US 3469268 A
Resumen disponible en
Reclamaciones disponible en
Descripción (El texto procesado por OCR puede contener errores)
Sept..30, 1969 w. D. PHILLIPS 3,
FRACTURE BOARD Filed 001.- 23, 1967 INVENTOR.
[u T Q "1: WI FREN p. PHILLIPS D] WWW United States Patent 3,469,268 FRACTURE BOARD Warren D. Phillips, 17944 Pond Road, Ashton, Md. 20702 Filed Oct. 23, 1967, Ser. No. 677,118 Int. Cl. A61g 1/00 US. Cl. 582 8 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE For the handling of injured persons at the site of accident preparatory to transportation to a medical center for treatment, a sheet of rigid material such as plywood, shaped and sized to support the back, head and neck, is provided with strap means to secure the patients torso, neck and head in relatively immobile position in order to avoid the possibility of causing further injury. The several strap means over the torso are fastened by friction buckles; the neck is supported by a cushion, and the head is held steady by bands passing over the head and chain and attached to the rigid sheet member. A neck pad is provided to support the neck. Maximum security is insured by adjustability of the straps both with respect to length and point of attachment to the rigid member. The point of attachment to the rigid member is longitudinally continuous.
The handling of the injured, especially those who have been injured in automotive or other vehicular traffic accidents, requires special care in removing and carrying the injured person to a location equipped to administer medical treatment, such as hospitals or emergency centers.
Moving the injured person requires more than ordinary care inasmuch as the person is not infrequently injured in such a way that movement of the body causes further injury. Often the victim is trapped in a wreck in a position diflicult of access. Haste in removing and transporting the person to adequate medical center facilities also tends to result in injury beyond that suffered in the actual accident. Thus, if the patient has had an injury to the spine, it is of the utmost importance to immobilize the body during the handling of the patient.
This need is recognized, and to some extent all litters and stretchers take account of the necessity for maintaining the patient in an immobile as well as comfortable as possible position, and some devices have been proposed for the specific purpose of avoiding further bone or spine injury. However, those devices known to the art are far from satisfactory in a number of respects. Some are so complicated as to demand more time in use than is practi cal to employ. Other such devices are unduly bulky. In addition, little attention has been given to the need for accommodating injured persons of different size and whose proper handling must take into consideration the nature of their injuries.
The prior art discloses a number of devices of this general nature. For example, Patent No. 2,247,360 issued to Clayton, has as an object the insuring of the fixation of the limbs, back, pelvis and neck of a patient while the latter is carried. The object of insuring fixation of the head while carrying in a litter, is considered by Springer in Patent No. 2,361,328, in which it is proposed to employ a headpiece having straps arranged in a way which is deemed effective to achieve comfort, the whole being detachable from the litter. A patent to Hughes, No. 2,511,061, proposes that a stretcher be employed which is provided with means to avoid injurious movements of the patients body in those cases where there is likelihood of broken bones or injury to the spine. Another proposal is that of Fletcher, Patent No. 3,158,875, which is deice signed to avoid further injuries to the victim of a mine accident or other situations which often renders the position of the injured person difficult of access. Other devices of this general character are known to the art.
The present invention has as an object the provision of an improved device for handling injured persons at the site of an accident preparatory to transporting the person to a medical station for treatment.
The novel device comprises essentially a flat, rigid sheet of material cut to size and shape roughly outlining the contours of the human body. This sheet may be made of plywood, plastic, composition board material, or light sheet metal. The present device is adapted to secure the patient to a flat, rigid surface by means of straps fastened to the fiat, rigid member and thence over and around the body. Whereas these straps may be formed of any suitable materials such as leather or fabric, it is preferred to use Web belting. Nylon web belting is well adapted to the purpose. The relatively wide belting material is provided with securing means such as friction safety buckles to secure the torso portion of the body, while more or less narrow tape, especially nylon tape, is used to secure the neck and head portions in an immovable but relatively comfortable position.
The flat, rigid sheet is equipped with special fastening means for said straps or tape means which pass over the portion of the body above the shoulders. For the torso portion, elongate holes are provided near the edge of the sheet in such location and of such size as to serve the double purpose of strap holes and hand holds. For the head portion tapes to strap the head in place are provided which are armed with means for fastening the tapes for a variable continuous portion of their length.
The flat, rigid sheet member thus is provided with means for attaching both the torso straps and the head straps. Whereas the sheet member is provided with elongate strap holes for the wide body straps, the sheet member is provided with a different kind of fastening means for the head. However, the torso straps and the head tapes or straps are both constructed in a manner adapted to provide a certain degree of free longitudinal adjustability. With respect to the head straps the adjustability is continuous with respect to a portion of the length thereof, and also with respect to the place on the sheet at which the strap member can be attached. The elongate strap holes also provide a degree of longitudinal adjustability.
As will become apparent in the course of the following description, an advantage of the present construction is illustrated in the manner of fixation of the head portion of the patient by two straps, one passing over the forehead, and the other passing over the chin. The crossing of these straps as illustrated, provides a particularly secure fastening means. Also contributing to the immobilization and comfort of the patient is the fact that the straps can be lengthened or shortened to best advantage at the option of the doctor or other person attending the patient. It will be clear that if the judgment of the attendant indicates any method of attachment, this may be carried out in accordance with the present invention.
A neck pad may be placed under the back of the neck of the patient, the pad being secured by means of a strap which may be moved and fixed longitudinally in the best position. It is an object of the present invention to provide a fracture board adapted to facilitate the extrication and carrying of victims from the wreck or site of accident where it is particularly necessary to avoid injury to the patient in the process of moving. It is a further object to provide means for handling the patient who has suffered fracture of the spine and/or neck.
It is a further object to provide a total apparatus having light weight and easy transportability; one which can be used and adjusted by a single medical person, or can be used even by unskilled persons; and one which does not rely on complicated fastening means to achieve the intended result.
It is a further object of the present invention to provide an apparatus which is characterized by maximum adjustability of the various fastenings which can be arranged at different lengths and locations in order to secure a patient to best advantage.
Whereas the novel features of the present invention are pointed out with particularly in the subjoined claims, a preferred embodiment is hereinafter described. In this, particular reference is had to the accompanying drawmgs.
In the device of the drawings there is illustrated a means which may be termed a short board. A device of similar structure and use, but of greater length, is within the scope of the present invention.
FIG. 1 is a plan view of an embodiment of the fracture board according to the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a side view showing in outline a patient extended on the board in carrying position FIG. 3 is a reverse or bottom view of the board illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2.
FIG. 4 is a section view taken along line 4-4 of FIG. 3.
FIG. 5 illustrates a modification of the device illustrated in FIGS. 1 to 4.
FIG. 6 illustrates a further modification of the invention.
In detail the board illustrated comprises a unitary sheet 11 of plywood, plastic or other rigid sheet material, cut generally rectangular in outline but roughly approximating the contours of the head shoulders and torso of the human body.
For securing the main weight of the body of the patient there are provided two straps, a shoulder or chest strap 13 and second strap 15 located in the region of the hips and pelvis. These two straps are each passed through holes 17, 19, 21 and 23 around the back of sheet 11, across the body of the patient, again through the respective holes and fastened in front by means of friction buckles 25 and 27, the belts thus each making two loops.
It will of course be understood that the dimensions of the belts are optional. Belting having a width of about two inches is satisfactory, and the total length of belts 13 and 15 may well be about eight feet each.
Both sides of the plywood sheet should be smooth and finished, well sanded, shellacked or varnished and waxed.
The sheet of material 11, as stated, preferably will consist of plywood. For this purpose three-fourths inch marine plywood is considered preferable. However, the board may be stamped or otherwise cut from a sheet of plastic, light metal, wallboard or composition board, or other suitable material. In FIG. 5 a material consisting of plastic 11a is illustrated. In this embodiment the lower edge 29 of the board is illustrated as being more or less tapered, which often is helpful in sliding the board under or behind the patient. Optionally a rounded end edge also serves to prevent the board from catching as it is slid under the patient.
The handholds 17, 19, 21 and 23 preferably have rounded edges as shown in FIG. 4. Rounding of the outer edge of the board also serves (not shown) also to facilitate the service of bearers.
Of further value in lifting the fracture board from a close surface, half-rounds 39 may be attached to the back of the sheet material. This feature is optional and would be more particularly indicated for use on the long board represented by reference numeral 11b in FIG. 6. The half-rounds elevate the board sutficiently to render it easier to slip the fingers thereunder for grasping and carrying.
It is of importance to best adapt to the function which the board is designed to perform, i.e., combining maximum security with respect to immobilization of the patient with maximum adjustability, to provide for a determinable adjustment of fit by optional control of the strap holding points. In the case of chest and pelvis straps 13 and 15, there is provided not only adjustable strap length by means of friction buckles, but, having reference particularly to FIGS. 1 and 2, a certain freedom of movement within the fastening points, i.e., within handholds 17, 19, 21 and 23.
FIGS. 2 and 3 illustrate most clearly the facility with which adjustments may be made for the critical immobilization of the neck, back and head of the patient. It will be understood that this involves the' very critical area where movements of the already injured parts may cause the most severe further damage.
In the drawings, head strap 34 and chin strap 36 are shown crossed in an advantageous position to stabilize the zone of the neck, head and upper back. However, as will become clear, according to the present invention the head and chin straps need not be crossed. If in the opinion of the person attending the injured person, some other position of these restraining straps is preferable, they may be easily adjusted, as to length and as to point of attachment to the board. Acting in cooperation with straps 34 and 36 there is provided a neck pad 37 securable in the optimum position by a neck pad strap 39.
Means for quick and proper positioning of straps 34, 36 and 39 comprises the provision of strips 41, 43 and 45 anchored in the sheet material 11 and armed with fastening means whereby each of the straps is attachable to the strips continuously for the entire length of the latter.
Straps 34, 36 and 39 and strips 41, 43 and 45 are formed from fabric material, such as nylon tape, wherein the fabric surface is covered with minute hooks and minute loops respectively. When a hook armed fabric surface is pressed into contact with a loop armed surface, the respective surfaces lock together and can be peeled apart only by the exertion of a certain amount of force. It follows that the fabric of strips 41, 43 and 45 may be either hook armed or loop armed, but that in any event the straps 34, 36 and 39 should each be equipped with the opposite armament. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the strips are hook armed and the straps loop armed. The loops can be easily discerned by the fact that they form a pile surface; while the hooks form a surface that is harsh and unyielding to the touch. A commercial form of this fabric structure is known as Velcro. The strips of fabric are fastened flat to the sheet material by adhesive, by staples or other convenient means.
The extent of distribution of the locking surfaces is optional. About six inches at the Velcro end portion of each strap is suflicient; the entire outer surface of the strips on the other hand is desirably a Velcro-type surface. This latter is indicated by reference numeral 41 in the drawings. Whereas Velcro can be used for straps 13 and 15, other quick opening means such as buckles is preferable in view of the greater weight of the portion of body supported and the greater stresses on the securing means involved in moving, lifting and transporting the patient.
The neck pad 37 is made of soft resilient material such as foam rubber covered with cloth fabric. Head strap 34 is preferably provided with a soft padding material 47. Best results in securing the head from rolling movement are obtained by use of a further device such as a football type chin guard 49 in conjunction with the chin strap 36.
The hand holes 17, 19, 21 and 23 serve, as clearly illustrated, the further function of strap holes for straps 13 and 15.
It will be readily apparent that the provision of three strips 41, 43 and 45 is not limiting, but merely has certain advantages of convenience. There might of course be substituted a single wide strip, or two strips, or four or even more.
It has been found that there are advantages in extending the straps to a length such that they will overlap beyond their respective ends. This is illustrated in FIG. 6 which shows a belt 35 one end of which overlays the belt at its opposite end. With such arrangement it is desirable to provide the belt for at least the extent of overlap, with a coating of Velcro on each side, alternate hook type and loop type, being in facing relation.
Velcro (Velcro S.A., Fribourg, Switzerland) is a velvet type fabric comprising a structure including a plurality of auxiliary warp threads of a synthetic resin material in the form of raised pile threads, the terminal portions of which are at least in part in the form of material-engaging hooks; U.S. Patent No. 2,717,437.
In the description and in the following claims the term fracture board refers to the total apparatus. The term straps includes both belt-type fastening means which may be secured with a buckle, or tape-type fasteners which in the illustrated example are fastened by means of the interlocking fabric system.
The foregoing description and accompanying drawing is directed to specific particulars of the invention. As will be understood, these particulars are amenable to certain further variations. Thus, whereas the foregoing description mentions head and chin straps whereon the Velcro, whether hook or pile surface, is provided on one side only, any strap may be provided with hook Velcro on one side and pile Velcro on the other. Further, while the drawing shows strips of Velcro attached to the back of the board in a vertical or longitudinal position, alternatively the strips may be arranged in a horizontal position, the distribution extending downwardly for any desired distance, for example, to a total extent of eighteen inches. Manifestly, the size of the neck pad or bolster is subject to variation, selected sizes of diameter four, six or eight inches and a length of eight inches being found suitable in use. Rounding of at least the lower edges and/ or corners of the board, is usually helpful.
1. A fracture board, for use in the handling of an injured person at the site of accident, and in the lifting, carrying and transportation of said injured person to a medical center for treatment, said board consisting mainly of a single flat rigid integral sheet member and comprising an integrally joined head section and a shoulder section, said sections forming an outline approximately conforming to the outline of the human body, and strap means for securing respectively the head, neck and shoulders of an injured person, said means comprising straps adapted to being passed over the body of the injured person, and under said board, said flat rigid sheet member being provided with means adapted to adjustably attach said straps to said board and to adjustablv attach said straps to the body of said injured person.
2. A fracture board according to claim 1 wherein said flat rigid sheet member is formed of plywood.
3. A fracture board according to claim 1 wherein said flat rigid sheet member is formed of plastic material.
4. A fracture board according to claim 1 wherein said means for securing the head, neck and shoulders of said injured person includes a neck cushion adapted to being placed between the neck of said person and the surface of said flat rigid sheet member.
5. A fracture board according to claim 1 wherein said means include straps having a portion of the surface thereof armed with interlocking loop and hook fabric material.
6. A fracture board according to claim 1 wherein a part of said flat rigid sheet material surface is armed with interlocking loop and hook fabric material.
7. A fracture board according to claim 5 wherein said means comprise safety buckle straps having safety catches.
8. A fracture board according to claim 1 wherein a part of said flat rigid sheet member is covered with fabric surface-armed with hook material and at least one portion of said straps is covered with fabric surface-armed with minute interlocking loop material.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,361,328 10/1944 Springer 582 2,489,828 11/ 1949 Springer 582 2,973,889 3/1961 Phillips 5-82 X 3,136,311 6/1964 Lewis 128-134 3,160,143 12/1964 Gray 11996 3,158,875 12/1964 Fletcher 582 3,184,128 5/ 1965 Bucher 582 X CASMIR A. NUNBERG, Primary Examiner U.S. Cl. X.R. 589; 128-87
Citas de patentes