|Número de publicación||US3470872 A|
|Tipo de publicación||Concesión|
|Fecha de publicación||7 Oct 1969|
|Fecha de presentación||25 Nov 1966|
|Fecha de prioridad||25 Nov 1966|
|Número de publicación||US 3470872 A, US 3470872A, US-A-3470872, US3470872 A, US3470872A|
|Inventores||Grieshaber Herman R|
|Cesionario original||Grieshaber Herman R|
|Exportar cita||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Citas de patentes (8), Citada por (87), Clasificaciones (12)|
|Enlaces externos: USPTO, Cesión de USPTO, Espacenet|
1969 H. R. GRIESHABER PIVOTED RETRACTOR WITH SHIELDED SPACER TEETH Filed Nov. 25. 1966 INTEN'WVR.
HERMAN R. GR/ESHABER BY PEA/OLE TON, lVEUMA/V SE/BOLD 8 WILLIAMS A TTORNEYS United States Patent 3,470,872 PIVOTED RETRACTOR WITH SHIELDED SPACER TEETH Herman R. Grieshaber, Kenilworth, Ill. (7020 W. Cullom Ave., Norridge, Ill.) Filed Nov. 25, 1966, Ser. No. 596,938 Int. Cl. A61b 17/50 US. Cl. 128-17 4 Claims ABSTRACT- OF THE DISCLOSURE A surgical retractor employing pivotally connected arms having finger-engaging handle portions connected thereto utilizes a spacer strip mounted on one of the handle portions. The spacer strip has projections adapted to mesh with the teeth of a pivotal detent which is resiliently biased by means of an encased spring assembly. A shield disposed over the projections of the spacer strip prevents the retractor manipulator from coming into contact with the spacer projections.
This invention relates to a surgical retractor or like instrument, and more particularly pertains to an instrument containing a toothed spacer member extending between finger-engaging portions of the instrument in which a novel shield is provided to prevent contact of the user with the spacer teeth.
In tong-like instruments such as retractors wherein forces are exerted at the ends of the pivotally connected arms during use tending to collapse or close the same, means must be employed to maintain such arms in the desired open position. In a surgical retractor having opposed pivotal arms, tines or similar means are normally disposed at one terminal end of each arm for purposes of engaging and maintaining in spaced relationship tissue defining a surgical incision. Finger-engaging grip portions are disposed on the opposite ends of the arms of the retractor. One means commonly employed to maintain said arms spaced apart comprises an arcuate spacer plate extending from one pivotal arm to the other on which a pivotally mounted detent is mounted.
The teeth of the spacer strip directed in the direction of the instrument grip portions engage meshing teeth in the detent, which prevent closing of the retractor arms unless pivotally moved out of engagement with said spacer strip. However, because of the proximity of the teeth of the arcuate member to the retractor fingerengaging portion, tearing of gloves of the surgeon or his assistant oftentimes results. Such tearing not only confuses the operative procedures but also may on occasion provide a threat of infection.
In accordance with this invention the dangers inherent in the presence of such teeth are avoided by the placement of a novel shield over the teeth. Such shield prevents catching of adjacent materials while in no way interfering with the normal functioning of the retractor.
It is an object of this invention therefore to provide a surgical retractor or the like, in which teeth normally found in a spacer strip thereof provide no danger or problem whatsoever during normal instrument use.
It is another object of this invention to provide a surgical retractor or the like which may be simply modified so as to eliminate problems heretofore commonly encountered during use of such well known retractor construction.
In one embodiment of this invention a tong-like retractor is provided in which tines disposed at one distal end of each of two pivotal arm portions are adapted to engage tissue such as define an incision for maintaining the same in spaced relation. Finger-engaging openings or grip portions disposed at the opposite ends of such arms enable the tines and engaged tissue to be spread apart by a surgeon or assistant by pivotally moving the tines apart. An arcuate spacer strip having a toothed edge disposed adjacent the grips coacts with a pivotal toothed detent for locking the arms in their spaced relationship. In accordance with this invention a novel shield for the teeth of the spacer strip is disposed thereover to obviate engagement with the surgeons gloves or with other adjacent matter such as sponges, as will hereinafter be explained in greater detail.
For a more complete understanding of this invention reference will now be made to the drawing wherein:
FIG. 1 is a bottom plane view of one embodiment of a surgical retractor made in accordance with this invention;
FIG. 2 is a fragmentary elevational view partly broken away illustrating the manner in which the detent of a retractor of this invention is pivotally mounted to one of the instrument arms and the manner in which such detent is spring biased into engagement with a spacer strip fragmentarily illustrated;
FIG. 3 is an enlarged fragmentary perspective view of a toothed spacer strip employed in the retractor illustrated in FIG. 1; and
FIG. 4 is a fragmentary perspective view illustrated on a greatly enlarged scale of tines which may be employed on the terminal ends of each of the retractor arms for purposes of effecting a retracting function.
Referring now more particularly to FIG. 1, a retractor 10 is illustrated having opposed arm portions 12 and 14 which are pivotally connected by means of pin 16. Attaohed to a terminal end of each arm 12 and 14 are a plurality of tines 18 more clearly seen in FIG. 4. Each time 18 has an outwardly disposed distal end 20 adapted to facilitate the spreading apart of engaged tissue. Each retractor arm 12 and 14 has integrally formed therewith at the end portion oppositely disposed to the tines 18 a fingenengaging grip portion. Grip 22 is formed with arm 12, and grip 24 is formed integrally with arm 14. The
. portions of the arms 12 and 14 extending from the pivot pin 16 to the grip portions 22 and 24 comprise handle portions 26 and 28 disposed to one side of pin 16 while the tines 18 are disposed on the opposite side.
In the normal course of retractor operation the tines 18 are disposed downwardly into an incision, and the engaged tissue spread apart by moving the handle portions and finger-engaging grip portions of a retractor together. It is apparent from the arrows shown in FIG. 1 that as the handle portions move together, the tines 18 of the handles to which attached are spread apart.
In order to position the tines and arms in a desired spaced relationship which shall remain fixed, arcuate spacer strip 30 is affixed to handle portion 26 of the retractor 10 by keying, pinning or the like. The strip 30 extends beyond the opposed handle portion 28 of the retractor as illustrated in FIG. 1.
Pivotally mounted on pin 40 of handle portion 28 of the retractor is a detent 32 more clearly seen in FIG. 2. The spacer strip 30 has projecting teeth disposed in the general director of the underlying grip portions of the retractor, and more particularly, angled so as to point in the direction of the grip portion 22 of the device. 'These teeth 34 are adapted to mesh with mating teeth 36 which are angled in a direction opposite to that of teeth 34. Inasmuch as the detent 32 is pivotally mounted in offcenter condition, it is seen that as the handle portions and finger engaging grips are moved together, the teeth 34 of the spacer strip 30 will slidably move over the underlying teeth of the cam 32 which will be pivoted out of engagement with the teeth 34.
A spring loaded cylindrical pin 38 illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2, and partially broken away in FIG. 2, urges the detent 32 and the teeth 36 thereof against the overlying spacer strip 30 and the teeth 34. When the handles 26 and 24 are pulled together, the teeth of detent 32 will be pushed from engagement with teeth 34 as the detent pivots about its pin 40 in opposition to spring 42 mounted in an opening in handle portion 28 of the retractor 10. However, should any force be exerted tending to push the opposed tines 18 of the arms and 14 together, the teeth 36 of the detent 32 will function as a catch preventing movement of the handle portions 26 and 28 in an outward direction or movement of the tine portions 18 in an inward direction.
In order to collapse or bring together the tine portions 18 of the illustrated retractor, the detent 32 must be manually pivoted out of engagement with the teeth of the spacer strip 30 by means of handle portion 33 of the detent which may be easily pushed inwardly in opposition to the spring 42. After the restraining teeth 36 of the detent 32 are disengaged fnom the teeth 34 of the spacer strip 30 the tine portions may obviously be readily brought together and disengaged from the tissue with which they were initially engaged.
In utilizing instruments such as that above described, difficulty had previously been encountered in the course of instrument use as the result of the sharp teeth 34 of the spacer strip engaging and tearing the thin rubber gloves of the surgeon or his assistant manipulating the same. In addition such sharp teeth could readily engage a sponge or other material which might be brought into contact therewith.
In accordance with this invention, an arcuate plate or shield 44 is mounted on the upper surface of the spacer strip 30 in such manner so as to project beyond the terminal ends of teeth 34 in the manner illustrated in FIG. 3. As a result of such plate it is virtually impossible for a surgeon to contact such teeth in the normal course of instrument use inasmuch as the surgeons glove will first engage the plate 44.
The plate 44 is securely adhered to the spacer strip 30 so as to insure a full surface-to-surface contact with no open spaces between the plate and strip which would function as a breeding or harboring place for germs or bacteria. Shield plates may be employed on opposed surfaces of the spacer strip as indicated in FIG. 2 wherein shield plate 44a is oppositely disposed to shield 44. Plate 44a is of course adhered to the strip 30 similarly to plate 44. It is apparent that the most common diificulty previously encountered was the tearing of the surgeons gloves when the surgeons forefinger was employed to engage the detent handle portion 33 thereby releasing the detent from engagement with the spacer strip. In the course of such release operation, the glove portion of the finger tripping the detent 32 oftentimes came into engagement with the sharp teeth 34 in the spacer strip and in many instances the glove was torn.
The specific configuration of the elements disposed on the ends of the arms 12 and 14 is of no importance to this invention. This invention is concerned solely with the protection to be afforded the user, and more specifically the protection against tearing action of the teeth 34. In addition, a subsidiary feature of this invention comprises the spring loaded pin 38 which also is free from all projections or cutting surfaces and by virtue of the snug, slidable relationship with the opening in the handle portion 28 of the retractor 10, minimizes the danger of foreign matter accumulation on pin 38. In addition pin 38 is free from all surface configurations or points which may engage a surgeons glove, sponge or the like.
It is seen therefore that a simple protective structural feature has been provided which is adapted for use with retractors and other similar surgical and dental instruments such as dilators with a minimum amount of modification of the basic instrument. The presence of the protective plate or plates, while affording maximum protection in no way detracts from the ability of the instrument to be sterilized in the course of being rendered germ free. Also, a novel spring loaded pin has been provided for purposes of urging the provided detent into engagement with the teeth of the spacer blade.
Without further elaboration, the foregoing will so fully explain the character of our invention that others may, by applying current knowledge, readily adapt the same for use under varying conditions of service, while retaining certain features which may properly be said to constitute the essential items of novelty involved, which items are intended to be defined and secured to us by the following claims.
1. In a surgical retractor the combination comprising pivotally connected arms movable about a pivot point, said arms having connected thereto handle portions with finger-engaging openings adapted to be moved into adjacent and spaced relationships, said 'arms and handle portions being arranged relative to said pivot point whereby the distal ends of said arms are in abutting relation when said handle portions are in maximum spaced relation, said arm distal ends being adapted to move apart as said handle portions approach each other; spacer means mounted on one of said handle portions and extending toward the other of said handle pontions and having a plurality of projections extending from an edge portion of said spacer mean-s disposed adjacent said finger-engaging openings; shield means disposed over all of said projections preventing contact between said projections and the fingers of the manipulator of said retractor when said projections are approached in a plane normal to that in which said spacer means is disposed; a resiliently biased, toothed detent mounted on said other of said handle portions and adapted to pivot into engagement with the projections of said spacer means for preventing movement of said arms toward each other when the teeth thereof engage the projections of said spacer means.
2. The device of claim 1 in which said toothed detent is spring loaded into engagement with said spacer means, the spring being mounted in a reciprocally movably cylindrical container extending from said other of said handle portions and urging said detent into engagement with said spacer means.
3. The surgical retractor of claim 1 in combination with a discrete plate means disposed on at least one surface of said spacer means and extending beyond said projections.
4. In a surgical retr-actor. the combination comprising opposed pivotally connected arms pivotal about a pivot point into spaced and adjacent relationship; each of said arms being connected to a finger-engaging handle portion adapted to be manually engaged for moving said arms into desired relationship; spacer means extending between said handle portions attached to one of said handle portions and having projections disposed along an edge adjacent said finger-engaging handle portions; a pivotal detent mounted on the other of said handle portions and having teeth biased into engagement with the projections of said spacer means, the relative angularity of said spacer means projections and said detent teeth enabling relative slidable movement therebetween when said opposed arms are pivotally moved apart and providing for meshing engagement when said arms are piovtally moved toward each other; said detent engaging a spring-loaded projection snugly and reciprocally mounted in a receiving opening disposed in the other of said handle portions; said detent having a handle portion whereby the teeth 5 thereof may be readily pivoted out of engagement with 2,293,984 8/1942 the projections of said spacer means in opposition to said 2,481,007 9/ 1949 spring-loaded projection. 3,038,467 6/ 1962 References Cited 3176682 4/1965 UNITED STATES PATENTS Kirschbaum 128323 Dugdale 12817 XR Sovatkin 128-17 Wexler 128-17 5 RICHARD A. GAUDET, Primary Examiner KYLE L. HOWELL, Assistant Examiner US. Cl. X.R.
Champ 81393 Hooks 29223 Sovatkin 128325 Stephens 81-328 10 29239; 81-328; 128321
|Patente citada||Fecha de presentación||Fecha de publicación||Solicitante||Título|
|US1123243 *||13 Nov 1913||5 Ene 1915||John K Champ||Pliers.|
|US1616621 *||14 Mar 1925||8 Feb 1927||Hooks William N||Piston-ring remover|
|US1852542 *||26 Dic 1929||5 Abr 1932||Sklar Mfg Co Inc J||Cutlery|
|US2250400 *||27 Abr 1939||22 Jul 1941||Stephens Paul M||Wrench|
|US2293984 *||21 Abr 1941||25 Ago 1942||Kirschbaum Harry M||Obstetrical forceps|
|US2481007 *||1 Oct 1947||6 Sep 1949||Robert Dugdale||Fish mouth spreader|
|US3038467 *||29 Ago 1960||12 Jun 1962||Sklar Mfg Co J||Surgical instrument|
|US3176682 *||18 Mar 1963||6 Abr 1965||Wexler David J||Self-retaining vaginal surgical retractor|
|Patente citante||Fecha de presentación||Fecha de publicación||Solicitante||Título|
|US3762400 *||26 Oct 1971||2 Oct 1973||Donald B Mc||Medical examining instrument|
|US4034746 *||1 Ago 1975||12 Jul 1977||Williams Robert W||Retractor|
|US4318388 *||27 Oct 1980||9 Mar 1982||Fogarty A Edward||Launching device using pinching force|
|US4356821 *||17 Sep 1980||2 Nov 1982||Bruce Rind||Airway|
|US4365625 *||20 Abr 1981||28 Dic 1982||Bruce Rind||Expandable oral airway|
|US4722339 *||6 Ago 1986||2 Feb 1988||Fritz Gegauf Ag Bernina - Nahmaschinenfabrik||Surgical instrument|
|US4754746 *||25 Sep 1986||5 Jul 1988||Cox Kenneth L||Self-retaining metatarsal spreader|
|US4896661 *||5 Feb 1988||30 Ene 1990||Pfizer, Inc.||Multi purpose orthopedic ratcheting forceps|
|US5176702 *||7 Feb 1992||5 Ene 1993||Symbiosis Corporation||Ratchet locking mechanism for surgical instruments|
|US5320637 *||7 Jun 1993||14 Jun 1994||Borders Jr Jack C||Safety skin hook and method|
|US5476479 *||11 Ene 1995||19 Dic 1995||United States Surgical Corporation||Handle for endoscopic surgical instruments and jaw structure|
|US5483952 *||15 Feb 1994||16 Ene 1996||United States Surgical Corporation||Handle for surgical instruments|
|US5843125 *||7 Jun 1995||1 Dic 1998||Jempolsky; Lawrence||Skin contractor|
|US6196969||21 May 1999||6 Mar 2001||Lab Engineering & Manufacturing, Inc.||Tissue retractor adapted for the attachment of an auxiliary element|
|US6336386 *||21 Jul 2000||8 Ene 2002||Yung Jen Lee||Plier device having an adjustable opening|
|US6416466 *||28 Mar 2001||9 Jul 2002||Ray-Ling Hsiao||Structure for vagina speculum|
|US6635072||20 Jul 2000||21 Oct 2003||Synthes||Safety ratchet mechanism|
|US6711789||14 Ago 2002||30 Mar 2004||Great Neck Saw Manufacturers, Inc.||Clamp|
|US6860179 *||3 Jun 2002||1 Mar 2005||Irwin Industrial Tool Company||Clamp device|
|US6921263 *||7 Jun 2002||26 Jul 2005||Terrence L. Horan||Adjustable dental instrument having a multi-detent latch|
|US6929606||13 May 2003||16 Ago 2005||Depuy Spine, Inc.||Retractor and method for spinal pedicle screw placement|
|US6966910||4 Abr 2003||22 Nov 2005||Stephen Ritland||Dynamic fixation device and method of use|
|US7008431||30 Oct 2001||7 Mar 2006||Depuy Spine, Inc.||Configured and sized cannula|
|US7097647||25 Ene 2003||29 Ago 2006||Christopher Paige Segler||Tarsal joint space distractor|
|US7166073||28 Mar 2005||23 Ene 2007||Stephen Ritland||Method and device for microsurgical intermuscular spinal surgery|
|US7207992||30 Sep 2002||24 Abr 2007||Stephen Ritland||Connection rod for screw or hook polyaxial system and method of use|
|US7214186||22 Dic 2003||8 May 2007||Stephen Ritland||Method and device for retractor for microsurgical intermuscular lumbar arthrodesis|
|US7455639||16 Sep 2005||25 Nov 2008||Stephen Ritland||Opposing parallel bladed retractor and method of use|
|US7481766||13 Ago 2004||27 Ene 2009||Synthes (U.S.A.)||Multiple-blade retractor|
|US7655025||1 Mar 2005||2 Feb 2010||Stephen Ritland||Adjustable rod and connector device and method of use|
|US7682375||8 May 2003||23 Mar 2010||Stephen Ritland||Dynamic fixation device and method of use|
|US7695498||30 Ene 2007||13 Abr 2010||Stephen Ritland||Connection rod for screw or hook polyaxial system and method of use|
|US7727256||26 Sep 2005||1 Jun 2010||Arthrex, Inc.||Grasper assembly|
|US7753939||10 Feb 2004||13 Jul 2010||Stephen Ritland||Polyaxial connection device and method|
|US7763047||20 Feb 2003||27 Jul 2010||Stephen Ritland||Pedicle screw connector apparatus and method|
|US7824410||10 Ago 2004||2 Nov 2010||Depuy Spine, Inc.||Instruments and methods for minimally invasive spine surgery|
|US7879046||20 Abr 2007||1 Feb 2011||Depuy Mitek, Inc.||Suturing apparatus and method|
|US7909843||30 Jun 2004||22 Mar 2011||Thompson Surgical Instruments, Inc.||Elongateable surgical port and dilator|
|US7959564||9 Jul 2007||14 Jun 2011||Stephen Ritland||Pedicle seeker and retractor, and methods of use|
|US7985245||18 Nov 2005||26 Jul 2011||Stephen Ritland||Connection rod for screw or hook polyaxial system and method of use|
|US8021399||19 Jul 2006||20 Sep 2011||Stephen Ritland||Rod extension for extending fusion construct|
|US8192437||5 Jun 2012||Depuy Spine, Inc.||Configured and sized cannula|
|US8221459||26 Jul 2010||17 Jul 2012||Stephen Ritland||Pedicle screw connector apparatus and method|
|US8235999||10 May 2010||7 Ago 2012||Depuy Spine, Inc.||Configured and sized cannula|
|US8262571||24 May 2004||11 Sep 2012||Stephen Ritland||Intermuscular guide for retractor insertion and method of use|
|US8267957 *||14 Dic 2007||18 Sep 2012||Holmed Corporation||Compressor with extended ratchet bar feature|
|US8361151||14 Jun 2012||29 Ene 2013||Depuy Spine, Inc.||Configured and sized cannula|
|US8444678||21 Oct 2010||21 May 2013||Depuy Spine, Inc.||Instruments and methods for minimally invasive spine surgery|
|US8486111||22 Jun 2006||16 Jul 2013||Stephen Ritland||Dynamic fixation device and method of use|
|US8540732||17 Dic 2010||24 Sep 2013||Depuy Mitek, Inc.||Suturing apparatus and method|
|US8556905||27 Dic 2012||15 Oct 2013||Depuy Spine, Inc.||Configured and sized cannula|
|US8585739||23 Mar 2010||19 Nov 2013||Stephen Ritland||Dynamic fixation device and method of use|
|US8685062||23 Mar 2010||1 Abr 2014||Stephen Ritland||Dynamic fixation device and method of use|
|US8690922||1 Mar 2010||8 Abr 2014||Stephen Ritland||Dynamic fixation device and method of use|
|US8747410 *||26 Oct 2010||10 Jun 2014||Zimmer, Inc.||Patellar resection instrument with variable depth guide|
|US8845694||19 Sep 2011||30 Sep 2014||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Rod extension for extending fusion construct|
|US8852244||13 Sep 2013||7 Oct 2014||DePuy Synthes Products, LLC||Configured and sized cannula|
|US8932334||9 Sep 2005||13 Ene 2015||Stephen Ritland||Dynamic fixation device and method of use|
|US9028551||2 Sep 2014||12 May 2015||DePuy Synthes Products, Inc.||Configured and sized cannula|
|US20020123668 *||29 Ene 2002||5 Sep 2002||Stephen Ritland||Retractor and method for spinal pedicle screw placement|
|US20030005797 *||3 Jun 2002||9 Ene 2003||Hopper Ryan K.||Clamp device|
|US20030083688 *||30 Oct 2001||1 May 2003||Simonson Robert E.||Configured and sized cannula|
|US20030083689 *||30 Oct 2001||1 May 2003||Simonson Robert E.||Non cannulated dilators|
|US20040147935 *||25 Ene 2003||29 Jul 2004||Christopher Segler||Tarsal Joint Space Distractor|
|US20050216002 *||6 Ene 2005||29 Sep 2005||Depuy Spine, Inc.||Configured and sized cannula|
|US20060041194 *||23 Ago 2004||23 Feb 2006||Mark Sorochkin||Surgical gripper with foldable head|
|US20060069407 *||26 Sep 2005||30 Mar 2006||Weber Robert M||Grasper assembly|
|US20060079899 *||18 Nov 2005||13 Abr 2006||Stephen Ritland||Connection rod for screw or hook polyaxial system and method of use|
|US20070270885 *||20 Abr 2007||22 Nov 2007||Depuy Mitek, Inc., A Massachusetts Corporation||Suturing apparatus and method|
|US20070299315 *||21 Jun 2006||27 Dic 2007||Geller Peter L||Novel retractor for hernia surgery|
|US20090264897 *||18 Mar 2009||22 Oct 2009||Wohl Daniel L||Tonsil forceps|
|US20100137914 *||1 Feb 2010||3 Jun 2010||Stephen Ritland||Adjustable rod and connector device|
|US20100160969 *||1 Mar 2010||24 Jun 2010||Stephen Ritland||Dynamic Fixation Device and Method of Use|
|US20100174318 *||23 Mar 2010||8 Jul 2010||Stephen Ritland||Dynamic Fixation Device and Method of Use|
|US20100179596 *||23 Mar 2010||15 Jul 2010||Stephen Ritland||Dynamic Fixation Device and Method of Use|
|US20110022094 *||27 Ene 2011||Stephen Ritland||Pedicle Screw Connector Apparatus and Method|
|US20120101505 *||26 Oct 2010||26 Abr 2012||Zimmer, Inc.||Patellar resection instrument with variable depth guide|
|US20120143241 *||2 Dic 2010||7 Jun 2012||Stephen Paul Ray||Tissue Grasping Forceps & Localizing Needle Holder|
|US20120167728 *||19 Dic 2011||5 Jul 2012||Artemio Miramontes||Locking Pliers with Fall Arrest Anchoring Device|
|US20140155700 *||4 Feb 2014||5 Jun 2014||Beaver-Visitec International (Us), Inc.||Speculum|
|USRE42525||10 Jun 2002||5 Jul 2011||Depuy Spine, Inc.||Cannula and sizing insertion method|
|USRE45571||17 Dic 2010||23 Jun 2015||DePuy Synthes Products, Inc.||Cannula and sizing insertion method|
|CN100405984C||8 Jun 2001||30 Jul 2008||斯恩蒂斯有限公司||Safety ratchet mechanism|
|EP1053717A1||17 May 2000||22 Nov 2000||LAB Engineering & Manufacturing, Inc.||Tissue retractor|
|WO1989006939A1 *||2 Feb 1989||10 Ago 1989||Pfizer Hospital Product Group||Multi purpose orthopedic ratcheting forceps|
|WO1993015673A1 *||2 Feb 1993||19 Ago 1993||Symbiosis Corp||Ratchet locking mechanism for surgical instruments|
|WO2002007614A1 *||8 Jun 2001||31 Ene 2002||Synthes Ag||Safety ratchet mechanism|
|Clasificación de EE.UU.||600/217, 600/219, 606/207, 600/226, 29/239, 81/328, 606/208|
|Clasificación internacional||A61B17/02, A61B17/28|
|Clasificación cooperativa||A61B17/0206, A61B2017/2837|