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Sept. 16, 1969 A. 5. CLEM MOISTURE IMPERVIOUS DECK CONSTRUCTION Filed Jan. 10, 1967 FIG. 2
INVENTOR. ARTHUR G. CLEM ATTORNEYS United States Patent MOISTURE IMPERVIOUS DECK CONSTRUCTION Arthur G. Clem, Des Plaines, Ill., assiguor to American Colloid Company, Skokie, 11]., a corporation of Delaware Filed Jan. 10, 1967, Ser. No. 608,372 Int. Cl. E04d 3/04 US. Cl. 52-446 2 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE The present invention relates to a moisture impervious panel, and, more particularly, to a moisture impervious panel particularly suitable as a roofing surface.
One problem created in the existing roof structures wherein rigid sheets form the roof surface is that water entering the outside barrier as a result of the slightest imperfection migrates along the junction between the roof and roofing until it finds a spot at which it can enter the building. It is not unusual to have a rupture in the roof and a leak in the building located from 30 to 100 feet apart. Moreover, in many roofs, the final topping is a concrete wear surface such as that in a parking garage.
It is known in the prior art to use finely divided bentonite clay to form a waterproof barrier. Such a use of bentonite is disclosed in Patent No. 2,277,286 granted Mar. 24, 1942, to Paul Bechtner. However, when the bentonite clay is used as a water impervious barrier on roofs topped with a concrete wear surface or other surface, the swelling elfect of the bentonite presents the danger of buckling the roof surface.
Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide a new and improved moisture impervious panel which overcomes the above mentioned difliculties.
A further object of the present invention is to provide a new and improved roof panel.
A further object of the present invention is to provide a new and improved moisture impervious panel suitable for use in roofing applications.
Yet a further object of the present invention is to provide a moisture impervious panel for use as a subpanel over hard wear surfaces.
Further objects and advantages of the present invention will become apparent as the following description proceeds and the features of novelty which characterize the invention will be pointed out with particularity in the claims annexed to and forming a part of this specification.
In accordance with these and other objects, a moisture impervious panel includes an embossed facing sheet defining a plurality of recesses on its face. The embossing may be formed by conventional corrugation, or may be in the form of dimples, rectangles, triangles or the like. A mixture of finely divided water swellable bentonite clay with a compressible filler such as vermiculite is applied to the face of the sheet, the mixture filling the dimples, corrugations, or other embossing patterns.
In application the sheet is then fastened to a fiat or slightly pitched roof with overlapping joints. With the improved roofing, any imperfection, puncture or the like ice in the roofing material itself will expose the high swelling bentonite and the mineral filler to the water. The bentonite will soak up the water and form a jelly. Water cannot migrate through the swelled bentonite. Moreover, the improved roofing sheet is advantageous when used under a final topping such as concrete or gypsum in that with the compressible filler, the mixture will seal without the normal swelling effect of bentonite. Consequently, it cannot raise a poured gypsum or concrete deck. Advantageously the embossing not only provides means for retaining a supply of the bentonite mixture, but additionally provides rigidity to the panels.
For a better understanding of the present invention, reference may be had to the accompanying drawing where- FIGURE 1 is a perspective View of a typical assembly of moisture impervious panels in accordance with the present invention;
FIGURE 2 is a cross-sectional view of the moisture impervious panels of FIGURE 1, taken along line 22 of FIGURE 1, and drawn to a larger scale;
FIGURE 3 is a cross-sectional View of a concrete surface having moisture impervious base panels according to the present invention; and
FIGURE 4 is a cross-sectional view of an assembly of moisture impervious panels according to another embodiment of the present invention.
Referring now to the drawings, and particularly to FIGS. 1 and 2, there is illustrated a plurality of moisture impervious panels, each identified as 10, of a size suitable for use as roofing panels. Each panel 10 includes an embossed facing sheet 12 of suitable material such as aluminum, copper, zinc-coated steel, glass fiber, metalized felt, or some other durable material. The facing sheet 12 is embossed in a desired manner. In the illustrated embodiment, the embossing comprises a plurality of raised dimples 12a defining recesses on the underface of the facing sheet 12. The dimples 12a, may for example, be four to six inches in diameter with a depth of about /1. inch to one inch. However, the choice and size of the embossing would be dependent on the amount of protection required of the bentonite, and the strength configuration of the kind of product that is demanded.
On the underface side of each panel 12 is applied a layer 14 of Water swellable bentonite clay mixed with a suitable compressible filler such as vermiculite. The mixture covers the face of the sheet and fills the recesses or cavities of the dimples, as best illustrated in FIGURE 2. The filler may also be chosen from mineral wood in loose form, asbestos, glass fiber, or other bulky and compressible material.
The mixture 14 may be applied in any suitable manner. In one form the mixture 14 may be applied in the form of a mastic at such a consistency that the bentonite has been preswelled with 4 to 8 times its weight of water. In this form the bentonite achieves a very heavy pasty consistency. The application of the mixture of bentonite and filler is made such that each of the dimples is filled, and there exists enough material to spread a uniform film even all over the surface of the plate 12 to a desired depth which may be in the order of inch. The mixture is then dried by suitable means and the dried mineral filler-bentonite mixture clings to the surface of the sheet by virtue of its natural properties. A bentonite content in the range of 30%60% of the dry composition has worked satisfactorily.
The roof panels can be secured to the roof structure in any conventional manner, such as by fasteners 16, here shown as nails.
The function of the mixture is such that leakage is arrested by the water-soaking and water-holding capacity of the bentonite. The bentonite is combined with sufficient compressible filler such that the bentonite can expand in a limited area minimizing any tendency of roof buckling and the like due to swelling of the bentonite. Moreover, as best illustrated in FIGURE 2, it will be seen that the junction between the adjacent edges of the panels 12 provides for a layer of water impervious material between the sheets.
FIGURE 3 illustrates an embodiment of the invention wherein the panels are covered with a final wear topping such as may be used on a roof of a parking garage. As therein illustrated, there is provided the panels 10 each including the embossed facing sheet 12 having the layer 14 of water swellable bentonite clay mixed with a suitable compressible filler on its underface. The panels 10 may be fastened to the building in any suitable manner, as with the nails 16. A suitable wear surface 18, here shown as concrete, is applied over the upper face of the anel 10. Thus there is provided a Water impervious matrix between the concrete Wear surface and the building itself without the swelling eflect of bentonite.
FIGURE 4 is a cross-sectional view of a plurality of roofing panels according to another embodiment of the present invention wherein there is illustrated a plurality of moisture impervious panels 20, each of which is formed of an embossed facing sheet 22 in the form of a corrugated structure with raised or embossed portions 22a defining a plurality of recesses on its underface. The underface of the panels 20 is provided with a compacted mixture of finely divided water swellable bentonite clay and a suitable compressible filler such as vermiculite and covering the face of the sheet and filling the recesses. The panels 20 may be secured to the roofing structure by any suitable fastening means, such as by the nails 26.
What is claimed as new and desired to be secured b Letters Patent of the United States is:
1. A self-sealing deck structure comprising a plurality of overlapping subpanels; each subpanel having an embossed facing sheet defining a plurality of recesses in its lower face, and a moisture impervious barrier layer consisting of a compacted mixture of finely divided water swellable bentonite clay and a compressible filler on said lower face of said sheet filling said recesses; and a continuous hard wear surface covering the top faces of said plurality of subpanels.
2. A deck structure as set forth in claim 1 wherein said wear surface is concrete.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS Lane 52 516 TA681.A61, October 1954, page 155.
ALFRED C. PERHAM, Primary Examiner US. Cl. X.R.
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