|Número de publicación||US3774556 A|
|Tipo de publicación||Concesión|
|Fecha de publicación||27 Nov 1973|
|Fecha de presentación||2 Jul 1971|
|Fecha de prioridad||2 Jul 1971|
|Número de publicación||US 3774556 A, US 3774556A, US-A-3774556, US3774556 A, US3774556A|
|Cesionario original||Poll E|
|Exportar cita||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Citas de patentes (7), Citada por (26), Clasificaciones (14)|
|Enlaces externos: USPTO, Cesión de USPTO, Espacenet|
[451 Nov. 27, 1973 PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR INTRODUCING LIQUIDS INTO SOIL  Inventor: Elmer J. Poll, 4901 Tyrolean Ave.,
St. Louis, Mo. 63109  Filed: July 2, 1971  Appl. No.: 159,417
 US. Cl .f. 11l/7.2, 43/124, 43/131,
173/57, 175/170, 175/320, 175/421  Int. Cl. A0lc 23/02  Field of Search 111/6, 7, 7.1, 7.2,
Ill/7.3, 7.4; 175/207, 170, 320, 421; 43/131, 124; 173/57 Youngblood 43/124 2,016,667 10/1935 Crowell 175/170 X Primary ExaminerEdgar S. Burr AttorneyGrave1y, Lieder & Woodruff [5 7 ABSTRACT Toxic liquids are introduced into soil for exterminating subterranean termites therein by drilling a hole through the soil with a rotating drill bit at the end of a pipe and introducing the liquid into the soil at the bit as the hole is drilled. The liquid is transferred to the drill bit through the pipe, the trailing end of which is connected to the drive shaft of an adapter. A manually held drill is engaged with the trailing end of the drive shaft for rotating the same, and this rotary motion is transmitted to the pipe and bit. The adapter also includes a stationary bushing which rotates relative to the drive shaft so that the liquid can be pumped into and through the drive shaft to the pipe interior. The pipe is composed of sections, and therefore additional sections may be added as the penetration of the bit into the soil increases.
5 Claims, 7 Drawing Figures PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR INTRODUCING LIQUIDS INTO SOIL BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates in general to the treatment of 5 soil and more particularly to a process and an apparatus for introducing toxic liquid chemicals into soil for exterminating subterranean termites therein.
Termites are subterranean pests which enter buildings from the surrounding and underlying soil. The conventional procedure for exterminating such pests involves introducing a toxic chemical into the soil on which the building rests. In the case of so-called slab constructions, the termites usually enter the building through cracks in the concrete slab, thereby gaining access to cellulose material such as wood flooring, which rests upon the slabs. Consequently, the soil beneath the slab must be treated. In those buildings having conventional wall foundations, cracks in the foundation provide passageways which enable the termites to reach wood joists, plates, studs and the like which are supported by the foundation. These buildings are treated by introducing the toxic chemical into the soil along the side of the foundation.
The current procedure for treating the soil beneath slab constructions involves digging a trench along the slab to a depth slightly below the underside of the slab. From within this trench, relatively short lengths of pipe are driven into the soil with a mallet. These pipes are connected end to end so that ultimately a pipe extends from one side of the foundation to the other. Each time a short section of pipe is driven into the soil, a toxic liquid is pumped into the exposed end of the trailing pipe section under great pressure. This chemical discharges from the leading end of the initial or leading pipe sec tion and as a result the soil receives a concentrated treatment of the toxic liquid at intervals equaling the length of the individual pipe sections. Once the leading pipe reaches the opposite side of the slab the pipe is withdrawn, and the same procedure is repeated at another and closely spaced located along the slab.
The foregoing procedure for treating slab foundations is extremely time consuming and expensive due to the fact that the pipes are manually driven into the soil beneath the slab by a workman wielding a mallet. The succession of impacts on the pipes also tends to damage the individual pipe sections, particularly at their joints. Moreover, the pipes are often driven so tightly into the soil that they cannot be withdrawn, in which case they cannot be reused. Since the pipes are relatively expensive, the loss of a pipe in the soil can greatly increase the cost of treating a slab construction. In addition, the foregoing procedure results in a concentrated treatment only at spaced intervals beneath the slab, and these intervals normally equal the length of the individual sections of pipe. As a result, the chemical may not disperse fully through the soil and untreated areas may exist. Furthermore, pressures in the order of 250 psi are required to pump the toxicant into the pipes, and pres- SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION One of the principal objects of the present invention is to provide a process and apparatus for introducing liquid chemicals into the soil with the expenditure of a minimum amount of time and energy. Another object is to provide a process and apparatus which is ideally suited for introducing toxic liquids into the soil adjacent to a building for exterminating subterranean ter mites. A further object is to provide a process and apparatus of the type stated which inserts lengths of pipe without imposing severe strains on the pipes and affords easy withdrawal of the pipe. An additional object is to provide a process and apparatus of the type stated which introduces a continuous flow of chemical into the soil as thepipe is advanced so that intermittent treatment is avoided. Still another object is to provide a process and'apparatus of the type stated requiring only moderate pump pressures to effect the flow of liquid chemical into the soil. These and other objects and advantages will become apparent hereinafter.
The present invention is embodied in a process for introducing liquids into soil, and that process includes drilling a hole in the soil and forcing liquid into the hole as it is drilled. The invention also resides in the apparatus for effecting the process. The invention also consists in the parts and in the arrangements and combinations of parts hereinafter described and claimed.
DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS In the accompanying drawings which form part of the specification and wherein like numerals refer to like parts wherever they occur.
FIG. 1 is a sectional view of a slab construction showing the soil beneath the slab construction being treated- FIG. 6 is a sectional view of a conventional wall foundation showing the soil adjacent to it being treated in accordance with the present invention.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION Broadly speaking, the process of the present invention involves inserting pipe into soil by rotating it and at the same time introducing a continuous flow of toxic liquid into the soil from the end of the pipe. To effect the advance, the lead end of the pipe is fitted with a drill bit having apertures through which the toxic liquid enters the soil. The opposite end of the pipe is connected to a rotary drill by means of an adapter assembly, and the interior of the pipe is connected to a source of pressurized liquid through the. adapter assembly. After a section of pipe is inserted into the soil, the adapter assembly is disconnected from that section of pipe and another section of pipe is installed between the inserted pipe and the adapter assembly to effect further insertion of the pipe upon resumption of the drilling. The process is ideally suited for drilling horizontally beneath slab constructions or vertically along side foundation walls to introduce toxic liquids into the soil adjacent those structures.
Referring now to the drawings, 2 designates a conventional slab construction (FIG. 1) including a poured concrete slab 4 and a crushed stone base 6 over which the slab 4 is poured. The crushed stone base 6 is spread upon the soil 8. The concrete slab 4 is usually covered with a flooring material 10 which may be wood. Moreover, in many buildings utilizing the slab construction 2, the slab 4 along its outer edge has a wood plate 12 bolted to it, and nailed to the plate 12 are studs 14 to which wood siding 16 is normally affixed. The flooring 10, plate 12, studs 14, and siding 16, being of wood, are all possible areas for infestation by subterranean termites. These pests live in the soil 8 beneath the slab construction 2 and usually gain access to the wood flooring 10, plate 12, studs 14, and siding 16 through cracks in the slab 4, although they may build mud tunnels along the outside face of the slab 4.
To exterminate the termites in the soil 8 beneath the slab construction 2 and to further create a toxic environment in that soil 8 to prevent reappearance of the termites, a trench 18 (FIG. 1) is dug along one side of the slab 4 to a depth in excess of the crushed stone base 6, and that trench l8 accommodates a treating tool or apparatus 20 (FIGS. 1 and 2), providing sufficient room to manipulate the tool. The tool 20 includes a pipe 22 having a drill bit 24 at its leading end, and the pipe 22 and bit 24 are inserted into the soil by rotating them with a conventional drill 26 which is connected to the trailing end of the pipe 22 by means of an adapter 28, the rotation being accompanied by a manu ally exerted force applied in the direction of the axis of rotation. A toxic liquid is pumped into the pipe 22 by way of the adapter 28, and this liquid is discharged continuously into soil 8 through the drillbit 24.
The drill bit 24 includes (FIGS. 3 and 4) a cylindrical body 30 which is generally hollow and is slightly greater in diameter than the pipe 24. At its leading end the body 30 is provided with radially extending cutting edges 32, each of which is defined by a leading surface 34 and a trailing surface 36, the former being generally parallel to the axis of rotation while the latter is inclined relative thereto. lnterposed between each trailing surface 36and the succeeding leading surface 34 is an intervening surface 38 which is inclined at an angle greater than the adjoining trailing surface 36. Leading from the hollow interior of the bit 24 is a center port 39 which opens forwardly, and also a plurality of side ports 40 which open outwardly through the intervening surfaces 38. At its opposite end, the bit 24 is provided with anoutwardly opening threaded bore 42. The cylindrical surface of the body 30 is interrupted by a pair of parallel lands 43 for applying a wrench to the bit 24.
The pipe 22 is composed of individual pipe sections 44, and each section 44 has a threaded bore 46 at each end thereof.
The bit 24 and the first pipe section 44 are attached together by a connector 50 (FIGS. 2 and 3) havinga cylindrical center portion 52 and a pair of threaded studs 54 projecting axially from the center portion 52. The threads on the studs 54 are external and match the threads of the threaded bores 42 and 46 of the bit 24 and first pipe section 44, respectively. The center portion 52 has a pair of parallel lands 56 so that a wrench may be applied to the connector 50 to loosen or tighten it with respect to the bit and first pipe section 44. The
connector 50 is hollow, having an axial passageway 58 extending completely through it.
More connectors 50 are employed to connect adjacent pipe sections 44 end to end, and still another is used to connect the rearmost pipe section 44 to the adapter 28. The threads on the studs 54 are such that the components connected by the connectors 50are tightened to the connectors 50 as the drill 26 rotates.
The adapter 28 consists of (FIGS. Sand 6) a rotatable drive shaft 60 provided at its forward end with a threaded bore 62 into which the stud 54 of the rearmost connector 50 threads. At its opposite end the drive shaft 60 is provided with a shank 64 of octagonal cross-section, and this shank is engaged and rotated by the drill 26. Intermediate its ends the drive shaft 60 has an enlarged cylindrical portion 66 which is flanked by radially extending shoulders 68. Opening outwardly from the cylindrical surface of the enlarged portion 66 midway between the shoulders 68 is a radial passage-v way 70, and this passageway communicates with the threaded bore 62 through an axial passageway 72.
The cylindrical portion 66 of the drive shaft 60 fits into a collar or bushing 74 having end plates 76 clamped against the end faces thereof by cap screws 77. The end plates 76 project radially inwardly along the shoulders 68 and axially confine the bushing 74 on the cylindrical portion 66. Adjacent to the end plates 76 the bushing 74 is fitted with O-ring seals 78 which engage the surface of the cylindrical portion '66 and form a fluid tight seal therewith. The seals 78 are lubricated through grease fittings 79 in the bushing 74. Midway between its ends, the bushing 74 has an inwardly opening annular groove 80 which aligns with the outer end of the radial passageway 70, and this groove 80 in turn intersects a threaded port 82 which opens outwardly of the bushing 74. The threaded port 82 is connected to a valve 84 by means of a short pipe nipple 86, and the valve 84 is in turn provided with a quickdisconnect coupling 88. The adapter 28' is supplied with the toxic liquid through a hose 89 which connected to the valve 84 at the coupling 88. The hose 89 leads from a pump which forces the liquid into the adapter 28.
The drill 26 may be a conventional rotary drill provided with a chuck 90 which receives and grips the shank 64 of the driveshaft 60. The chuck 90 should rotate at about 300 RPM. In lieu of a conventional rotary drill 26, a so-called percussion or hammer drill may be employed. These drills deliver closely spaced impacts to the chuck 90 as it rotates, and this tends to drive the bit 24 into the soil 8 at a quicker pace than that achieved by mere rotation.
Finally, an elongated sleeve 92 (FIGS. 1 and 2) is provided, and this sleeve receives the pipe 22 and establishes fluid restriction along the outer surface thereof. Near its rear end the sleeve 92 flares outwardly at a tapered surface 94.
The treat soil beneath the slab construction 2 (FIG. 1), the trench 18 is dug along one side of the slab 4, and this trench 18 extends to a depth in excess of the crushed stone base 6. It 'should be slightly wider than the tool 20 provided with one pipe section 44. The trench 18 may be omitted altogether if access to underside of the slab is afforded by the terrain on which the slab construction 2 rests, such as at the side of a hill.
In addition, the bit 24 is coupled to a single section 44 of pipe 22 by means of a connector 50, and the sleeve 90 is installed over that pipe section 44 with its tapered surface 92 facing the bit 24. The single section 44 of pipe 22 is then connected to the drive shaft 60 of the adapter 28 by another connector 50, and the shank 64 at the opposite end of the drive shaft 60 is engaged with the chuck 90 of the drill 26.
Once the bit 24, single pipe section 44, adapter 28 and drill 26 are connected together in the manner previously described, the foregoing are lowered as a unit into the trench l8, and the bit 24 is brought against the trench wall at a depth slightly below the bottom of the crushed stone base 6. Thereupon, the drill 26 is energized, and the rotary motion of its chuck 90 is transmitted to the bit 24 through the drive shaft 60 of the adapter 28 and through the single section 44 of pipe '22. While the drive shaft 60 of the adapter 28 rotates, the bushing 74 remains stationary. A relatively moderate force is applied to the drill 26 in the direction of the axis of rotation, and as the bit 24 rotates it bores into the soil 8, making a drill hole 96 which is slightly larger than the pipe 22 so that the pipe 22 does not bend or become lodged therein.
After the drill hole 96 reaches a length slightly greater than the length of the sleeve 92, the sleeve 92 is forced into the end of the hole 92 to form a restriction to the outward flow of liquid along the pipe 22. Thereafter, the valve 94 is opened, and pressurized toxic liquid flows through it and into the annular the hollow interior of the pipe section 44, and after passing through the pipe section 44 the liquid flows through the opposite connector 50 and into the hollow interior of the bit 24. The liquid leaves the bit 24 by way of the ports 40, and permeates the surrounding soil 8, making that soil toxic to termites. In addition, the flow of liquid through the bit 24 cools that bit, and the discharge at the ports 40 lubricates the cutting edges so that they do not overheat and dull.
Once the initial pipe section 44 is fully inserted, the valve 84 is closed and the drive shaft 60 of the adapter 28 is detached from that pipe section 44 with the connector 50 being left thereon. Then another pipe section 44 is connected to the connector 50 exposed at the end of the inserted pipe section 44, while the drive shaft 60 of the adapter 28 is connected to the rear end of the additional pipe section 44 by means of another .connector 50. After opening the valve 84, the drill is again energized and forced axially in the direction of the pipe 22 toadvance the pipe 22 still further beneath slab construction 2. The foregoing procedure is repeated until the bit 24 reaches the opposite side of the slab construction 2.
The pressure required to force the fluid through the adapter 28, pipe 22, and drill bit 24 and still achieve adequate penetration of the soil 8 is on the order of 65 psi which is minimal compared to the 250 psi currently used with hand driven rods. Consequently, the pump and hoses are not strained much and light equipment may be employed. Moreover, the liquid is applied continuously with the advance of the bit 24 through the soil 8 so that no untreated areas exist along the path of advance. This is in contrast to the current method wherein liquid is introduced only after each pipe secual sections 44 thereof being detached as they come free of the hole 96. Removal of the pipe 22 is an easy matter since the drill hole 96 formed by the bit 24 is slightly larger in diameter than the pipe 22.
More drill holes 96 are made from the trench 18 until all of the soil 8 beneath the slab construction 2 is treated. In this connection, the drill holes 96 should be close enough together to achieve adequate penetration of the soil.
In contrast to the slab construction 2, many buildings are set on conventional foundations 100 (FIG. 7) having foundation walls 102 which are normally poured concrete, but may also be masonary such as limestone or concrete block. In any event, the walls 102 normally rest upon a footing 104 and support floor joists 106 over which a wood floor 108 usually extends. Termites gain access to the floor joists 106 and the floor 108 through small cracks in the foundation walls 102.
To exterminate the termites in the soil 8 surrounding the foundation 100 and to render that soil toxic to such pests, the pipe 22 is inserted vertically into the soil 8 along the side of the foundation walls 102 at closely spaced intervals, generally in the manner previously described, in which case a continuous flow of the chemical is pumped into the soil 8. The depth of penetration for the drill bit 24 should be at least to the footing 104.
This invention is intended to cover all changes and modifications of the example of the invention herein chosen for purposes of the disclosure which do not constitute departures from the spirit and scope of the invention.
What is claimed is:
1. An apparatus for introducing chemicals in a liquid form into soil for treating the soil, said apparatus comprising: a bit having cutting edges positioned at its leading end to bore a hole in the soil as the bit rotates, the bit further having a hollow interior which communicates with the exterior surface of the bit through at least one port; and adapter including a rotatable drive shaft, a collar surrounding the drive shaft, seals between the drive shaft and collar, and annular plates for axially positioning the drive shaft in the collar, the drive shaft having an enlarged portion of cylindrical shape located intermediate the ends thereof and forming shoulders thereon, the drive shaft further having an axially extending passageway and one end configured for connection to a portable drilling device, the leading end of the passageway terminating at a threaded bore which opens out of the other end of the drive shaft and the trailing end of the passageway opening outwardly through the side face of the enlarged cylindrical portion of the shaft, the collar encircling the enlarged cylindrical portion of the shaft and having a port extending through it to its interior, the port being connectable to a source of the liquid so that under pressure the liquid will flow into the interior of .the collar and thence into the axial passageway of the drive shaft; the seals being on each side of the trailing end of the passageway in the cylindrical portion of the drive shaft and the port in the collar, the end plates being secured to the ends of the collar and extended over the shoulders on the drive shaft; a plurality of straight pipe sections between the bit and the adapter with the leading pipe section being detachably connected to the bit such that the two will rotate together, each pipe section having a hollow interior terminating at threaded bores which open out of the two ends of the pipe section and the hollow interior of the leading pipe section being in communication with the hollow interior of the bit; and connectors between the adapter and trailing pipe section and between adjacent pipe sections for joining the pipe sections and the drive shaft of the adapter together as a unit which rotates when the drilling device is energized, each connector including a central portion and axially aligned studs projecting from the ends of the central portion, the central portion forming shoulders at the ends of the studs and the studs being externally threaded to thread into the threaded bores to detachably connect the pipe sections and the drive shaft of the adapter together as a unit, each connector having an axially extending passageway extending completely through it so that the liquid in the axial passageway of the drive shaft will flow through the pipe sections to the bit from which it will be discharged into the soil.
2. The apparatus according to claim 1 wherein the port in the bit is arranged to discharge the liquid such that at least some of the liquid flows over the cutting edges.
3. An apparatus according to claim 1 wherein the center portion of each connector is provided with lands to enable a wrench to engage the connector.
4. An apparatus according to claim 3 wherein the center portion of each connector joining adjacent pipe sections is substantially cylindrical and is substantially the same diameter as the outside of the pipe.
5. In a soil treating apparatus including a bit having cutting edges at its leading end and a hollow interior which communicates with the external surface of the bit through at least one port and further including a hollow pipe firmly connected at its leading end to the bit with the hollow interior of the pipe communicating with the hollow interior of the bit, an adapter for introducing a liquid into the pipe and for connecting the pipe with a portable drilling device so that the pipe and bit rotate when the drilling device is energized, said adapter comprising: a'drive shaft having one end configured for attachment to the portable drilling device and the other end firmly, yet detachably, connected to the trailing end of the pipe, the drive shaft having an enlarged portion of cylindrical shape located intermediate the ends thereof and forming shoulders thereon, the drive shaft further having an axial passageway which communicates with the hollow interior of the pipe where the pipe is firmly connected with the shaft and opens outwardly through the side of the enlarged shaft portion intermediate the shoulders thereon; a collar encircling the enlarged portion and having a port communicating with the interior thereof; and end plates secured to the ends of the collar and extended over the shoulders on the enlarged portion of the shaft to axially position the collar onthe shaft; seals in the collar and embracing the cylindrical portion on each side of the end of the passageway in the cylindrical portion; a fluid line connected with the port in the collar for conducting liquid under pressure to the interior of the collar; and a valve associated with the fluid line, whereby when the valve is opened the liquid will flow into the interior of the collar and thence into the axial passageway from which it will flow into the pipe and thereafter into the bit to be discharged therefrom as the
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|Clasificación de EE.UU.||111/7.2, 43/131, 175/421, 175/320, 173/199, 43/124, 175/170|
|Clasificación internacional||A01M17/00, A01C23/02, A01C23/00|
|Clasificación cooperativa||A01C23/026, A01M17/002|
|Clasificación europea||A01M17/00B, A01C23/02C3|