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Número de publicaciónUS3700507 A
Tipo de publicaciónConcesión
Fecha de publicación24 Oct 1972
Fecha de presentación21 Oct 1969
Fecha de prioridad21 Oct 1969
También publicado comoDE2033419A1
Número de publicaciónUS 3700507 A, US 3700507A, US-A-3700507, US3700507 A, US3700507A
InventoresLawrence Aloysius Murray
Cesionario originalRca Corp
Exportar citaBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
Enlaces externos: USPTO, Cesión de USPTO, Espacenet
Method of making complementary insulated gate field effect transistors
US 3700507 A
Resumen  disponible en
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24, 1972 L. A. MURRAY 3,706,507

METHO F MAKING COMPLEMENTARY INSULATED TE FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS Filed Oct. 21, 1969 Sheets-Sheet 1 I 1A o o 2' '46,, ,Hm

Jib/"new Oct. 24, L MURRAY METHOD OF MAKING COMPLEMENTARY INSULATED GATE FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Oct. 21, 1969 RAY L. A MAKING Oct. 24, 1972 MUR COMPLE FIELD EFFECT 3,700,507 MENTARY INSULATED TRANSISTORS METHOD OF GATE 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Oct. 21, 1969 r &

lllllllln INVENTOR. amm/cni fl/mm BY lrzornet/ United States Patent O 3,700,507 METHOD OF MAKING COMPLEMENTARY INSU- LATED GATE FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS Lawrence Aloysius Murray, Somerville, N.J., assignor to RCA Corporation Filed Oct. 21, 1969, Ser. No. 868,071 Int. Cl. H01] 7/44, 11/14 US. Cl. 148-187 9 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE BACKGROUND OF INVENTION The invention herein disclosed was made in the course of or under a contract or subcontract thereunder with the Department of the Army.

The present invention relates to methods of making complementary insulated gate field effect transistors in a common substrate.

An insulated gate field elfect transistor in general comprises a body of semiconductor material, such as silicon, of one conductivity type having herein at one surface thereof spaced regions of the opposite conductivity type, a layer of an insulating material, such as silicon dioxide, on the surface of the body between the spaced regions, and a metal contact layer over the insulating layer. The spaced regions are the source and drain of the transistor and the metal film is the gate contact over the channel of the transistor. For certain applications it is desirable to provide complementary insulated gate field effect transistors in a common substrate of semiconductor material. Complementary insulated gate field effect transistors are two such transistors in which the source and drain regions of one transistor are of a conductivity type opposite to that of the source and drain of the other transistor. Since the source and drain regions of one of the transistors would be of the same conductivity type as that of the substrate, a region or well of a conductivity type opposite to that of the substrate is provided in the substrate. One of the transistors is formed in the well region and the other transistor is formed in the substrate outside of the well region.

The method heretofore used to make complementary insulated gate field effect transistors includes a number of heat treatment steps in order to diffuse impurities into the silicon body to form the well region and the source and drain regions, to form the various silicon oxide layers which serve as diffusion masks and the channel insulation, and to form the metal contacts for the source, drain and channel regions. Each of the added heat treatment steps in the method sequence has an effect on the device which can result in a degradation of the device characteristics and can lead to reliability problems. Also, each extra processing step lengthens the time required to make the device and increases the cost of the device. Therefore it is desirable to have a method of making complementary insulated gate field effect transistors which reduces the number of heat treatment steps required to make the device.

Patented Oct. 24, 1972 ice A first pair of bounded regions of a material contain- 1ng an impurity of a first type conductivity and a second pair of bounded regions of a material containing an impurity of a second type conductivity are disposed on a surface of a semiconductor body. The impurities of the two pairs of regions are simultaneously diffused into the body to simultaneously form first and second pairs of source and drain electrodes for the two transistors.

A diffused well in which one of the pair of source and drain electrodes is located may be diffused into the body simultaneously with the diffusion of the source and drain electrodes. This is accomplished by disposing a bounded region of material containing an impurity of the second type conductivity beneath the first pair of bounded regions of material of the first type conductivity.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF D'RAVVING FIGS. 1-7 are sectional views showing the various steps of one method of the present invention for making a pair of complementary insulated gate field effect transistors.

FIGS. 8-13 are sectional views showing the various steps of another method of the present invention for making a pair of complementary insulated gate field effect transistors.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION Referring to FIG. 1, to make a pair of complementary insulated gate field effect transistors according to one method of the present invention, one starts with a body 10 of single crystalline silicon of one conductivity type, such as N type. The silicon body 10 can be a flat wafer of the silicon, such as shown in FIG. 1, or it can be a layer of the silicon epitaxially formed on a substrate of silicon or an insulating material, such as sapphire or spinel. A surface of the silicon body 10 is coated with a masking layer 12. The masking layer 12 can be either silicon dioxide, silicon nitride or aluminum oxide. The masking layer 12 can be formed by placing the body 10 in a chamber through which is passed a gas containing the components of the particular material of the masking layer. The chamber is heated to a temperature at which a reaction occurs between the components in the gas to form the particular material of the masking layer which is deposited on the surface of the body 10. If the masking layer 12 is silicon dioxide, the gas may be a mixture of silane and either oxygen or water vapor which are reacted at a temperature of between 200 C. and 400 C. to form a masking layer 12 of silicon nitride the gas may be a mixture of silane and ammonia vapors which react at a temperature of 600 C. to 1200" C. Aluminum oxide can be formed with a gas comprising a mixture of aluminum chloride, carbon dioxide and hydrogen which will react at a temperature above 800 C. Other well known meth ods for forming the material of the masking layer 12 can also be used. For example, a silicon dioxide layer can be formed by heating the silicon body 10 in an atmosphere containing oxygen at a temperature of between 900 C. and 1200 C. to oxidize the surface of the body.

An opening 14 is then formed through the masking layer 12 to expose a defined area of the surface of the body 10. The opening 14 is formed by coating a resist material over the surface of the masking layer 12 except Where the opening 14 is to be provided using standard photolithographic techniques. The uncoated portion of the masking layer 12 is then removed using a suitable etchant. Silicon dioxide can be etched with hydrofluoric acid and silicon nitride and aluminum oxide can be etched with hot phosphoric acid at about 180 C.

The exposed surface of the silicon body 10 within the opening 14 is then coated with a layer 16 of a material containing a dopant of a conductivity type opposite to that of the silicon body 10. Using an N type silicon body 10, the layer 16 may be boron oxide which contains a P type dopant, boron. The boron oxide layer 16 can be formed by placing the silicon body and a disc of boron nitride having a surface coating of boron oxide in an enclosed chamber with the boron nitride disc being positioned adjacent the surface of the body 10 to be coated. The chamber is heated to a temperature of about 820 C. for /2 hour so as to vaporize the boron oxide on the surface of the disc and condense the vapors thereof on the exposed surface of the body 10 as well as over the masking layer 12.

The coated body 10 is then heated at a temperature of about 1200 C. for approximately 16 hours to diffuse the boron in the boron oxide layer 16 into the body 10. As shown in FIG. 2, this forms a P type well region 18 in the body 10 which extends about 10 microns into the body from the surface of the body. The boron oxide layer 16 is then removed with a suitable etchant, such as hydrofluoric acid, and the surface of the body 10 over the well region 18 is coated with a material the same as that of the masking layer 12.

As shown in FIG. 3, a pair of closely spaced openings 20a and 20b are formed through the masking layer 12 to the surface of the body 10 over the P type well region 18. The openings 20a and 20b are formed by coating a resist material over the masking layer 12 except where the openings are to be formed. The uncoated areas of the masking layer 12 are then removed using a suitable etchant for the particular material of the masking layer. A layer 22 of a material containing an impurity of the same conductivity type as that of the silicon body 10 is coated over the masking layer 12 and adjacent to, specifically in contact with, the surface of the body 10 exposed at the bottom of the openings 20a and 20b. With the silicon body 10 being N type conductivity, the layer 22 may be silicon dioxide containing an N type impurity, such as phosphorus. Thus there is provided in the openings 20a and 20b a pair of bounded regions 22a and 22b of a material containing an N type conductivity impurity. The layer 22 may be formed by placing the body 10 in a chamber through which is passed a gas containing silicon, oxygen and phosphorus, such as, a mixture of silane, oxygen and phosphine. The chamber is heated to a temperature at which a reaction occurs, between 350 C. and 450 C., to form silicon dioxide containing phosphorus which deposits on the masking layer and the exposed areas of the surface of the body.

As shown in FIG. 4, a second pair of closely spaced openings 24a and 24b are formed through the layer 22 and the masking layer 12 to the surface of the body 10 at a position spaced from the well region 18. The openings 24a and 24b are formed in the same manner that the openings 20a and 20b were formed. A layer 26 of a material containing an impurity of a conductivity type opposite to that of the silicon body 10 is coated over the layer 22 and adjacent to, specifically in contact with, the surface of the body 10 at the bottom of the openings 24a and 24b. With the silicon body 10 being N type conductivity, the layer 26 may be silicon dioxide containing a P type impurity, such as boron. Thus there is provided in the openings 24a and 24b a pair of bounded regions 26a and 26b of a material containing a P type conductivity impurity. The layer 26 can be formed in the same manner as the layer 22 except that the gas passed through the chamber contains silicon, oxygen and boron, such as a mixture of silane, oxygen and diborane.

As shown in FIG. 5, the openings 28 and 30 are then formed through the layers 26, 22 and 12 to the surface of the body 10. The opening 28 is positioned between the bounded regions 22a and 22b and the opening 30 is positioned between the bounded regions 26a and 26b. The openings 28 and 30 can be formed in the same manner as the openings 20a, 20b, 24a and 24b. The body 10 is then heated at a temperature of approximately 1100 C. for about 15 minutes to diffuse the phosphorus from the bounded regions 22a and 22b and the boron from the bounded regions 26a and 26b into the body 10. As shown in FIG. 6, the phosphorus diffusion forms the N type source and drain electrodes 32a and 32b of one field effect transistor in the P type well region 18, and the boron diffusion forms the P type source and drains electrodes 34a and 34b of a complementary field effect transistor in the body 10 outside of the well region 18. During the last 10 minutes of the diffusion heat treatment oxygen is admitted to the atmosphere around the body 10. This oxidizes the areas of the surface of the body 10 exposed at the bottom of the openings 28 and 30 so as to form the channel insulation layers 36 and 38 of silicon dioxide for the field effect transistors.

As shown in FIG. 7, a pair of spaced openings 40a and 40b are formed through the layers 26 and 22 to the surface of the body 10 at the N type source and drain electrodes 32a and 32b respectively. A second pair of spaced openings 42a and 42b are formed through the layers 26 and 22 to the surface of the body 10 at the P type source and drain electrodes 34a and 34b respectively. The openings 40a, 40b, 42a and 42b can be etched through the layers 26 and 22 in the manner previously described with regard to the other openings formed through the layers.

A film of an electrically conductive metal, such as aluminum, is coated, such as by evaporation in a vacuum, on the layer 26, the surfaces of the openings 40a, 40b, 42a and 42b and the channel insulating layers 36 and 38. Portions of the metal film are removed, such as by chemical etching, to leave contacts 44a and 44b for the source and drain electrodes and the gate contact 440 over the channel of one of the field effect transistors and contacts 46a and 46b for the source and drain electrodes and the gate contact 460 over the channel of the other field effect transistor. The metal film may be defined to provide interconnecting strips between certain of the contacts of the two complementary field effect transistors depending on the circuit arrangement that the transistors are to be used Thus, in this method of making complementary insulated gate field effect transistors the source and drain electrodes and the channel insulation of both of the complementary field effect transistors are formed simultaneously during a single heat treatment. This reduces the number of heat treatment steps required to make the ,device so as to reduce the possible effects which can cause degradation of the characteristics of the device. Also, the time necessary to make the device is reduced so as to reduce the cost of making the device.

Referring to FIGS. 8-13 there is shown the steps of another method for making complementary insulated gate field effect transistors which further reduces the number of heat treatment steps required. For this method one starts with a body of single crystalline silicon of one conductivity type, such as N type. As shown in FIG. 8, a surface of the body 44 is coated with a masking layer 46, which can be silicon oxide, silicon nitride or aluminum oxide, and an opening 48 is formed through the masking layer 46 to expose a defined area of the surface of the body 44. The masking layer 46 and the opening 48 therethrough can be formed in the manner previously described.

The exposed surface of the silicon body 44 within the opening 48 is then coated with a layer 50 of a material containing a dopant of a conductivity type opposite to that of the silicon body 44. Using an N type silicon body 44, the layer 50 may be silicon dioxide containing P type dopant, such as boron. The layer 50 may be formed by placing the body 44 in a chamber through which is passed a gas containing silicon, oxygen and boron, such as a mixture of silane, oxygen and diborane. The chamber is heated to a temperature at which a reaction occurs, be-

tween 300 C. and 450 C. to form silicon dioxide containing boron which deposits on the masking layer 46 and the exposed surface of the silicon body 44. The portion of the layer 50 on the masking layer 46 is then removed leaving only the portion on the surface of the body 44 within the opening 48 in the masking layer 46. This is achieved by applying a film of a resist material over the portion of the layer 50 within the opening 48 and etching away the uncovered portion of the layer 50 with a suitable etchant, such as an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid buffered with ammonia fluoride. After the resist material is removed, the remaining portion of the layer 50 is then coated with the same material as that of the masking layer 46 as shown in FIG. 8.

As shown in FIG. 9, a layer 52 of a material containing an impurity of the same conductivity type as that of the silicon body 44 is disposed adjacent to the body 44, specifically it is coated on the masking layer 46 over the layer 50. With the silicon body 44 being of N type conductivity, the layer 52 may be silicon dioxide containing an N type impurity, such as phosphorus. The layer 52 is of an area smaller than the area of the layer 50 and can be formed in the same manner as the layer 50 except that the gas passed through the chamber contains silicon, oxygen, and phosphorus, such as a mixture of silane, oxygen and phosphine. This will coat the entire surface of the masking layer 46 with the phosphorous containing silicon dioxide. A resist material is then coated over the portion of the layer 52 to be retained, and the uncovered portion is removed by a suitable etchant, such as the buffered hydrofluoric acid. After the etching, the resist material is removed.

As shown in FIG. 10, a layer 54 of a material containing an impurity of a conductivity type opposite to that of the silicon body 44 is coated on the masking layer 46 spaced from the layer 50. With the silicon body 44 being of N type conductivity, the layer 54 may be silicon dioxide containing a P type impurity, such as boron. The layer 54 is of an area equal to the area of the type conductivity layer 52. The layer 54 can be formed in the same manner as the P-type conductivity layer 50 except that the layer 54 should contain a higher concentration of the P type impurity than is contained in the layer 50. This will coat the entire surface of the masking layer 46 and the N type conductivity layer 52 with the boron containing silicon dioxide. A resist material is coated over the portion of the layer of the boron containing silicon dioxide which form the layer 54 and over the portions which is over the layer 52. The uncovered portion is then removed with an etchant, such as buffered hydrofluoric acid. This leaves the layer 54 as well as a layer 54a of the boron containing silicon dioxide over the layer 52. As will be explained, the layer 54a will form no part of the insulated gate field effect transistor but is retained so as to prevent etching away any of the layer 52 during the formation of the layer 54. The resist material over the layers 54 and 54a is then removed.

As shown in FIG. 11, an opening 56 is formed through the layers 54a, 52, the masking layer 46 and the layer 50 to the surface of the silicon body 44. A second opening 58 is formed through the layer 54 and the masking layer 46 to the surface of the silicon body 44. The openings 56 and 58 are formed simultaneously by coating a resist material over the surfaces of the masking layer 46 and the layers 54 and 54a except where the openings are to be provided. The uncoated material is then removed by an etchant, such as the buffered hydrofluoric acid. After the openings 56 and 58 are formed, the resist material is removed. The openings 56 and 58 extend completely across the layers 52 and 54 so as to provide a pair of bounded regions of a material containing an N type conductivity impurity and a pair of bounded regions of a material containing a P type conductivity impurity.

The silicon body 44 is then heated in an inert atmosphere, such as nitrogen, for approximately one hour at a temperature of approximately 1100 C. As shown in FIG. 12, this diffuses the boron from the layer 50 into the silicon body 44 to form a P type well region 60 in the body 44. Simultaneously, the phosphorus from the regions of the layer 52 diffuses through the masking layer 46 and the layer 50 into the silicon body 44 to form the N type source and drain electrodes 62a and 62b of one field effect transistor in the well region 60. Also at the same time the boron from the regions of the layer 54 diffuses through the masking layer 46 into the silicon body 44 to form the P type source and drain electrodes 64a and 64b of a complementary field effect transistor in the body 44 outside of the well region 60. Since boron has a diffusion rate which is lower than that of phosphorus and is further removed from the body 44, the boron from the layer 54a will not reach the body 44 and will have no effect on the formation of the complementary field effect transistors. During the last 10 minutes of the diffusion heat treatment oxygen is admitted to the atmosphere around the body 44. This oxidizes the areas of the surface of the body 44 exposed at the bottoms of the openings 56 and 58 to form the channel insulation layers 66 and 68 of silicon dioxide for the field effect transistors.

As shown in FIG. 13, a pair of spaced openings 70a and 70b are formed through the layers 54a, 52, 46 and 50 to the surface of the silicon body 44 at the N type source and drain electrodes 62m and 62b respectively. A second pair of spaced openings 72a :and 72b are formed through the layers 54 and 46 to the surface of the silicon body 44 at the P type source and drain electrodes 64a and 64b respectively. The openings 70a, 70b, 72a and 72b can be etched through the layers in the manner previously described with regard to the other openings formed through the layers. Metal film contacts 74a, 74b and 740 are provided in the source and drain openings 70a and 70b and over the channel insulation 66 of one of the field effect transistors, and metal film contacts 76a, 76b and 76c are provided in the source and drain openings 72a and 72b and over the channel insulation 68 of the complementary field effect transistor. The metal film contacts can be formed in the manner previously described with regard to FIG. 7.

Thus, in this method of making complementary insulated field effect transistors the Well region as well as the source and drain regions and the channel insulation layers of both of the complementary field effect transistors are formed simultaneously during a single heat treatment. This further reduces the number of heat treatment steps required to make the complementary insulated gate field effect transistor.

I claim:

1. In a method of making a pair of complementary insulated gate field effect transistors in a body of silicon of one conductivity type having therein at a surface thereof a well region of the opposite conductivity type the steps of (a) depositing adjacent said surface of the body over the well region a pair of closely spaced bounded regions of an oxide containing an impurity of said one conductivity type,

(b) depositing adjacent said surface of the body spaced from said well region a pair of closely spaced bounded regions of an oxide containing an impurity of saidother conductivity type,

(c) exposing said surface of the body between the bounded regions of each pair of bonded regions, and then (d) heating said body in an oxidizing atmosphere so as to simultaneously diffuse the impurities of said pairs of regions into the body to a depth less than the depth of the Well region and form a layer of silicon dioxide on the exposed surface of the body between the pairs of bounded regions so as to simultaneously form the source and drain electrodes and the channel insulation of two insulated gate field effect transistors.

2. The method of claim 1 in which the pairs of bounded regions are formed by first providing a masking layer on the said surface of the body, forming a first pair of closely spaced openings through said masking layer to said surface of the body at the well region, forming a second pair of closely spaced openings through said masking layer to said surface of the body spaced from the well region, depositing the first pair of bounded regions in said first pair of openings in the masking layer and depositing the second pair of bounded regions in said second pair of openings in the masking layer.

3. The method of claim 2 in which the first pair of openings through the masking layer are formed first, then a first layer of an oxide containing the impurity of the one conductivity type is deposited on the masking layer and in said first pair of openings to form said first pair of bounded regions, then said second pair of openings are formed through said first layer and the masking layer, and then a second layer of an oxide containing the impurity of the opposite conductivity type is deposited on said first layer and in said second pair of openings to form said second pair of bounded regions.

4. A method in accordance with claim 3 in which after the second layer is deposited, a separate opening is formed through the layers to the surface of the body between each pair of bounded regions, and the silicon dioxide layers are formed in said openings.

5. A method in accordance with 1 in which the well region is formed in the body simultaneously with the source and drain regions by depositing on said surface of the silicon body between said surface and the first pair of bounded regions a third bounded region of an oxide containing an impurity of the opposite conductivity type and diffusing the impurity from the third bounded region into the body simultaneously with the diffusion of the impurities from the pairs of bounded regions.

6. A method in accordance with claim 5 in which prior to depositing the bounded regions a masking layer is provided on the said surface of the silicon body, an opening is formed through the masking layer to the surface of the body, the third bounded region is deposited on the surface of the body within the opening in the masking layer, the first pair of bounded regions is deposited on the third bounded region and the second pair of bounded regions is deposited on the masking layer spaced from the third bounded region.

7. The method of claim 6 in which prior to depositing the first pair of bounded regions the third bounded region is coated with the material of the masking layer and the first pair of bounded regions are deposited on the masking layer over the third bounded region.

8. The method of claim 7 in which the pairs of bounded regions are formed by first depositing a layer of an oxide containing an impurity of the one conductivity type over the surface of the masking layer, then removing the material of said layer except for an area over the third bounded region which is smaller than the area of the third bounded region, then depositing a second layer of an oxide containing an impurity of the opposite conductivity type on the masking layer and the remaining area of the first layer, and then removing the material of said second layer except for an area over the remaining area of the first layer and an area of the same size spaced from the third bounded region.

9. The method of claim 8 in which after the areas of the second layer are formed and prior to diffusing the impurities into the body a first opening is formed through the overlapping areas of the second layer, the first layer, the masking layer and the third bounded region to the surface of the body which opening extends across the area of the first layer to form the first pair of bounded regions, and a second opening is formed through the other area of the second layer and the masking layer to the surface of the body which opening extends across the area of the second layer to form the second pair of bounded regions.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,177,100 4/1965 Mayer et al. 148-175 3,387,358 6/1968 Heiman 29-571 3,309,245 3/1967 Haenichen 148-187 3,356,858 12/1967 Wanlass 317-235 X 3,089,794 5/1963 Marinace 1481.5 3,450,961 6/1969 Tsai 317-235 3,514,845 6/1970 Legat et al 29-571 2,804,405 8/1957 Derick et al 148-188 X 3,070,466 12/1962 Lyons 148-188 X 3,287,187 11/1966 Rosenheinrich 148-187 3,391,035 7/1968 Mackintosh 148-187 3,566,518 3/1971 Brown et a1 29-571 OTHER REFERENCES Carlsen, G. 8., Multiple Diffusion for Integrated Diffusion, IBM Tech. Discl., Bull., vol. 9, No. 10, March 1967, pp. 1456-1458.

L. DEWAYNE RUTLEDGE, Primary Examiner W. G. SABA, Assistant Examiner US. Cl. X.R.

UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE I CERTIFICATE OF CORBECTIQN m: 3,700,507 Dated October 24, 1972 Invent0r($) Lawrence Alc sius Murray It is Certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:

Column 5, line 39, before "type" insert -N Column 6', line 66 change "bonded" to "hounded".

Signed and sealed this 3rd day of April 1973.

(SEAL) Attest:

EDWARD M.FLETCHER,JR. v ROBERT GOTTSCHALK Attesting Officer v Commissioner of Patents F OFIM PO-1D5O (10-69) USCOMM-DC 60376-P69 Q U. 5 GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE I969 O365-3J4

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Clasificaciones
Clasificación de EE.UU.438/220, 257/369, 148/DIG.106, 148/DIG.151, 438/229, 148/DIG.300, 438/547, 148/DIG.530, 257/E21.634, 148/DIG.430, 148/DIG.126, 438/548
Clasificación internacionalH01L29/78, H01L21/8238, H01L27/092
Clasificación cooperativaY10S148/043, Y10S148/03, Y10S148/053, Y10S148/106, H01L21/823814, Y10S148/151, Y10S148/126
Clasificación europeaH01L21/8238D