|Número de publicación||US3411260 A|
|Tipo de publicación||Concesión|
|Fecha de publicación||19 Nov 1968|
|Fecha de presentación||25 Feb 1966|
|Fecha de prioridad||25 Feb 1966|
|Número de publicación||US 3411260 A, US 3411260A, US-A-3411260, US3411260 A, US3411260A|
|Inventores||Dill Robert F|
|Cesionario original||Fox Harry|
|Exportar cita||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Citas de patentes (12), Citada por (40), Clasificaciones (14)|
|Enlaces externos: USPTO, Cesión de USPTO, Espacenet|
Nov. 19, 1968 R. F. DILL 3,411,260
CONTROL SEAL AND FRACTURING MEMBER Filed Feb. 25, 1966 g INVENTOR.
A94 /06 E6- 7 1 W United States Patent 3,411,260 CONTROL SEAL AND FRACTURING MEMBER Robert F. Dill, Westminster, Califi, assignor of one-half to Harry Fox, Los Angeles, Calif. Filed Feb. 25, 1966, Ser. No. 530,087 4 Claims. (Cl. 52573) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE An elongated control seal and fracturing member adapted to be embedded in a concrete section comprising: An elongated liquid impervious barrier strip with at least one elongated fracturing strip integrally attached to and extending outwardly from one side of th barrier strip and an elongated relatively rigid cap strip releasably attached and extending outwardly from the other side of the barrier strip.
This invention relates to concrete joints, and in particular this invention relates to a control seal and fracturing member for use in concrete sections.
Considerable difficulty has been experienced previous to this invention in preventing the passage of liquids such as water from one surface of a monolithically poured concrete mass to another. Concrete which is monolithically poured inevitably cracks during curing. Liquids, generally water, then pass from one surfac of the concrete mass to the other through the resultant cracks. This eventually causes the undermining of the concrete mass and will ultimately result in its complete failure. In preventing the passage of liquids from one surface of a concrete mass to another it is necessary to provide a barrier in the concrete and to cause the concrete to fracture so that the barrier blocks the fracture.
This invention provides an elongated control seal and fracturing member which is adapted to be embedded in a concrete section. The control seal and fracturing member of this invention comprise an elongated barrier strip which has atjleast one elongated fracturing strip attached to and extending outwardly from one side of the barrier strip. An elongated cap strip is provided which is adapted to be releasibly secured to the opposite side of the barrier strip. When it is releasibly secured to the barrier strip, the cap strip extends outwardly from the barrier strip. The elongated cap strip is adapted to be attached to the elongated barrier strip just prior to the insertion of the member into a mass of uncured concrete. The cap strip may be removed from the barrier strip after the concrete mass has set.
The control seal and fracturing member of this invention provides a convenient and effective means for preventing the passage of liquids from one surface of a concrete mass to another. The member of this invention is readily positionable at a predetermined depth and angle to the surface of the concrete mass and provides a visual means for determining the accuracy of the positioning of the barrier strip within the concrete mass. In the event that the barrier trip fails to prevent the passage of liquids from one surface of the concrete mass to another, there is provided an alternate means for sealing the fracture. The member of this invention is conveniently designed to facilitate its storage and transportation.
For a more complete understanding of the invention reference is made to the accompanying drawings in which: 1
FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view of a concrete section having th control seal and fracturing member of this invention embedded therein;
FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of an additional embodiment of the barrier strip and fracturing strip of this invention;
Patented Nov. 19, 1968 FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view of an elongated barrier strip;
FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view of a further embodiment of the elongated barrier strip and fracturing strip of this invention;
FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional view of an additional embodiment of the elongated barrier strip and fracturing strip of this invention;
FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view of a further embodiment of the elongated control seal and fracturing member of this invention;
FIG. 7 is a cross-sectional view of one embodiment of an elongated cap strip of this invention;
FIG. 8 is a cross-sectional view of the releasable, substantially non-rotatable coupling between an elongated barrier strip of this invention and an elongated cap strip of this invention;
FIG. 9 is a cross-sectional view of a section of monolithically poured concrete with the elon ated barrier strip and elongated fracturing strip of this invention embedded therein; and
FIG. 10 is a cross-sectional view of a monolithically poured concrete section showing the effect of an improperly positioned sealing strip.
Broadly, the elongated control seal and fracturing member of this invention is in the form of a long strip with a substantially uniform cross-section and comprises an elongated barrier strip 12 having at least one fracturing strip 14 dependent from one side thereof and a releasably secured cap strip 18 dependent from the other side thereof.
Referring particularly to FIG. 1 there is illustrated a cross-sectional view of a monolithically poured concrete section 10 in which is embedded an elongated barrier strip 12 having two dependent fracturing strips 14 and 16 and a releasably attached cap strip 18.
Elongated barrier strip 12 has a first side 20, a second side 22, a first edge 24, and a second edge 26. Ridges 28-28 on first side 20 are provided as a means for anchoring elongated barrier strip 12 in concrete section 10. Triangular shaped ridges 3030 on first edge 24 and second edge 26 serve as a particularly effective means for anchoring these edges in concrete section 10. Ridges 28-28 and triangular ridges 30-30 also serve to impede the passage of water or other liquid along the surface of elongated barrier strip 12 and around edges 24 and 26. Coupling element 32 is integral with and projects upwardly from about the center of the first side 20. Enlarged middle portion 34 of elongated barrier strip 12 is positioned about equidistant between first edge 24 and second edge 26.
Fracturing strips 14 and 16 project outwardly from second side 22 from locations intermediate first edge 24 and second edge 26.
Cap strip 18 is releasibly secured through female trough like element 42 and a male-like head element 32 to first side 20 of elongated barrier strip 12 at a point intermediate first edge 24 and second edge 26. As will be apparent the trough-like element 42 can snap over the malelike head element 32 and the portions 58 and 60 of the trough-like element thus constitute means for interengaging with the head 32 to retain the cap strip in place. Cap strip 18 is provided with first sidewall 36 having one edge 54 and the other edge 58. Cap strip 18 is provided with a second sidewall 38 having one edge 56 and the other edge 60. Cap strip 18 is further provided with endwall 40 having one edge and the other edge 52. The edges of walls 36, 38, and 40 extend parallel to one another. One edge 50 of endwall 40 is attached to one edge 54 of first sidewall 36, the other edge 52 of endwall 40 is attached to one edge 56 of second sidewall 38. First and second sidewalls 36 and 38 project convergently from the 3 same side of endwall 40. The other edge 58 of first sidewall 36 and the other edge 60 of second sidewall 38 define therebetween coupling element 42. Cap strip 18 extends to the top surface 62 of concrete section 10. Endwall 40 is substantially parallel to surface 62. Internal brace 44 extends between the interior faces of first sidewall 36 and second sidewall 38. Exterior surface 46 of first sidewall 36 and exterior surface 48 of second sidewall 38 diverge from the location of coupling element 42. Fracture 66 extends from bottom surface 64 of concrete section 10 to the outwardmost point on fracturing strip 14. Fracture 68 likewise extends from bottom surface 64 to fracturing strip 16.
Referring particularly to FIG. 2 there is illustrated an embodiment of this invention wherein a single fracturing strip 14 is integral with and projects outwardly from second side 22 of elongated barrier strip 12.
Referring particularly to FIG. 3 there is illustrated in cross-section a barrier strip having enlarged edges 72 and 74, enlarged middle portions 76, and ridges 78, 80, 82 and 84.
Referring particularly to FIG. 4 there is illustrated an embodiment of this invention wherein an enlarged internal opening 86 is provided in barrier strip 12 and fracturing strip 14.
Referring particularly to FIG. there is illustrated an embodiment of this invention wherein a narrow neck 88 is provided as a connection between fracturing strip 14 and barrier strip 12.
Referring particularly to FIG. 6 there is illustrated an embodiment of the control seal and fracturing member of this invention wherein cap strip 18 is provided with a relatively heavy endwall 90 and the portions of first sidewall 92 and second sidewall 94, which are adjacent endwall 90, are of relative thick heavy dimensions. First edge 96 and second edge 98 of barrier strip 12 are generally vertically extending flat strips. Sawtooth cross-sections 100 and 102 serve as means for anchoring barrier strip 12 in a concrete mass,
Referring particularly to FIG. 7 there is illustrated an embodiment of the cap strip of this invention wherein the lower portion 104 of the exterior surface of one sidewall and the lower portion 106 of the exterior surface of the other sidewall diverge outwardly from lower edge 108 and lower edge 110, respectively, until they join exterior upper portion 112 and exterior upper portion 114, respectively, of the sidewalls. Exterior upper portions 112 and 114 extend parallel to one another.
Referring particularly to FIG. 8 there is illustrated an embodiment of this invention wherein the means for securing barrier strip 12 and cap strip 18 releasibly together comprise bead 113 attached to cap strip 18 and shaped trough 115 formed in barrier strip 12.
Referring particularly to FIG. 9 there is illustrated a cross-sectional view of a monolithically poured concrete section wherein the cap strip of this invention has been removed and the wedge-shaped trough formed by the removal of such cap strip is filled with plastic sealant 116. Pressure on the top surface 122 of plastic sealant 116 causes the plastic sealant to bear against first side 118 and second side 120.
Referring particularly to FIG. 10 there is illustrated a cross-section of a monolithically poured concrete section in which a sealing strip is embedded at an angle to top surface 62 and bottom surface 64. Sealing strip 128 is provided with a tip 130 which is intended to cause fracturing of the concrete section. However, due to the angle at which sealing strip 128 is buried upper point 132 of sealing strip 128 is the closest point on the sealing strip to top surface 62 and lower point 134 is the closest point on sealing strip 128 to lower surface 64. The concrete section fractures from surface 62 by way of crack 124 to upper point 132 and from lower surface 64 by way of crack 126 to lower point 134.
The control seal and fracturing member of this invention is embedded in a mass of uncured concrete to such a depth that the endwall of the cap strip is substantially flush with the surface of the concrete mass. The barrier strip is continuous from one edge to the other so that no liquid can pass from one side of the barrier to the other without going around one of the edges. Preferably, the fracturing strips do not extend completely through to the opposite surface of the concrete mass. The plane of the barrier strip should lie substantially parallel to at least of the surfaces of the concrete mass in order to prevent the result shown in FIG. 10.
The substantially non-rotatable coupling between the barrier strip and the cap strip insures that the plane of the barrier strip will be substantially parallel to the plane of the endwall. Thus, an examination of the relationship of the endwall of the cap strip to the surface of the concrete will immediately disclose the positioning of the plane of the barrier strip relative to the surface of the concrete. This substantially enhances the reliability of the barrier strip as a water control device since any tipping of the barrier strip such as illustrated in FIG. 10 is immediately apparent upon examination of the cap strip's endwall.
The positioning of the endwall of the cap strip substantially flush with the surface of the concrete also establishes the barrier strip at a uniform distance below the surface of the concrete.
Preferably the cap strip 18 is somewhat more rigid than barrier strip 12. Barrier strip 12 is composed of a resilient material because generally it must flex somewhat with the expansion and contraction of the concrete mass in which it is embedded. Under normal conditions of use cap strip 18 is not required to flex to any appreciable extent with the expansion and contraction of the concrete mass in which it is embedded. Cap strip 18 may be made of a resilient, relatively rigid material which is more rigid than the barrier strip, and which lends rigidity to the control seal and fracturing member.
The use of a substantially rigid cap strip 18 is very advantageous when it is desired to place the control seal and fracturing member of this invention by hand. In general when placing this member by hand, the member is placed on top of an uncured mass of concrete and it is forced into the fluid concrete. The rigid cap strip 18 provides a solid structure against which a tamping or vibrating tool may operate without distorting the member. The structural stability of the cap strip 18 is a considerable advantage in handling and placing the member both by machine and by hand.
The separability of the cap strip and the barrier strip facilitates the transportation and storage of the barrier strip as well as permitting the removal of the cap strip after the control seal and fracturing member has been embedded in concrete. Preferably the cap strip and the barrier strip are coupled together just prior to being inserted in the uncured mass of concrete.
The use of two fracturing strips such as shown in FIG. 1 facilitates the storage of the barrier strip in a coil. The barrier strip shown in FIG. 2 is somewhat more difficult to form into a coil because the coupling element is in direct alignment with the fracturing strip. The narrow neck which connects the fracturing strip and the barrier strip shown in FIG. 5 permits the fracturing strip to be deflected to one side or the other to facilitate rolling of the strip into a coil for transportation and storage.
The cap strip is preferably releasably secured to the barrier strip at a location approximately equidistant from the edges of the barrier strip. This brings the opening in the surface of the concrete down to the center of the barrier so that any water or other liquid entering through this opening has the longest possible path to travel before it can escape around the edges of the barrier strip. In the event that the barrier strip for some reason fails and permits the passage of the water from one surface of the concrete mass to another, the releasable nature of the coupling between the cap strip and the barrier strip permits the cap strip to be removed leaving a pre-formed opening in the concrete into which a suitable sealer may be inserted.
In a preferred embodiment of this invention, the sidewalls of the cap strip converge from the endwall toward the barrier strip. When the cap strip is removed, this leaves a generally V-shaped opening in the concrete surface as shown in FIG. 9. Because of the sloping nature of the walls, pressure on the surface of the filler, such as that produced by several feet of water, forces the filler to wedge tightly against the walls. In addition to providing a good receptacle for sealers and fillers, the tapered configuration of the cap strip facilitates its removal from the concrete mass. Also the divergence of the sidewalls of the cap strip outwardly from the coupling element permits the endwall to be relatively wide. This facilitates alignment of the endwall with the surface of the concrete. The sidewalls of the cap strip may, when desired, be arcuate rather than straight. Also, the endwall may be slightly arcuate if desired, however it should be relatively flat to permit alignment with the surface of the concrete.
The fracturing strips should project outwardly from the barrier strip along a plane which is generally perpendicular to that of the barrier strip. The outer-most portion of the fracturing strip should be closer to the adjacent surface of the concrete mass than any other point on the barrier strip. The concrete mass has a tendency to fracture from that point which is closest to its surface as shown in FIG.10. For this reason when a barrier strip such as that shown in FIG. 3 is employed the concrete has about an equal tendency to crack from any one of enlarged edges 72 or '74, enlarged middle portion 76 or ridges 78, 80, 82 or 84. Fracturing strips should be affixed to the barrier strip at locations intermediate the edges of the barrier strip. The use of more than one fracturing strip, in addition to facilitating the transportation and storage of the barrier strip, provides a safeguard against the fracturing of the concrete mass at some location which is not intermediate the edges of the barrier strip. Because of the nonhomogeneous nature of most concrete when a single fracturing strip is employed the concrete will not always fracture in alignment with that single strip. This results in a random fracture which may cause the barrier strip to fail in its function of preventing the passage of liquid from one surface to the other of the concrete. When two or more fracturing strips are employed, the plurality of weakened planes in the concrete mass generally insures that fracturing will take place in alignment with one or the other or both of the fracturing strips.
The embodiment of barrier strip exemplified in FIG. 4 is preferably used when a substantial amount of lateral movement is anticipated in the concrete mass. The enlarged internal opening 86 permits the two halves of the barrier strip to move independently of one another over a considerable distance without rupturing the barrier strip.
The embodiment of cap strip shown in FIG. 6 is particularly suited for use where the endwall of the cap strip will be subjected to wear such as that produced by foot or automobile trafiic. The exterior surface of endwall 90 may be colored for aesthetic purposes or it may be roughened or coated with an abrasive to provide a slip resistant surface.
In an embodiment of the elongated control seal and fracturing member, which is not illustrated in the drawings, a plurality of barrier strips are provided spaced adjacent one another on a single fracturing strip. In contrast to the member shown in FIG. 2, a second barrier strip, like strip 12, would be affixed to elongated fracturing member 14 at about the present location of the lower end thereof, and fracturing member 14 would be extended on down below the second barrier strip. Additional barrier strips may be added in like manner when desired.
What has been describedare preferred embodiments in which changes and modifications may be made without departing from the scope and spirit of the following claims.
6 What is claimed is:
1. An elongated control seal and fracturing member adapted to be embedded in a concrete section comprising:
an elongated, liquid impervious barrier strip, composed of a resilient material, and having a first side,
a second side, a first edge and a second edge, one
half of said barrier strip being capable of moving independently of the other half without rupturing said strip;
at least one elongated fracturing strip extending outwardly from said second side at a location intermediate said first and second edges, said fracturing strip projecting outwardly in a plane which is gen erally perpendicular to the plane of said barrier strip; and
an elongated relatively rigid cap strip comprising two elongated sidewalls, each of said sidewalls having two edges, an elongated end wall, said end wall having two edges, the edges of said elongated walls extending parallel to one another, one edge of said end wall attached to one edge of one of said sidewalls, the other edge of said end-wall attached to one edge of the other one of said sidewalls, said sidewalls extending convergently from the same side of said endwall with their other edges defining a channel therebetween, said cap being non-rotatably attached to said first side of said barrier strip at a location about equidistant from said first and second edges of said barrier striy by means of an integral rib on said barrier strip extending into said channel, interengaging means holding said rib in said channel, the plane of said endwall being substantially parallel to the plane of said barrier strip, said cap strip being sufliciently rigid to permit said member to be tamped into a mass of uncured concrete without distortion.
2. A member as defined in claim 1 'wherein said first and second edges of said barrier strip comprise integral laterally extending enlargements whereby to securely lanchor said barrier strip in a concrete section.
3. A member as defined in claim 1 wherein said barrier strip is provided with at least two of said fracturing strips in spaced apart relation.
4. A member as defined in claim 1 wherein said fracturing strip is integral with said barrier strip and comprises a relatively thick outer portion and a relatively thin neck portion adjacent said barrier strip.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS FOREIGN PATENTS 5/ 1957 Great Britain. 6/ 1959 France. 10/ 1962 France.
OTHER REFERENCES Sawless Joint Forming Device Widely Tried, Roads And Streets, March, 1960, p. 133.
HENRY C. SUTHERLAND, Primary Examiner.
|Patente citada||Fecha de presentación||Fecha de publicación||Solicitante||Título|
|US1903608 *||7 Ago 1931||11 Abr 1933||Clifford Older||Expansion joint, method and apparatus for the installation of the same|
|US1918554 *||8 Ago 1931||18 Jul 1933||Clifford Older||Expansion joint for pavement and the like|
|US2041961 *||18 Jul 1934||26 May 1936||Translode Joint Company||Expansion joint and core|
|US2042408 *||9 Nov 1934||26 May 1936||James H Jacobson||Expansion joint|
|US2405844 *||29 Nov 1944||13 Ago 1946||Mortenson Gunnar C||Expansion and contraction joint|
|US3023681 *||21 Abr 1958||6 Mar 1962||Edoco Technical Products||Combined weakened plane joint former and waterstop|
|US3128576 *||25 Nov 1960||14 Abr 1964||Detroit Macoid Corp||Waterstop|
|US3308726 *||29 Oct 1963||14 Mar 1967||Dreher Donald F||Seals for contraction and expansion joints in concrete pavements|
|US3323426 *||28 May 1964||6 Jun 1967||Clipper Mfg Company Inc||Concrete joint insert unit|
|FR1198881A *||Título no disponible|
|FR1310670A *||Título no disponible|
|GB775558A *||Título no disponible|
|Patente citante||Fecha de presentación||Fecha de publicación||Solicitante||Título|
|US3536562 *||23 Mar 1967||27 Oct 1970||Thiokol Chemical Corp||Process for forming bonded polymeric sealant filled expansion joints|
|US3575094 *||26 Sep 1968||13 Abr 1971||Hewitt Charles S||Expansion joint with water lock|
|US3813180 *||16 Nov 1972||28 May 1974||O Brill R||Frangible concrete-joint sealant package|
|US3824025 *||19 Abr 1972||16 Jul 1974||Maurer Friedrich Soehne||Expansion gap sealing device|
|US3838930 *||8 Nov 1972||1 Oct 1974||Koch V||Two-piece joint-forming device for hardenable, area-covering structural material|
|US3964220 *||7 Mar 1972||22 Jun 1976||National Gypsum Company||Control joint with tear strip|
|US3994471 *||26 Feb 1975||30 Nov 1976||Anthony Turolla||Ply joint bar|
|US4041665 *||22 Nov 1976||16 Ago 1977||Vredestein N.V.||Injection sealable waterstop and method of installing same|
|US4329080 *||15 Sep 1980||11 May 1982||Schlegel Corporation||Joint former|
|US4815888 *||5 Ene 1988||28 Mar 1989||Stegmeier William J||Swimming pool drain|
|US4841704 *||23 May 1988||27 Jun 1989||Jarrell Stephen E||Screed track for concrete slab construction|
|US4906129 *||21 Dic 1988||6 Mar 1990||Stegmeier William J||Swimming pool contraction-expansion joint|
|US5375386 *||26 Jul 1993||27 Dic 1994||Greenstreak Plastic Products Company, Inc.||Waterstop/mechanical seal|
|US6751919 *||17 Ene 2002||22 Jun 2004||Jorge Gabrielli Zacharias Calixto||Sealing element for expansion joints|
|US6948716 *||3 Mar 2003||27 Sep 2005||Drouin Gerard||Waterstop having improved water and moisture sealing features|
|US6993874 *||23 Ago 2002||7 Feb 2006||John T. Trout||Joint materials and configurations|
|US7757450 *||13 Ene 2005||20 Jul 2010||Dietrich Industries, Inc.||Control joint|
|US7797899 *||3 Jul 2008||21 Sep 2010||Nox-Crete Products Group||Temporary floor joint filler|
|US7845131 *||26 Sep 2006||7 Dic 2010||Engineered Devices Corporation||Crack control for concrete|
|US8132380 *||19 Oct 2009||13 Mar 2012||Wilkes Jr Robert David||Compliant trim for concrete slabs|
|US8584416||2 Dic 2005||19 Nov 2013||Alabama Metal Industries Corporation||Movement control screed|
|US9212746 *||14 Mar 2013||15 Dic 2015||Newpark Mats & Integrated Services Llc||Apparatus and methods for sealing between adjacent components of a load-supporting surface|
|US9404227||8 Jun 2015||2 Ago 2016||Newpark Mats & Integrated Services Llc||Load-supporting surface with interfacing gap seal members and related apparatus and methods|
|US9499946||22 Nov 2015||22 Nov 2016||Newpark Mats & Integrated Services Llc||Method of sealing between adjacent components of a load-supporting surface with at least one closed-cell compressible rubber seal|
|US9605392||31 Jul 2016||28 Mar 2017||Newpark Mats & Integrated Services Llc||Load-supporting surface with redundant interfacing gap seal members and related methods|
|US9637871||4 Jun 2015||2 May 2017||Newpark Mats & Integrated Services Llc||Load-supporting surface with actively connected gap seals and related apparatus and methods|
|US9677229||31 Jul 2016||13 Jun 2017||Newpark Mats & Integrated Services Llc||Methods of manufacturing load-supporting mats for use with interfacing gap seal members|
|US20040035075 *||23 Ago 2002||26 Feb 2004||Trout John T.||Joint materials and configurations|
|US20040173977 *||3 Mar 2003||9 Sep 2004||Gerard Drouin||Waterstop having improved water and moisture sealing features|
|US20040222597 *||9 May 2003||11 Nov 2004||Benecke Arnold George||Gasket for a pipe|
|US20060117692 *||30 Dic 2005||8 Jun 2006||Trout John T||Joint materials and configurations|
|US20060150553 *||13 Ene 2005||13 Jul 2006||Erenio Reyes||Control joint|
|US20070062137 *||16 Sep 2005||22 Mar 2007||Vinyl Corp.||Screed joints|
|US20070130861 *||2 Dic 2005||14 Jun 2007||Gary Chenier||Movement control screed|
|US20080072504 *||26 Sep 2006||27 Mar 2008||Hough Reginald D||crack control for concrete|
|US20080197576 *||15 Feb 2007||21 Ago 2008||Trout John T||Joint Materials and Configurations|
|US20090145070 *||3 Jul 2008||11 Jun 2009||Carl Jeffery Linn||Temporary floor joint filler|
|US20100095620 *||19 Oct 2009||22 Abr 2010||Wilkes Jr Robert David||Compliant Trim for Concrete Slabs|
|US20130264773 *||14 Mar 2013||10 Oct 2013||Newpark Mats & Integrated Services Llc||Apparatus and Methods for Sealing Between Adjacent Components of a Load-Supporting Surface|
|USRE29377 *||27 Ene 1975||30 Ago 1977||Frangible concrete-joint sealant package|
|Clasificación de EE.UU.||52/396.3, 404/48|
|Clasificación internacional||E01C11/02, E01C11/10, E01C23/00, E04B1/68, E01C23/02, E04B1/684|
|Clasificación cooperativa||E01C11/10, E01C23/021, E04B1/6807|
|Clasificación europea||E04B1/68D, E01C23/02B, E01C11/10|