US 3481093 A
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. 2, 1969 c. H. DAVIDSON BUILDING STRUCTURE COMPRISING COLLAPSIBLE BUILDING UNITS FILLED IN SITU WITH CONCRETE Filed Oct. 18, 1967 United States Patent 1/66 Int. Cl. E02d 27/32,- E04f 13/04; E04b 2/28 US. Cl. 52-493 1 Claim ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE The invention resides basically in the making of concrete slabs, columns or like building units each of which comprises two self-rigid skins spaced in parallel planes and united by pliable webs, the space between the skins being filled with concrete which is filled in between the skins and imbeds the webs. Reinforcement may be located between the skins. The invention includes a method of making building units, or actual building structures on site.
This invention relates to cast or moulded building units in the nature of wall-slabs or blocks. The invention is applicable to precast units, but its preferred application in which its advantages become more apparent, is to structure which is cast, formed, or moulded in situ. Whilst concrete is the presently proposed main material, it will be seen that the invention is quite practicable with poured and setting materials other than concrete, such as breeze, cement and fibre compositions, etc. For brevity such are collectively referred to below, as concrete.
When the invention is applied (as preferred) to the casting or moulding of structure in situ, it may involve various subordinate elements which are in themselves inventive features. The invention also includes a method making building units, or building structures on site.
The invention is more particularly though not necessarily applicable to buildings which are based on modules, and therefore of which various dimensions, or multiples and submultiples of basic dimensions, are involved. In the nature of the invention it is, however, flexible and adaptable at low cost and it lends itself readily to the inclusion of varied individual details such as the leading and placing of electrical or plumbers services. It can be used for (and varied according to) a range of load and stress requirements. It can be used without any essential variation, for external walls, party walls, or partition walls.
According to this invention there is provided a building unit constituted by two skins in substantially parallel planes, webs of fabric interattaching the facing surfaces of the skins, and a filling of concrete between the skins and irnbedding the webs. One at least of the skins is preferably a finish skin.
The invention further includes the provision of skins which act as shuttering, interattached by webs of fabric which is wet-resistant paper preferably with a plurality of holes through it for the flow of concrete. In the case of aunit such as a column, which in the end is to be integrated in a wall, the primary structure is simply two skins completed into a rectangular box-section, by having two further opposite sides formed as webs; such will be described with illustration, below. In the case of a beam- 3,481,093 Patented Dec. 2, 1969 "ice like horizontal unit the skins and webs may be of wetresistant paper or board andhaving regard to the relatively small vertical dimensionsneed not be perforated.
In this specification the word fabric is used, again for brevity, in a very general way. It is intended to embrace paper, paper-board, felt, woven textile, netting, wiremesh or lattice, perforated sheets (of suificient flexibility for the purpose to be seen later and being such as to permit flow of concrete in pouring), and not to exclude any other material which will comply with the requirements which will become evident. It is, therefore, sheet or sheetlike material which is sufficiently pliable to afford such fiexure of the webs as to enable the two skins to lie closed up together (with the webs between them) and to be moved to their fully spaced-apart condition. Such fiexure may, obviously, be hinge-like as 'between skin and web, or may be attributable to the bending or folding of the webs in their length. Clearly one such material may be preferable to another in a given case; we prefer, for example, to use wet-strong paper or cardboard with large perforations, for in situ party-wall construction. In a different case, however, it may be better to use a wire mesh which when imbedded in the concrete, constitutes reinforcement.
It is further to be understood that the word skin is used throughout, to denote a sheet of self-rigid and relatively strong material such as hardboard, plasterboard, plyboard, or the like with sufficient strength and wet-resistance as to act as shuttering; and by finish skin is meant, a skin of which the outer (finally exposed) surface presents the finish required by the builder. Thus for a party wall, the skin may be of hardboard, subsequently to be painted or papered; and an outside wall may have its outside skin a finish skin such that its outer surface will be weather-resistant-for example it may be a metal-surfaced hardboard. In every case, the skin is such that its inner surface is compatible with the attachment thereto of the fabric used.
A building unit, or where relevant a building structure, referred to herein means a slab, panel, block, pillar, complete wall or shell, or other component which is either preformed and joined on site or is cast or moulded in situ.
According further to the invention, reinforcing meshes may be imbedded in the concrete having been placed before pouring, passing through the holes in the webs, or between webs. Moreover, fittings for the attachment of building units to further units or components (floors, outside walls, frames, stairs, etc.) may be provided in the form of U-channel section metal brackets drilled for screws or bolts, and so dimensioned that they fit nicely between the inner surfaces of the skins and lodge there, being then secured by the poured concrete.
Ducts, conduits, encastred fittings and the like for electrical or plumbing services, can be placed appropriately before pouring, and brought out through the existing-cast skins at the appropriate positions. Holes made for light-switches, for example, can be made in the finish skin and marked oif with paper before pouring.
The invention further includes a formation of the shutter and web assemblies enabling these to be put together to form a single large unit such as a wall, prior to pouring; such will be illustrated.
The invention includes a method of building construction, in which a unit is formed by placing two skins, interattached spacedly by a plurality of fabric webs, to
be used as in situ shuttering and the space between them is filled by pouring concrete thereinto, and the concrete having set the webs and at least one of the skins is left integral with the so-former unit. Such method may be elaborated by including the use of any or all of the articles of manufacture which are stated herein to be features of the invention.
The invention will now be described with the aid of the accompanying drawings, which illustrate it by way of example. In these drawings, the figure is an isometric view of a construction according to the invention, in somewhat separated form, with the separated parts positioned poised for joining together. The example chosen is that of a party-Wall, having two finish skins. In this example, it is shown how the skeleton of a slab or panel is joined to another so as ultimately to form a continuous wall. It is to be understood that the individual slab or panel could be, if required, precast as a unit and brought to the site subsequently to be joined to the neighbouring components.
In convenient sizes, say 8'0 by 4'0", two skins 1 and 2 are shown. Each of these is a standard sheet of hardboard, the finish surface being outside. The skins 1 and 2 are interattached, with a uniform maximum space between them of, say, 8" width, by webs 3. Each Web is formed of wet-resistant cardboard, or strong paper, and is twice bent to form a right Z section, the flanges 3A being firmly stuck by adhesive (and if required stapling) to the inner faces of the skins 1 and 2. The webs 3 have cut in them relatively large and closely-pitched holes 3B, such as to allow the free flow of concrete throughout the space or cavity between the skins 1 and 2. As seen, the webs 3 are of length equal to the skins, but they are so placed breadthwise that, at one edge of skin 1 (at 3C) and the opposite edge of skin 2 (at 3D) there is left a projecting edge or selvedge of web material. This is removed if the edge of the unit as a whole is to meet another unit as at T, but where one shutter or assembly is to be joined to another, these edges serve a useful purpose in closing and sealing what might be a gap. Thus, the edge 3C tucks inside the neighbouring skin 1 (right of the figure) when the shuttering is assembled, and the corresponding edge SD of the second skin 2, not visible in the drawing, correspondingly tucks inside the first skin 1.
Where two panel elements are to join along the vertical, as illustrated, a column-like shuttering element is provided. This is a box-section of cardboard having opposite walls 4 and 5, all four walls being holed as shown. The external dimensions of the section are such that the walls 4 extend across the inter-skin space allowing for the thickness of web flanges, and the walls 5 extend to the spacing-distance of the webs 3. Therefore, two panels of shuttering can be brought together and are keyed up their vertical joint by this connector unit; and this joining of panel units extends over the whole length of the required wall. When concrete is poured it fills the whole wall, the holes in the Webs and the walls 4 permitting this. The finished wall has the skins, webs, and connector unit virtually integrated. If only one finish skin is required, then skin 1 or 2 (whichever is the selection) has the appropriate exposed surface, whilst the other skin may be removed, after setting, or simply be regarded as expendable.
Now, the foregoing has given us a wall as such, but consideration must be given to its practical inclusion in a building. To this end there are provided, at required locations, metal attachment fittings. These are standardised, and each is a rectangular channel-section bracket having a web 6 and flanges 7. In the web 6 are holes for dowels or bolts such as 6A. The dimensions of these brackets are such that the overall size, over the flanges 7, corresponds to the spacing of the skins 1 and 2. Each bracket can therefore be located between the skins and the flanges 7 become cast into the concrete;
or if it be required, a bracket can be secured to the concrete by dowels through its holes with its flanges 7 upstanding to mate with another element or for the attachment of some further fitting (such as a doorframe) The footing or foundation of the party wall above discussed may, for example, be a groundbeam shown generally as a preformed element at 9, to which brackets are attached at intervals by dowels 6A, these brackets being inserted into the inter-skin space between skins 1 and 2 of the shutter unit which is placed on the beam 9.
At the top of the wall it is envisaged that a pre-manufactured floor is provided having a timber edge joist 10. Through bolts 11 are provided, to attach the floor joist 10 to the corresponding joist of the adjoining house or room (not shown). The joist such as 10, may rest on the top edge of the party wall, or be secured by the bolts 11 being passed through a still further shutter element, seen at the top of the drawing.
This further element comprises two skins 12, 13, and webs 14, all very like the earlier element, but in this case because the element is of comparatively little depth, no holes are provided in the webs 14. Otherwise, these elements can be made by assembling skin and webs and then cutting the assembly (e.g. sawing it) into appropriate long and shallow elements as shown. Such an element may be placed immediately upon the panel element or separated, and its purpose is to provide an infill element which can be positioned and poured after the above-described work has been done, and it can be positioned and poured after floors have been positioned and secured.
The construction above described offers two further advantages not yet mentioned. One is that each shutter ing element can be packed flat for transport, and opened up at the site. Another is that the spacing between the skins, and therefore the wall thickness, can be selected within the limit of the maximum permitted by the webs. Thus not only can small adjustments be made in the course of building, but the same element could if required be used (for example) for a 4" wall as for an 8" wall, subject to trimming or filling in the skins at their vertical margins.
The webs need not, however, be in the fiat form shown; they may be arranged as a continuous corrugated section with the nodes secured to the skins, or in zig-zag lattice section. They may be of highly porous fabric or string net; and if of inherently combustible material, they may be impregnated to render them nonflammable.
In the forming of ducting or conduiting, paper tubing may be used, for example secured to the inner surface of a skin by dabs of adhesive, or passing through holes 3B.
It will be clear that, although from one aspect the invention is concerned with a highly standardised or modular type of construction, it is in fact fairly flexible in application.
1. A building structure comprising at least one pair of building units each having two spaced skins in substantially parallel planes, collapsible substantially parallel webs of perforated wet-strong fabric readily pervious to poured concrete interattaching the facing surfaces of said skins whereby the webs previously collapsed to bring the parallel skins into juxtaposition for ease of transporting the unit may be extended at a building site to determine the distance between the skins and therefore the thickness of the unit, a filling of concrete between the skins and embedding the extended webs, said skins defining two opposite surfaces of a rectangular section of which a further two opposite surfaces are defined by two of said webs, with each web being hingedly attached at each of its ends to the associated adjacent skins; one of said Webs of one unit having a flat part extending beyond the nearest edge of the skin to which the web is attached, said flat part being attached to an adjacent skin of the other unit; said units being arranged edge-to-edge with the webs upright and with an interposed rectangular boxsection column of perforated fabric extending between the inner surfaces of the skins of the two units and filled With concrete integral with the concrete of the two units; said units being supported upon a footing having at least one channel-section element fixed thereto, said element fitting between the skins of each unit and secured to the unit by being embedded in the concrete filling thereof.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS Stolz 52423 Slowinski 52618 Denny 52426 Altschuler 52427 Sell 52426 Raynes 52585 HENRY C. SUTHERLAND, Primary Examiner US. Cl. X.R.
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