of said larger side channel on the vertically adjacent tile in the adjacent row of tiles.
4. A roof structure comprising an inclined supporting structure, a plurality of parallel horizontally extending battens secured in spaced apart rows to said supporting structure, a plurality of resilient tiles made of plastic material and arranged in horizontal rows with the ends of each tile in each row overlying at least two adjacent battens in said spaced apart rows, one end of the tiles in each row overlapping the tiles in the vertically adjacent row of tiles, each tile being retained under tension between said adjacent battens, a downwardly open resilient first formation on one end of each tile and a downwardly open resilient second formation on the opposite end of each tile, said first and second formations being integrally formed with said tile, one portion of the resilient first formation on each tile being resiliently interlocked with one of said battens which it overlies, the resilient second formation on each tile overlying and resiliently interlocked with a second portion of the resilient first formation on a tile in the vertically adjacent row of tiles wherein each tile in each row is removably retained in position under tension.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Michel et a1 Aug. 13, Moornaw May 5, Orlikowski et al. June 4, Latulip Dec. 29, Jannoch Nov. 22, Fosseen Apr. 5, Richmond June 25, Loucks Mar. 6, Bennett June 1, Bumpas et al May 30, Godel Aug. 10, Kiefer Mar. 1, Harry Sept. 23,
FOREIGN PATENTS Great Britain Ian. 15,
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