|Número de publicación||US3408705 A|
|Tipo de publicación||Concesión|
|Fecha de publicación||5 Nov 1968|
|Fecha de presentación||7 Jul 1966|
|Fecha de prioridad||7 Jul 1966|
|También publicado como||DE1625396A1, DE1625396B2|
|Número de publicación||US 3408705 A, US 3408705A, US-A-3408705, US3408705 A, US3408705A|
|Inventores||Flanagan Jr William C, Kayser James H|
|Cesionario original||Minnesota Mining & Mfg|
|Exportar cita||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Citas de patentes (6), Citada por (200), Clasificaciones (13)|
|Enlaces externos: USPTO, Cesión de USPTO, Espacenet|
NOV. 5, 1968 J KAYSER ETAL I 3,408,705
FFFFF NEH ART ICLES Filed July 7, 1966 WWMM TOR/V636 United States Patent 3,408,705 FASTENER ARTICLES James H. Kayser, St. Paul, Minn., and William C. Flanagan, Jr., Hudson Township, St. Croix County, Wis., assignors to Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Com pany, St. Paul, Minn., a corporation of Delaware Filed July 7, 1966, Ser. No. 563,520 7 Claims. (Cl. 24-204) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Fasteners comprising pairs of unitary interengaging articles. Each article has a base carrying a multiplicity of headed engaging elements over its surface. The positions of the element heads are unordered with respect to each other. This lack of order makes the engagement force of the articles much more uniform at all relative angles and positions of engagement than if the elements were ordered, e.g. in rows.
This invention relates to fasteners, and more particularly to fasteners comprising mechanically interacting functional surfaces which can be engaged without regard to alignment.
Various types of fasteners comprising complementary pairs of articles capable of engaging and holding to one another over an area or surface are known, e.g. see US. Patents 2,499,898 and 3,192,589. The individual articles of these fasteners have functional surfaces with patterns of headed elements located in ordered positions relative to one another on a base. The patterns usually consist of straight rows of equally separated elements. When the articles are engaged, the element heads of each are held between the element heads and the base of the other.
The fasteners of these patents are satisfactory for some uses, but if an attempt is made to interengage them at random angles relative to one another (e.g. at relative angles at which the rows of elements in one article are not parallel to those of the complementary article), either engagement is impossible, the surfaces are damaged (many elements being broken) or at best an unsatisfactory engagement is achieved (a relatively large force being required to engage and a relatively small force being required to disengage).
The need to carefully align the prior art fastener articles before engaging them considerably limits their utility since in many applications in industry and in the home,
it is impractical or inefiicient to align the complementary fastener articles precisely when mounting them for use. Furthermore, when the complementary articles are mounted on rigid substrates (such as metal or wood), they cannot shift and adjust to one another upon engaging.
A second general type of fastener in which the complementary articles hold over an area is exemplified by US. Patent 2,717,437. These articles can be interengaged at random angles, but have a low degree of holding power and are substantially dilferent in operation and constuction then either the previously mentioned types of fasteners or those of the present invention.
It has now been found possible to provide fasteners which do not require careful alignment before engagement, which have a high degree of holding power and are relatively easily manufactured. Elements are not damaged and the force required to engage the fasteners and the force which resists separation is quite uniform, regardless of alignment.
The fasteners of the invention comprise complementary pairs of interengaging unitary articles each having a relatively stiff base from which emanates a multiplicity of resilient cam elements, each comprised of a stem ter- 3,408,705 Patented Nov. 5, 1968 minating in an enlarged shaped head, the position of each element head being unordered with respect to the positions of the other element heads.
They combine a high degree of holding power with properties of operation and holding which are substantially independent of the relative angles at which the surfaces engage and of the positions of the surfaces which are engaged (i.e. the properties of engagement are substantially independent of angular and translatory changes in relative positions of the complementary articles). Thus, they can be considered to be essentially isotropic in nature. In any position of engagement, many or most of the elements of the surfaces are out of their normal no-stress positions (i.e. their positions when not engaged). The direction and extent of the stress and strain of any individual element being generally unordered and unpredictable when the surfaces are engaged.
Various illustrative embodiments of the invention, including certain features which are discussed hereinafter, are shown in the accompanying drawings wherein:
FIG. 1 is a top view of an article of the invention having elements with heads of uniform circular cross section, the elements being in unordered positions. The stems are hidden behind the heads and are not shown.
FIG. 2 is a fragmentary side view of an article of the type shown in FIG. 1 in which the elements have essentially spherical heads of a uniform size.
FIG. 3 is a fragmentary side view of an article of the invention having elements with bullet-shaped heads.
FIG. 4 is a top view of an article of the invention in which ordered sub-groups are located at unordered positions, the sub-group configuration being such that the centers of the elements therein are in a triangular relationship to one another.
FIG. 5 is a fragmentary side view of an intermediate in the preparation of still another article of the invention showing several unheaded element stems which are cylindrical in shape, the ends thereof being planes which are at acute angles to the axes of the cylinders.
FIG. 6 is a fragmentary side view of an article of the invention having unsymmetrically headed elements, said article being prepared by heating the article of FIG. 5 from the ends of the elements to melt them and form the heads.
FIG. 7 is a fragmentary side view of an article of the invention having elements of varying lengths with stems and essentially spherical or globular heads of varying diameters. In FIGS. 2, 3 and 5-7 a depth of field ofonly one to two elements are shown for clarity.
The individual elements are stiff, spine-like and elastic and are unitary with the relatively rigid and stilfbase of the unitary articles. The latter preferably remains substantially undeformed during engagement and disengagement of the articles. The elements tend to resist positional displacement but normally bend to the side like cantilever beams in response to forces brought about by engagement movements of the articles. This resistance to positional displacement (which is transmitted from element to element through the base) is important in providing the high degree of holding power of the fasteners.
The term unordered as used herein refers to the relative positions of the element heads on a single fastener article and means a lack of mathematical predictability thereof. It can result from a lack of order in the positions of entire individual elements, of the heads of individual elements or of the orientation of unsymmetrical element heads. In any of these cases, the elements are unordered (i.e. their positions cannot be predicted). The unorder may appear in only one or in more than one of the coordinates used to describe the locations thereof. Thus, for example, using the rectangular coordinate system to describe the positions of the elements, the length and width measurements might be ordered but the height measurement unordered and hence the location of any element head would be mathematically unpredictable.
FIGS. 1-3 of the drawings provide clear illustrations of articles of the invention in which the entire individual elements are unordered. Articles having the element heads at unordered positions, as in FIG. 1, but in which the element stems are attached to the base at ordered positions also have essentially isotropic properties and fall within the invention.
FIG. 4 illustrates articles containing ordered sub-groups of elements which sub-groups are unorderd in their relation to one another. Such surfaces are generally unordered and their performances are substantially isotropic as are those of the other articles of the invention.
In contrast to the surfaces of the present invention, ordered arrangements of element locations indicate mathematical predictability, i.e. mislocation or omission of an element therein could be detected as could elements present in addition to the pattern.
Although the functional surfaces of the articles of the invention (those carrying the headed elements) are unordered, certain overall limitations thereon are generally applied. Thus, sufiicient overall space is provided between elements so that engagement is possible, yet there is a suflicient density of elements so that strong engagement is achieved.
The overall density of elements per unit area and ranges of permissible sizes and shapes thereof can be used to control these factors. The density of elements can be limited by restraints on the distances between elements, such as minimum or maximum distances, proportions of distances, etc. or by limiting the volume of space wherein elements may be located. The positions of heads may also be related to the stem diameter, or other parameter.
The engagement movements of the fasteners of the invention involve the movement of the heads of the elements of each article past those of the other article and include the initial engagement of the articles, the shifting of relative positions of engaged articles, in certain cases, and disengagement. The element heads of each complementary article of the fastener bear against those of the other during engagement movements and holding in engagement is provided when element heads of each article are held between the element heads and base of the other (i.e. below the element heads of the other). Each engagement movement is accompanied by the clastic deformation of a great majority of the cam elements within the proportional limits of the elastic material and then at least partial recovery from deformation when the new position is reached. The behavior of any particular element or elements in any particular engagement may not be typical of the majority, e.g. an element may be simply bent to the side but its head not pass by the heads of the adjacent elements of the complementary article. Also a particular element may be elastically deformed during interengagement but may not recover even partially upon reaching the engagement.
Preferably the surfaces of the invention are capable of undergoing simultaneous operational engagement over the entire surfaces although in some particular articles of the invention simultaneous engagement is difficult or impossible and sequential engagement (e.g. engagement progressing from one side of the functional surfaces to the other) is used. Even where not necessary the bases can sometimes be deformed, for convenience, eg to bring about sequential engagement in articles in which simultaneous engagement is possible but more difficult. Also the base of an engaged article can be made concave and disengagement or a change in engagement thereby made difficult or impossible.
Among the variables in the design of the fasteners 4 are the length, diameter, shape, composition, stiffness and angle of intercept with the base of the element stems; the composition, shape, size and resistance to volume deformation of the heads; and the thickness, shape, composition and stiffness of the base. Preferably, in the articles of the invention the element heads are at a uniform distance above the base since such articles are more easily manufactured and perform quite satisfactorily. In addition the heads are preferably of the same size and shape, these features adding further to the ease of manufacture.
-The heads and stems of the elements can be of a wide variety of shapes. Often, but not always, the elements are circular in cross section and symmetrical about an axis. The heads of the elements shown in FIGS. 2 and 7 are, for example, essentially spherical or globe shaped. These form a preferred class since they can be easily wormed on unheaded cylindrical stems (or rods) by simply melting the tends thereof (using an infrared source, jets of hot air or passing the article with unheaded elements under a heated object such as a metal bar) and then cooling them. Another advantage of the articles having elements with globe-shaped heads is that they ordinarily can undergo many engagement and disengagement cycles without undue wear.
Another preferred head shape is illustrated in FIG. 3 wherein the heads are essentially bullet shaped. The force required to disengage these articles is substantially greater than the force required to engage them. Thus they are illustrative of another important and novel subclass in which the maximum angle between the axis and the bearing surface of each element during engagement is substantially less than the maximum angle between the axis and the bearing surface of each element during disengagement, the angles being measured within the element heads, so that the force required to disengage the articles is substantially greater than the force required to engage them.
The fasteners of this invention can be fabricated by known techniques such as injection molding, compression molding, extrusion, progressive stamping and die forming, casting, investment molding, embossing, vacuum forming, flocking, etc.
The unordered positions of the elements can be determined either during manufacture or prior thereto. They can be determined during manufacture, for example, by flocking rods without heads onto a base sheet and aflixing them thereto (e.g. by having the base sheet in molten condition at the time of flocking, by using a strong, permanent adhesive, etc.). Each rod is sufficiently long so that its volume is equal to the volume of the headed cam element to be made from it. Using vibratory flocking techniques, the rods are oriented substantially perpendicular to the base but in unordered positions. In a subsequent operation, the rods can be formed into headed cam elements, as described elsewhere herein. Alternatively, stems with enlarged heads on both ends can be flocked onto a base and affixed thereto (and the head adjacent the base can be buried if desired by a heavy adhesive coat).
If, during the flocking operation, the rods or headed stems are constrained so that each becomes affixed to a limited base area, then the positions of the elements will be unordered, with limitations, in two dimensions. If rods or headed stems of varying lengths and/or diameters are used which will form cam elements whose heads are located at various heights, then the heads of the elements will be located at unordered positions (heights) above the base (see FIG. 7) and will be unordered in three dimensions.
It is sometimes desirable to use a mixture of rods of different materials to flock onto a base, e.g. when rods of varying diameters are to be attached to the base and then headed (since if all were of the same material, those of smaller diameters would tend to form heads more quickly than those of larger diameters).
The pattern of elements in unordered positions can be also determined before manufacture of the fasteners. The articles with unheaded stems can be formed continuously, for example, on the surface of a die roll (which carries an unordered pattern of holes for the formation of unheaded stems or rods). In a subsequent operation, heads can be formed on the stems by melting the ends thereof as previously described, or by pressing the ends of the stems in to heated forming dies to form and shape the heads, cooling the dies to solidify the heads and then withdrawing them from the dies. The latter technique is used where particular shapes of heads (such as bullet shaped heads), which will not normally form by unconstrained melting, are desired. The individual fastener articles are then cut from the continuous web. Alternatively, a base sheet carrying the unheaded rods can be formed in an injection mold and the headed elements formed as previously described. In some cases the elements are formed so that the stems and portions of the corresponding heads are hollow. Regardless of how the articles of the invention are formed, there is ordinarily no repetition of the unordered pattern in a single final article. In any case, the particular advantages of the unordered pattern (such as the ability to engage complementary articles without regard to careful alignment) are realized.
Unordered element patterns can be formed in various ways. In one technique a large number of cylindrical disks of varying diameters with holes through the centers of the circular flat sides thereof are utilized (each disk representing one headed element and a surrounding space which is associated with it in two dimensions). The relative diameters of the disks may vary only a few percent or the ratio thereof may be as high as 3 to 1 or even higher. Any convenient thickness of the disks can be used which will allow them to be pressed together without overlapping. The disks are mixed together, tumbled randomly onto a piece of graph paper (usually rectangular coordinate graph paper) and turned so that one circular side of each is against the graph paper. The disks in this field are then pressed together from the edges (although usually not shaken or jogged to obtain maximum packing) and marks are made on the graph paper through the center holes. Preferably no marks are made through the center holes of the disks near the edges of the field (e.g. those on the edges or one removed therefrom) to avoid edge effects. The resulting pattern of marks on the graph paper represents elements located at unordered positions, limited by a minimum distance between positions, since element centers cannot be closer than when two of the smallest cylinders adjoin. This pattern of holes, usually at a reduced scale, can be used to form the pattern of holes in the stem forming roll or injection mold. Depending on the depth of the holes, the stems may be all of the same length or may vary according to some mathematical rule. In this instance, order will exist in the third dimension (height). However, in the other two dimensions, the positions are unordered, and the fasteners can be engaged without regard to careful alignment. If the stems are made so that the lengths, or diameters, vary without order, the heads of the elements will be located at unordered positions in three dimensions. Alternatively, the lengths or diameters of the stems can be related to particular sizes of the cylinders used to make the pattern.
By a modification of this method, ordered sub-groups of elements can be located at unordered positions, e.g. the cylinders are first arranged into ordered sub-groups by afiixing them to small sheets of paper. A number of these ordered sub-groups are placed in unordered positions and then used to form a pattern of holes in the same fashion as individual cylinders were used in the preceding description. A pattern formed in this manner is shown in FIG. 4, the centers of the elements in each triangular sub-group being shown connected by dashed lines for purposes of illustration. Sub-groups having other ordered arrays, for example, square, rectangular, circular, regular polygonal or irregular configurations, may be used. Sub-groups of different ordered arrays (ife. not having identical configurations) may be mixed together and adjoin or overlay each other.
Unorder can also be introduced into the articles of the invention by forming the element heads off center With respect to the stems and/or making them non-symmetrical. This oan be done by using heading dies which register off center from the elements to be headed or by heating a non-symmetrical unheaded stem from the top. If this non-symmetry of the heads is unordered from element to element, articles of the invention will be formed, even though the elements are attached to the base at ordered positions.
Die holes for the non-symmetrical stems can be formed using the electro discharge machinery technique in which the drilling tool does not rotate. Thus, the hole which is drilled has the same shape as the tool, which can, for example, be a cylinder the end of which is a plane at an acute angle to the axis of the cylinder. The tool is positioned for drilling so that the orientation of the angle at the end of the cylinder corresponds to the orientation of a directional vector for each point location (determined randomly, for example, by spinning a pivoted arrow for each hole). Articles molded using the resulting die have unheaded rods or stems of the same shape as the drilling tool but randomly oriented. Headed elements formed by heating these rods from the ends will be unsymmetrical and unordered with respect to one another. Heads of varying sizes and shapes can be made on the same fasteners by drilling the holes in the die With tools having varying diameters and end planes at varying angles with respect to the cylinder axis.
The articles of the invention are preferably of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers such as polyethylene, polypropylene, nylons, melamine, polystyrenes, polycarbonates, various fluorinated polymers, epoxy resin, cellulose acetate, vinyl chloride polymers, copolymers of the above and other materials, modified polymers including filled and plasticized polymers, etc.; although they may in certain cases also be of metals, ceramics, glasses, fibrous products such as papers, resin bonded fibrous sheeting, laminated sheets, glass filament reinforced webs, etc. The actual material which is chosen for a particular application depends upon such factors as suitability to fabrication in the desired configuration, projected ambient conditions of use (heat, moisture, acidic or basic conditions, etc.), mechanical conditions of use (tensile, and elastic stresses, repeated flexing), etc. In some cases, it is desirable to place the articles in the location of intended use and even to engage them when the material of construction is at an intermediate stage, for example, as a partially cured polymer or as a green ceramic and then bring the material to its final stage, e.g. by curing.
The versatility of the articles of the invention with respect to function as well as materials of construction render them widely useful. Panels orh'angings can be attached to walls with great ease, invisi'bly and, if desired with great tenacity. Adverse conditions of temperature, humidity, chemical corrosion, dirt, grease, etc. are of comparatively little concern. Depending upon the design and the particular elastic material which is used, the articles of the invention can be usable once, several times or many times. In certain articles of the invention disengagement can be accomplished only by forces suflicient to destroy the functional surf-aces by tension or shear, these articles being intended to hold permanently. The functional surfaces can be carried on the flat or curverlsurfaces of variously shaped articles, e.g. on sheets, spheres, cylinders, cubes, etc. and a single unitary article can have a plurality of functional surfaces thereon.
Various polymeric systems can be used in conjunction with the articles of the invention. Thus, for example, the base surface between the contour elements of the functional surface can be coated to any desired depth with a liquid or partially cured semisolid polymeric system, the surface engaged with another functional surface and the polymer thereafter activated and/ or cured. Some types of systems which can be used in this way are cements (which can be subsequently dried), sealants (which can be subsequently set), foaming systems (which can be subsequently foamed) and cross linking polymers (which can be subsequently cross linked).
The contour elements of the invention vary greatly in size and proportions, the actual limits depending largely upon the ease and efficiency of production and the intended use. Ordinarily, for ease of fabrication, handling, storage and use the elements are from about 0.025 to 1 inch in length and the length to diameter ratios of the stem portions thereof are from about 0.5 to
For definitions of terms herein relating to strength of materials, reference is made to the book Formulas for Stress and Strain by R. J. Roark, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1943, especially at pages 5-12.
What is claimed is:
1. A fastener comprising a complementary pair of unitary interengaging articles, each having a relatively stitf base from which emanates a multiplicity of resilient cam elements each comprised of a stem terminating in an enlarged shaped head, in which (1) the position of each element head is unordered with respect to the positions of the other element heads (2) a substantial number of pairs of adjacent element heads over the surface are spaced so that the distance between the heads is greater than the stem diameter (3) ordinarily three or more adjacent element heads lie along curved paths and (4) when the complementary articles are interengaged, a majority of the element heads of each article are held beneath the element heads of the other article.
2. A fastener according to claim 1 wherein the element heads are globe shaped.
3. A fastener according to claim 1 wherein the element heads are unsymmetrically shaped.
4. A fastener comprising a complementary pair of unitary interengaging articles, each having a relatively stiff base from which emanates a multiplicity of resilient cam elements each comprised of a stem terminating in an enlarged shaped head, in which (1) the position of each element head is unordered with respect to the positions of the other element heads (2) a substantial 8 number of pairs of adjacent element heads over the surface are spaced so that the distance between the heads is greater than the stem diameter (3) ordinarily three or more adjacent element heads be along curved paths and (4) when the complementary articles are interengaged, a majority of the element heads of each article are held beneath the element heads of the other article, the maximum angles between the axes and the bearing surfaces of the elements during engagement being substantially less than the maximum angles between the axes and the bearing surfaces of the elements during disengagement, the angles being measured within the element heads, whereby the force required to disengage the articles is substantially greater than the force required to engage them.
5. A fastener according to claim 4 wherein the element heads are bullet-shaped.
6. A fastener comprising a complementary pair of unitary interengaging articles, each having a relatively stiff base from which emanates a multiplicity of resilient cam elements each comprised of a stem terminating in an enlarged shaped head, in which (1) the position of each element head is unordered with respect to the positions of the other element heads (2) a substantial number of pairs of adjacent element heads over the surface are spaced so that the distance between the heads is greater than the stem diameter (3) ordinarily three or more adjacent element heads lie along curved paths and (4) when the complementary articles are interengaged, a majority of the element heads of each article are held beneath the element heads of the other article, the elements being of a uniform size and shape and each element being symmetrical about its central axis.
7. A fastener according to claim 6 wherein the element heads are globe shaped.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,499,898 3/ 1950 Anderson. 3,031,730 5/1962 Morin 24-204 3,101,517 8/1963 Fox 24-204 3,191,255 6/1965 Nealis 24-204 X 3,266,113 8/ 1966 Flanagan 24-204 FOREIGN PATENTS 815,072 9/ 1' Germany.
BERNARD A. GELAK, Primary Examiner.
|Patente citada||Fecha de presentación||Fecha de publicación||Solicitante||Título|
|US2499898 *||23 Dic 1946||7 Mar 1950||Albert F Anderson||Clasp|
|US3031730 *||26 Sep 1958||1 May 1962||Morin Louis H||Burr-type closure or coupling element|
|US3101517 *||28 Nov 1960||27 Ago 1963||Marvin Fox||Fastener|
|US3191255 *||13 Ago 1962||29 Jun 1965||Nealis Raymond N||Plastic zipper|
|US3266113 *||14 Dic 1964||16 Ago 1966||Minnesota Mining & Mfg||Interreacting articles|
|DE815072C *||7 Sep 1949||27 Sep 1951||Otto Benner||Massageschlaeger|
|Patente citante||Fecha de presentación||Fecha de publicación||Solicitante||Título|
|US3718725 *||17 Nov 1970||27 Feb 1973||Int Knitlock Corp||Method for making hook fabric material for fasteners|
|US3921259 *||21 Nov 1974||25 Nov 1975||Ingrip Fasteners||Self-gripping device with composite gripping elements|
|US4142565 *||20 Jun 1977||6 Mar 1979||Plunkett Sr Hermon L||Insulating device for fluid conduit|
|US4290174 *||13 Ene 1978||22 Sep 1981||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Separable fastener and article for making same|
|US4290832 *||2 Sep 1977||22 Sep 1981||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Method for making fasteners|
|US4322875 *||31 Mar 1980||6 Abr 1982||Minnesota Mining And Manfacturing Company||Two strip materials used for forming fasteners|
|US4531733 *||4 Mar 1983||30 Jul 1985||Hall Roger E||Fastener and base using said fastener|
|US4693921 *||30 Nov 1984||15 Sep 1987||Aplix||Fastening tape designed to be attached to a molded article during molding, and its attaching method|
|US4707893 *||2 May 1986||24 Nov 1987||Kanebo Bell-Touch, Ltd.||Fabric fastener|
|US4709453 *||14 Oct 1986||1 Dic 1987||Foster-Miller, Inc.||Separable fastening device|
|US4802939 *||4 Sep 1987||7 Feb 1989||Aplix, S.A.||Method for attaching a fastening tape to a molded article|
|US4814036 *||17 Sep 1987||21 Mar 1989||Velcro Industries B.V.||Method for adapting separable fasteners for attachment to other objects|
|US4875259 *||24 Mar 1988||24 Oct 1989||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Intermeshable article|
|US4933035 *||11 Ene 1989||12 Jun 1990||Aplix, S.A.||Method of attaching a fastening tape to a molded article and the fastening tape used for such|
|US4933224 *||25 Nov 1987||12 Jun 1990||Velcro Industries, B.V.||Method for adapting separable fasteners for attachment to other objects|
|US5040275 *||1 Jun 1990||20 Ago 1991||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Strip material used for forming fasteners|
|US5077870 *||21 Sep 1990||7 Ene 1992||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Mushroom-type hook strip for a mechanical fastener|
|US5088162 *||16 Jul 1990||18 Feb 1992||Allan Robert M||Connector apparatus|
|US5088164 *||22 Mar 1989||18 Feb 1992||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Container with intermeshable closure members|
|US5113555 *||26 Nov 1990||19 May 1992||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Container with intermeshable closure members|
|US5136771 *||4 Sep 1990||11 Ago 1992||Milliken Denmark A/S||Method of keeping an easily removable mat or the like small carpet in place|
|US5179767 *||12 Nov 1991||19 Ene 1993||Allan Robert M||Connector apparatus|
|US5201101 *||28 Abr 1992||13 Abr 1993||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Method of attaching articles and a pair of articles fastened by the method|
|US5212853 *||10 Mar 1992||25 May 1993||Nifco Inc.||Separable plastic fastener and method and apparatus for manufacturing thereof|
|US5231738 *||12 Dic 1991||3 Ago 1993||Kuraray Co., Ltd.||Mixed hook/loop separable fastener and process for its production|
|US5312456 *||31 Ene 1991||17 May 1994||Carnegie Mellon University||Micromechanical barb and method for making the same|
|US5345659 *||15 Ene 1993||13 Sep 1994||Allan Robert M||Connector apparatus with nesting ridges|
|US5360270 *||28 Abr 1992||1 Nov 1994||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Reusable security enclosure|
|US5364367 *||30 Abr 1993||15 Nov 1994||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Cannula anchor|
|US5369852 *||21 May 1993||6 Dic 1994||Kuraray Co., Ltd.||Mixed hook/loop separable fastener and process for its production|
|US5457855 *||28 Feb 1994||17 Oct 1995||Velcro Industries, B.V.||Woven self-engaging fastener|
|US5460769 *||1 Ago 1994||24 Oct 1995||Nifco Inc.||Method and apparatus for manufacturing a separable plastic fastener|
|US5490808 *||30 Ene 1995||13 Feb 1996||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Abrasive attachment system for rotative abrading applications|
|US5505747 *||13 Ene 1994||9 Abr 1996||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Method of making an abrasive article|
|US5515583 *||8 Sep 1994||14 May 1996||Kuraray Co., Ltd.||Mixed hook/loop separable fastener and process for its production|
|US5555608 *||19 Abr 1994||17 Sep 1996||Allan; Robert M.||Connector apparatus with nesting ridges|
|US5607635 *||8 Nov 1991||4 Mar 1997||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Mushroom-type hook strip for a mechanical fastener|
|US5611122 *||19 Jul 1994||18 Mar 1997||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing||Interengaging fastener having reduced noise generation|
|US5614232 *||28 Feb 1996||25 Mar 1997||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing||Method of making an interengaging fastener member|
|US5618225 *||6 Jun 1995||8 Abr 1997||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Abrasive attachment system for rotative abrading applications|
|US5625929 *||4 Ago 1994||6 May 1997||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing||Interengaging fastener member|
|US5634245 *||14 Jul 1995||3 Jun 1997||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Structured surface fastener|
|US5640744 *||14 Sep 1995||24 Jun 1997||Allan; Robert M.||Nested ridge strap connector apparatus|
|US5657516 *||12 Oct 1995||19 Ago 1997||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Dual structured fastener elements|
|US5662853 *||22 Nov 1995||2 Sep 1997||Minnesota Mining Manufacturing Company||Affixation member for decorating or protecting structures and methods of making same|
|US5667540 *||13 Mar 1996||16 Sep 1997||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Method of making an abrasive article|
|US5671511 *||25 Ago 1994||30 Sep 1997||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Interengaging fastener member having fabric layer|
|US5672186 *||13 Mar 1996||30 Sep 1997||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Method of making an abrasive article|
|US5679302 *||16 Abr 1993||21 Oct 1997||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Method for making a mushroom-type hook strip for a mechanical fastener|
|US5691026 *||8 Mar 1994||25 Nov 1997||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Fastener member with a dual purpose cover sheet|
|US5691027 *||29 Sep 1995||25 Nov 1997||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Fastener with a dual purpose cover sheet|
|US5692271 *||7 Mar 1995||2 Dic 1997||Velcro Industries B.V.||Enhanced flexibility fastener, method and apparatus for its making, and product incorporating it|
|US5725423 *||3 Mar 1997||10 Mar 1998||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Abrading apparatus|
|US5755015 *||31 Oct 1996||26 May 1998||Ykk Corporation||Molded surface fastener, and method and apparatus for manufacturing the same|
|US5761775 *||17 Oct 1996||9 Jun 1998||Legome; Mark J.||Mushroom and loop material closure system for high shear strength and low peel strength applications|
|US5785784 *||23 Jul 1997||28 Jul 1998||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Abrasive articles method of making same and abrading apparatus|
|US5792408 *||10 Jun 1997||11 Ago 1998||Ykk Corporation||Molded surface fastener, and method and apparatus for manufacturing the same|
|US5800845 *||10 Jun 1997||1 Sep 1998||Ykk Corporation||Molded surface fastener, and method and apparatus for manufacturing the same|
|US5840089 *||29 Jul 1997||24 Nov 1998||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Method of making an abrasive article|
|US5845375 *||30 May 1997||8 Dic 1998||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Mushroom-type hook strip for a mechanical fastener|
|US5867876 *||12 May 1997||9 Feb 1999||Petersen; Edward C.||Male-to-male connector apparatus having symmetrical and uniform connector matrix|
|US5868987 *||19 Jun 1997||9 Feb 1999||Minnesotamining And Manufacturing||Superimposed embossing of capped stem mechanical fastener structures|
|US5879604 *||25 Oct 1996||9 Mar 1999||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Method of making a mushroom-type hook strip for a mechanical fastener|
|US5900302 *||2 Oct 1996||4 May 1999||Ykk Corporation||Molded surface fastener having an ornamental pattern, and method of and apparatus for manufacturing same|
|US5902427 *||11 Jul 1997||11 May 1999||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Fastener arrangement with dual purpose cover sheet|
|US5933927 *||16 Jul 1997||10 Ago 1999||3M Innovative Properties Company||Finger grip for a fastening system and a method of making the same|
|US5980230 *||11 Abr 1997||9 Nov 1999||Velcro Industries B.V.||Forming fastener products|
|US5983467 *||29 Dic 1997||16 Nov 1999||Duffy; Leonard A.||Interlocking device|
|US5987706 *||6 Nov 1997||23 Nov 1999||Micron Electronics, Inc.||Device for removably coupling a plurality of structures|
|US5997522 *||2 May 1997||7 Dic 1999||Velcro Industries B.V.||Item of wear having an enhanced flexibility fastener|
|US6000106 *||17 Mar 1998||14 Dic 1999||3M Innovative Properties Company||Superimposed embossing of capped stem mechanical fastener structures|
|US6039911 *||9 Ene 1997||21 Mar 2000||3M Innovative Properties Company||Method for capping stem fasteners|
|US6054091 *||3 Oct 1996||25 Abr 2000||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Co.||J hook-type hook strip for a mechanical fastener|
|US6076238 *||13 Abr 1999||20 Jun 2000||3M Innovative Properties Company||Mechanical fastener|
|US6132660 *||19 Jun 1997||17 Oct 2000||3M Innovative Properties Company||Method for forming headed stem mechanical fasteners|
|US6159596 *||23 Dic 1997||12 Dic 2000||3M Innovative Properties Company||Self mating adhesive fastener element articles including a self mating adhesive fastener element and methods for producing and using|
|US6206679||1 Dic 1997||27 Mar 2001||Velcro Industries B.V.||Apparatus for making molded plastic hook fasteners|
|US6276032 *||25 Ene 2000||21 Ago 2001||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Mechanical fastening system having a plurality of engagement members which include stalk members|
|US6375647 *||31 Jul 2000||23 Abr 2002||Ykk Corporation||Disposable diaper|
|US6416616||24 Oct 2000||9 Jul 2002||Micron Technology, Inc.||Apparatus for releasably attaching polishing pads to planarizing machines in mechanical and/or chemical-mechanical planarization of microelectronic-device substrate assemblies|
|US6439970 *||24 Oct 2000||27 Ago 2002||Micron Technology, Inc.||Method and apparatus for releasably attaching polishing pads to planarizing machines in mechanical and/or chemical-mechanical planarization of microelectronic-device substrate assemblies|
|US6543099||2 Jun 2000||8 Abr 2003||Velcro Industries B.V.||Varying the loop engageability of fastener element arrays|
|US6558602||11 Dic 1996||6 May 2003||3M Innovative Properties Company||Mushroom-type hook strip for a mechanical fastener|
|US6579161||6 Dic 1996||17 Jun 2003||3M Innovative Properties Company||Abrasive article|
|US6579162||15 Dic 2000||17 Jun 2003||3M Innovative Properties Company||Abrasive article|
|US6641096||13 Sep 2001||4 Nov 2003||3M Innovative Properties Company||Stretch releasing adhesive tape article with bundling strap|
|US6671935||22 Oct 2002||6 Ene 2004||Velcro Industries B.V.||Varying the loop engageability of fastener element arrays|
|US6687962||16 Ene 2002||10 Feb 2004||Velcro Industries B.V.||Fastener element patterning|
|US6708378||30 May 2001||23 Mar 2004||Velcro Industries B.V.||Fasteners and methods of making fasteners|
|US6720059 *||5 Oct 2001||13 Abr 2004||Ykk Corporation||Fastener strip having vertical sealing members l|
|US6884157||25 Mar 2003||26 Abr 2005||3M Innovative Properties Company||Abrasive article|
|US6887222 *||30 Oct 2002||3 May 2005||Hollistser Incorporated||Ostomy pouch with bias members and closure means|
|US6896759||3 Abr 2003||24 May 2005||Ykk Corporation||Fastener strip with discrete magnetically attractable area, and method and apparatus of making same|
|US6930277||24 May 2002||16 Ago 2005||Velcro Industries B.V.||Fastener element molding|
|US6991843||4 Jun 2002||31 Ene 2006||Velcro Industries B.V.||Fasteners engageable with loops of nonwoven fabrics and with other open structures, and methods and machines for making fasteners|
|US7022394||5 Oct 2001||4 Abr 2006||Ykk Corporation||Fastener strip with discrete magnetically attractable area, and method and apparatus of making same|
|US7044834||20 Abr 2005||16 May 2006||3M Innovative Properties Company||Abrasive article|
|US7052638||4 Jun 2003||30 May 2006||Velcro Industries B.V.||Hook and loop fastener|
|US7162780||26 Feb 2001||16 Ene 2007||Velcro Industries B.V.||Skin-friendly hook fastening component|
|US7188396||20 Oct 2003||13 Mar 2007||3M Innovative Properties Company||Method for making a mushroom-type hook strip for a mechanical fastener|
|US7246416 *||19 Oct 2001||24 Jul 2007||Leonard Arnold Duffy||Slidingly Engagable Fasteners and method|
|US7254874 *||9 Mar 2005||14 Ago 2007||Leonard Arnold Duffy||Molded surface fasteners and attachment methods|
|US7275290||13 Jul 2004||2 Oct 2007||Velcro Industries B.V.||Touch fasteners|
|US7373700||12 Ene 2007||20 May 2008||Velcro Industries B.V.||Skin-friendly hook fastening component|
|US7374706 *||20 Nov 2001||20 May 2008||Gottlieb Binder Gmbh & Co.||Method for producing adhesive closure parts|
|US7374707 *||20 Nov 2001||20 May 2008||Gottlieb Binder Gmbh & Co.||Method for producing adhesive closing parts|
|US7399184||23 Jun 2005||15 Jul 2008||3M Innovative Properties Company||Dry erase article|
|US7444722||28 Oct 2005||4 Nov 2008||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Refastenable absorbent garment|
|US7475930 *||30 Mar 2006||13 Ene 2009||Lisa Dräxlmaier GmbH||Interior components of motor vehicles|
|US7588216 *||19 Mar 2001||15 Sep 2009||Cisco Technology, Inc.||Fiber optic cabling management using hook and loop fabric|
|US7727440||6 Dic 2004||1 Jun 2010||Velcro Industries B.V.||Methods of making fastener products|
|US7879015||7 Abr 2003||1 Feb 2011||Hollister Incorporated||Drainable ostomy pouch with integrated closure|
|US7879016||1 Abr 2005||1 Feb 2011||Hollister Incorporated||Ostomy pouch with bias members and closure means|
|US7950114||10 Ago 2007||31 May 2011||Leonard Arnold Duffy||Self-adhering device and method|
|US8002612||8 Abr 2004||23 Ago 2011||3M Innovative Properties Company||Attachment system for a sanding tool|
|US8142262 *||6 Sep 2007||27 Mar 2012||Robert Bosch Gmbh||Sanding device with detachably mounted sanding element|
|US8256068||31 Oct 2008||4 Sep 2012||Panduit Corp.||Microhook fastener apparatus|
|US8273102||4 Jun 2004||25 Sep 2012||Vitalitec International, Inc.||Surgical clamp inserts with hooked traction elements|
|US8375529||27 Jul 2009||19 Feb 2013||Leonard Arnold Duffy||Touch engageable fastener|
|US8480943 *||5 Nov 2010||9 Jul 2013||Leonard Arnold Duffy||Apparatus and method for producing structures with multiple undercut stems|
|US8635749 *||27 Jul 2010||28 Ene 2014||Nano Terra Inc.||Microadhesive systems and methods of making and using the same|
|US8672907||26 Jul 2010||18 Mar 2014||Hollister Incorporated||Drainable ostomy pouch|
|US8821463||16 Mar 2010||2 Sep 2014||Hollister Incorporated||Drainable ostomy pouch|
|US8875356||4 Oct 2012||4 Nov 2014||Intercontinental Great Brands Llc||Mechanical and adhesive based reclosable fasteners|
|US9056032||29 Jun 2012||16 Jun 2015||The Procter & Gamble Company||Wearable article with outwardmost layer of multicomponent fiber nonwoven providing enhanced mechanical features|
|US9084701||10 Nov 2011||21 Jul 2015||The Procter & Gamble Company||Absorbent articles with hook and loop fastening systems|
|US9089355||16 Sep 2003||28 Jul 2015||Vitalitec International, Inc.||Surgical clamp inserts with hooked traction elements|
|US9138032||28 Abr 2015||22 Sep 2015||Velcro Industries B.V.||Mold-in touch fastener systems with wave-shaped wall|
|US9474339 *||11 Nov 2013||25 Oct 2016||Airbus Operations Gmbh||Connecting device, assembly and method for manufacturing an assembly|
|US9504296||10 Dic 2014||29 Nov 2016||Velcro BVBA||Mold-in touch fastening product|
|US20020164449 *||5 Oct 2001||7 Nov 2002||Nobuo Fujisawa||Fastener strip with discrete magnetically attractable area, and method and apparatus of making same|
|US20020164451 *||5 Oct 2001||7 Nov 2002||Nobuo Fujisawa||Fastener strip having sealing vertical wall|
|US20030038408 *||20 Nov 2001||27 Feb 2003||Axel Schulte||Method for producing adhesive closure parts|
|US20030070391 *||23 Oct 2002||17 Abr 2003||Tachauer Ernesto S.||Fastening with wide fastening membrane|
|US20030104137 *||20 Nov 2001||5 Jun 2003||Axel Schulte||Method for producing adhesive closing parts|
|US20030106188 *||4 Jun 2002||12 Jun 2003||Armela Luis Parellada||Fasteners engageable with loops of nonwoven fabrics and with other open structures, and methods and machines for making fasteners|
|US20030153882 *||30 Oct 2002||14 Ago 2003||Taras Mandzij||Ostomy pouch with bias members and closure means|
|US20030214068 *||3 Abr 2003||20 Nov 2003||Ykk Corporation||Fastener strip with discrete magnetically attractable area, and method and apparatus of making same|
|US20040031130 *||4 Jun 2003||19 Feb 2004||Clarner Mark A.||Hook and loop fastener|
|US20040231690 *||15 Jul 2002||25 Nov 2004||De Benedictis Danielle Anita||Method and apparatus for use in treating strands of hair|
|US20050059987 *||16 Sep 2003||17 Mar 2005||Novare Surgical Systems, Inc.||Surgical clamp inserts with hooked traction elements|
|US20050059988 *||4 Jun 2004||17 Mar 2005||Novare Surgical Systems, Inc.||Surgical clamp inserts with hooked traction elements|
|US20050091805 *||6 Dic 2004||5 May 2005||Velcro Industries B.V., A Netherlands Corporation||Methods of making fastener products|
|US20050131360 *||7 Abr 2003||16 Jun 2005||Hollister Incorporated||Drainable ostomy pouch with integrated closure|
|US20050136214 *||18 Dic 2003||23 Jun 2005||3M Innovative Properties Company||Mounting board|
|US20050177986 *||13 Jul 2004||18 Ago 2005||Clarner Mark A.||Touch fasteners|
|US20050198790 *||9 Mar 2005||15 Sep 2005||Duffy Leonard A.||Molded surface fasteners and attachment methods|
|US20050202770 *||20 Abr 2005||15 Sep 2005||3M Innovative Properties||Abrasive article|
|US20050217087 *||5 Abr 2004||6 Oct 2005||Gallant Christopher M||Self-engaging, double-sided fastener products|
|US20050227600 *||8 Abr 2004||13 Oct 2005||3M Innovative Properties Company||Attachment system for a sanding tool|
|US20050241119 *||30 Abr 2004||3 Nov 2005||Nadezhda Efremova||Refastenable garment attachment means with low impact on the garment|
|US20060003307 *||23 Jun 2005||5 Ene 2006||3M Innovative Properties Company||Dry erase article|
|US20060015079 *||1 Abr 2005||19 Ene 2006||Hollister Incorporated||Ostomy pouch with bias members and closure means|
|US20060024463 *||29 Abr 2005||2 Feb 2006||3M Innovative Properties Company||Dry erase substrate|
|US20060090307 *||28 Oct 2005||4 May 2006||Mcdaniel Mary L||Refastenable absorbent garment|
|US20060237981 *||30 Mar 2006||26 Oct 2006||Lisa Draxlmaier Gmbh||Interior components of motor vehicles|
|US20070137007 *||12 Ene 2007||21 Jun 2007||Velcro Industries B.V.||Skin-Friendly Hook Fastening Component|
|US20080104787 *||2 Nov 2006||8 May 2008||Conopco Inc., D/B/A Unilever||Motorized personal skin care implement|
|US20080249496 *||14 Mar 2006||9 Oct 2008||Petersen Johann F||Absorbent Article|
|US20090106953 *||24 Oct 2007||30 Abr 2009||Wittig Wayne||Apparatus and method for fastening by capturing protruding members in corresponding flexible openings|
|US20090126165 *||31 Oct 2008||21 May 2009||Panduit Corp.||Microhook Fastener Apparatus|
|US20090170412 *||6 Sep 2007||2 Jul 2009||Werner Huser||Sanding device with detachably mounted sanding element|
|US20090293165 *||10 Ago 2009||3 Dic 2009||Derek Leslie Arnold||Visor overlay assembly|
|US20110016675 *||27 Jul 2010||27 Ene 2011||Nano Terra, Inc.||Microadhesive systems and methods of making and using the same|
|US20110028927 *||29 Jul 2010||3 Feb 2011||Remo Bellucci||Absorbent articles with adhesive portion and protrusions|
|US20110121488 *||5 Nov 2010||26 May 2011||Leonard Arnold Duffy||Apparatus and method for producing structures with multiple undercut stems|
|US20110144601 *||20 Dic 2010||16 Jun 2011||Hollister Incorporated||Drainable Ostomy Pouch With Integrated Closure|
|US20120260401 *||13 Mar 2012||18 Oct 2012||Darryl Moskowitz||Releasable securement device|
|US20140059813 *||11 Nov 2013||6 Mar 2014||Airbus Operations Gmbh||Connecting device, assembly and method for manufacturing an assembly|
|USRE36779 *||22 Jul 1998||18 Jul 2000||Ykk Corporation||Molded surface fastener|
|USRE40858 *||22 May 2006||21 Jul 2009||Velcro Industries B.V.||Fastener element molding|
|USRE42475 *||2 Nov 2009||21 Jun 2011||Velcro Industries B.V.||Fasteners engageable with loops of nonwoven fabrics and with other open structures, and methods and machines for making fasteners|
|CN1965776B||26 Feb 2002||8 Dic 2010||维尔克鲁工业公司||Skin-friendly hook fastening component|
|CN100471412C||25 Ene 2000||25 Mar 2009||3M创新有限公司||Mechanical fastener|
|CN103153115A *||3 Ago 2011||12 Jun 2013||维尔克罗工业公司||Touch fastening|
|CN103153115B *||3 Ago 2011||16 Mar 2016||维尔克罗工业公司||接触式紧固件|
|CN103281924A *||20 Dic 2011||4 Sep 2013||3M创新有限公司||Structured surface with multiple-ost caps and method of making the same|
|EP1531140A1 *||11 Nov 2003||18 May 2005||Inventio Ag||Transportation apparatus|
|EP1859700A2 *||26 Feb 2002||28 Nov 2007||Velcro Industries B.V.||Skin-friendly hook fastening component|
|EP1859700A3 *||26 Feb 2002||5 Dic 2007||Velcro Industries B.V.||Skin-friendly hook fastening component|
|EP2545798A1||13 Jul 2011||16 Ene 2013||3M Innovative Properties Company||Sanitary product system|
|WO1992004839A2 *||19 Ago 1991||2 Abr 1992||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Mushroom-type hook strip for a mechanical fastener|
|WO1992004839A3 *||19 Ago 1991||14 May 1992||Minnesota Mining & Mfg||Mushroom-type hook strip for a mechanical fastener|
|WO1995022918A1 *||7 Feb 1995||31 Ago 1995||Velcro Industries B.V.||Woven self-engaging fastener|
|WO1996027307A1 *||4 Mar 1996||12 Sep 1996||Velcro Industries B.V.||Enhanced flexibility fastener, method and apparatus for its making, and product incorporating it|
|WO1998014086A1 *||20 Ago 1997||9 Abr 1998||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||J hook-type hook strip for a mechanical fastener|
|WO2001043684A1 *||6 Dic 2000||21 Jun 2001||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Mechanical fastening system having a plurality of engagement members which include stalk members|
|WO2001081771A2 *||26 Abr 2001||1 Nov 2001||Velcro Industries B.V.||Fastening with wide fastening membrane|
|WO2001081771A3 *||26 Abr 2001||21 Mar 2002||Shawn C Banker||Fastening with wide fastening membrane|
|WO2001093715A2 *||1 Jun 2001||13 Dic 2001||Velcro Industries B.V.||Varying the loop engageability of fastener element arrays|
|WO2001093715A3 *||1 Jun 2001||23 May 2002||Velcro Ind||Varying the loop engageability of fastener element arrays|
|WO2002067836A2 *||26 Feb 2002||6 Sep 2002||Velcro Industries B.V.||Skin-friendly hook fastening component|
|WO2002067836A3 *||26 Feb 2002||5 Dic 2002||Velcro Ind||Skin-friendly hook fastening component|
|WO2003011069A1 *||15 Jul 2002||13 Feb 2003||Benedictis Danielle Anita De||Method and apparatus for use in treating strands of hair|
|WO2004071584A1||18 Dic 2003||26 Ago 2004||3M Innovative Properties Company||Firestop article with attachment surface|
|WO2010050831A1||22 Oct 2009||6 May 2010||3D Studium Form Przemysłowych I Reklamowych Jarosław Wardas||Three-dimensional burr fastener|
|WO2013009964A1||12 Jul 2012||17 Ene 2013||3M Innovative Properties Company||Sanitary product system|
|WO2013071031A1||9 Nov 2012||16 May 2013||The Procter & Gamble Company||Absorbent articles with hook and loop fastening systems|
|WO2014004807A1||27 Jun 2013||3 Ene 2014||The Procter & Gamble Company||Method for producing a multi-layer nonwoven web having enhanced mechanical properties|
|WO2014005043A1||28 Jun 2013||3 Ene 2014||The Procter & Gamble Company||Fastening system having multicomponent fiber component providing enhanced separation resistance|
|Clasificación de EE.UU.||24/452, 428/90, 24/446, 52/511|
|Clasificación internacional||F16B5/07, A44B18/00, F16B5/00|
|Clasificación cooperativa||F16B5/07, A44B18/0088, A44B18/0065|
|Clasificación europea||A44B18/00G10, F16B5/07, A44B18/00F8B|