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Número de publicaciónUS3777715 A
Tipo de publicaciónConcesión
Fecha de publicación11 Dic 1973
Fecha de presentación27 Abr 1972
Fecha de prioridad27 Abr 1972
Número de publicaciónUS 3777715 A, US 3777715A, US-A-3777715, US3777715 A, US3777715A
InventoresHill F, Hill H
Cesionario originalHill F, Hill H
Exportar citaBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
Enlaces externos: USPTO, Cesión de USPTO, Espacenet
Headholding assembly
US 3777715 A
Resumen
The headholding assembly of this invention includes a collar and a halter carried by a framework. The collar includes a pair of pivotally mounted panels vertically disposed within a substantially rectangular frame. Each of the panels includes a curved recede portion on the interior, or adjacent abutting, terminal edges of each of the panels. The abutting edges of the respective panels are operable to closely conform to the configuration of an animal's neck. Each of the panels is pivotally mounted, at respective corners adjacent the recede abuttings at respective points located at the respective lowermost terminal side edges, to the frame. The panels are provided with lever-like means operable to force the panels apart at their respective upper portions opposite the pivot mounting. The halter includes a upstanding stanchion having a substantially inverted U-shaped configuration. The stanchion may be disposed distally on the framework forwardly from the collar. The halter includes a chin plate having a substantially convex configuration with respect to the stanchion. The chin plate may be suitably fastened to the uppermost terminal portion of the U-shaped stanchion. The halter includes a halter strap operable to engage the animal over its nose and head portions. The strap is connected through holes provided in the chin plate and to a windlass which is carried by one of the upstanding legs or posts of the U-shaped stanchion. The headholding assembly may be disposed between the forwardmost transverse posts of a cattle chute. The headholding assembly may also be disposed within a chute comprising a chassis, an end gate disposed at the rearwardmost terminal end, an exit gate disposed at one of the terminal sides, and a body-restraining wall fastened to the frame and being operable to pivot at its lowermost terminal side to restrain an animal carried therein. In this form, the apparatus may include a cattle-restraining apparatus, the panels of the headholding assembly, above described, being disposed between upstanding posts at the forwardmost terminal end of the chassis frame. The halter is disposed distally forwardly from the panels with the legs of the upstanding stanchion suitably mounted on the chassis frame.
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United States Patent 1191 Hill et al.

[ 1 Dec. 11, 1973 HEADHOLDING ASSEMBLY [76] Inventors: Harold A. Hill; Fred A. Hill, both of Rt. 1, Marsing, Idaho 83639 [22] Filed: Apr. 27, 1972 [21] App]. N0.: 248,263

[52] [1.8. Cl. 119/99 [51] Int. Cl A61d 3/00 [58] Field of Search 119/98, 99,103;

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,396,928 Parsons....

3,014,456 12/1961 Shawk. 119/99 2,764,129 9/1956 Haggard 119 99 3,010,429 11 1961 Grissom 119 99 x 1,572,982 2/1926 Barger et al. 119 99 2,713,326 7 1955 Stephenson 119 103 x Primary ExaminerL0uis G. Mancene Assistant ExaminerJ. A. Oliff Att0rney.lohn W. Kraft [57] ABSTRACT pivotally mounted, at respective corners adjacent the recede abuttings at respective points located at the respective lowermost terminal side edges, to the frame. The panels are provided with lever-like means operable to force the panels apart at their respective upper portions opposite the pivot mounting. The halter includes a upstanding stanchion having a substantially inverted U-shaped configuration. The stanchion may be disposed distally on the framework forwardly from the collar. The halter includes a chin plate having a substantially convex configuration with respect to the stanchion. The chin plate may be suitably fastened to the uppermost terminal portion of the U-shaped stanchion. The halter includes a halter strap operable to engage the animal over its nose and head portions. The strap is connected through holes provided in the chin plate and to a Windlass which is carried by one of the upstanding legs or posts of the U-shaped stanchion. The headholding assembly may be disposed between the forwardmost transverse posts of a cattle chute. The headholding assembly may also be disposed within a chute comprising a chassis, an end gate disposed at the rearwardmost terminal end, an exit gate disposed at one of the terminal sides, and a bodyrestraining wall fastened to the frame and being operable to pivot at its lowermost terminal side to restrain an animal carried therein. In this form, the apparatus may include a cattle-restraining apparatus, the panels of the headholding assembly, above described, being disposed between upstanding posts at the forwardmost terminal end of the chassis frame. The halter is disposed distally forwardly from the panels with the legs of the upstanding stanchion suitably mounted on the chassis frame.

5 Claims, 7 Drawing Figures PAIENIEDHEC 1 1 ma 3.771.115 I saw 10F 4 FIG.

PAIENTEB lit 1 I I15 sum 2 nr 4 PATENTED DEB H 1975 SHEEI k 0F 4 HEADHOLDING ASSEMBLY FIELD OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to cattle-handling apparatus, and, more particularly, to cattle handling apparatus operable to hold an animal in a chute-like pen and to rigidly hold its head'and neck.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PRIOR ART Means commonly used and employed to restrain cattle du'ring'inoculation, dehorning, andthe like has included tying the animal by means of ropes. This requires skill and agility on the part of the person attempting to restrain the animal. Such roping and tying has been used in conjunction with various arrangements of pens, chutes, and the like. Such pens have commonly not been provided with means operable to provide access to the animal once it has been captured.

Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide cattle-restraining apparatus, including a chute-like mechanical restraining means, in combination with a headholding means.

It is a further object of this invention that the cattlerestraining apparatus includes means for access to the body of the animal captured in the chute.

These and other objects shall become apparent from the description following, it being understood that modifications may be made without affecting the teachings of the invention here set out.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Generally, the headholding assembly of this invention includes a collar and a halter carried by a framework. The collar includes a pair of pivotally mounted panels vertically disposed within a substantially rectangular frame. Each of the panels includes a curved recede portion on the interior, or adjacent abutting, terminal edges of each of the panels. The abutting edges of the respective panels are operable to closely conform to the configuration of an animals neck. Each of the panels is pivotally mounted, at respective corners adjacent the recede abuttings atrespective points located at the respective lowermost terminal side edges, to the frame. The panels are provided with lever-like means operable to force the panels apartat their respective upper portions opposite the pivot mounting. The halter includes a upstanding stanchion having a substantially inverted U-shaped configuration. The stanchion may be disposed distally on the framework forwardly from the collar. The halter includes a chin plate having a substantially convex configuration with respect to the stanchion. The chin plate may be suitably fastened to the uppermost terminal portion of the U- shaped stanchion, The halter includes a halter strap operable to engage the animal over its nose and head portions. The strap is connected through holes provided in the chin plate and to a Windlass which is carried by one of the upstanding legs or posts of the U-shaped stanchion. The headholding assembly may be disposed between the forwardmost transverse posts of a cattle chute. The headholding assembly may also be disposed within a chute comprising a chassis, an end gate dis posed at the rearwardmost terminal end, an exit gate disposed at one of the terminal sides, and a bodyrestraining wall fastened to the frame and being operable to pivot at its lowermost terminal side to restrain an animal carried therein. In this form, the apparatus may include a cattle-restraining apparatus, the panels of the headholding assembly, above described, being disposed between upstanding posts at'the forwardmost terminal end of the chassis frame. The halter is disposed distally forwardly from the panels with the legs of the upstanding stanchion suitably mounted on the chassis frame.

A more thorough and comprehensive understanding may be had from the detailed description'of the preferred embodiment when read in connection with the drawings forming a part of this specification.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. I is a right side top perspective view of the cattle-restraining apparatus shown with the side exit gate swung away for illustrative purposes. 1

FIG. 2 is a top plan view of the apparatus of the FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 is aleft side elevational view of the apparatus of the FIG. 2.

FIG. 4 is a perspective view of an upper portion of the body-restraining wall of the animal control gates of this invention and showing one of the bars, in broken lines, tilted forwardly for illustrative purposes.

FIG. 5 is a left side elevational view of the headholding assembly mounted on the tongue of this invention.

FIG. 6 is a top plan view of the tongue and headholding assembly of this invention and shown with the head holder swung away in broken lines for illustrative purposes.

FIG. 7 is a front elevational view of the head holder of this invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Referring now to the drawings, and, more particularly, to the FIGS. 1, 2 and 3, the cattle-restraining apparatus of this invention is shown to advantage and identified by the numeral 10. The apparatus 10 comprises a chassis assembly 11, animal control gates 12, and a headholding assembly 13. The chassis 11 comprises a substantially rectangular frame 14. The frame 14 is formed by a pair of upper and lower, parallel, horizontally disposed, rectangular framing members 15 and 15 connected by'post's 15 fastened at the corners of the framing members 15 and 15. Hence, the frame 14 is a substantially rectangular box-like housing operable to closely surround the animal for which it is designed. While bovine animals are mentioned in this disclosure, it is to be understood that other animals may be treated in the restraining apparatus 10. It has been found to advantage to fabricate the frame 14 of suitable tubular material for reasons of structural strength and because tubular material presents few rough edges on which the animal may injure itself. The lower side of the frame 14 includes a suitably re-enforced decking 14' which is operable to support the animal.

The frame 14 may include means for transporting the apparatus 10 from one location to another. This transporting means may include a trailer-hitching tongue 16 and wheels 17. The tongue 16 includes a substantially Y-shaped, horizontally disposed, member 18 fastened with its outwardly projecting legs at the forwardmost may be provided at the forwardmost terminal end of the Y-shaped member 18 with any ofa variety of hitching couplers 20 for towing the apparatus 10. The opposing wheels 17 are provided distally from the rearwardmost terminal end at the respective lowermost terminal sides of the frame 14.

Referring again to the FIGS. 1, 2 and 3, the frame 14 includes animal control gates 12 operable to provide controlled ingress and egress of the animal into the apparatus 10. The animal control gates 12 include a end gate 21, a side exit gate 22 and a body-restraining wall 23. The end gate 21 is disposed between the rearwardmost upstanding corner posts 15". The end gate 21 is a substantially rectangular lattice which may be fabricated of a tubular material. A pair of tracking studs (not shown) are provided at the upper and lower terminal ends of each of the terminal sides of the end gate 21. The studs are operable to slide in tracks 24 fastened on the interior terminal sides of of the upstanding corner posts 15". The tracks 24 are provided with upwardly and inwardly inclined track portions 24' which are operable to direct the gate 21 over the frame 14.

The gate 21 may be selectively raised and lowered by means of an end gate actuator 25. The end gate actua tor 25 includes an actuator rod 26 and an actuator arm 27. The rod 26 is fastened transversely distally from the rearwardmost terminal end on the rectilinear members of the horizontal upper framing member 15' of the frame 14. The rod 26 is journaled for rotation on the horizontal member 15' through sleeves 26. The rod 26 may be actuated by means of a crank-like handle 28 fastened at one of the terminal ends of the actuator rod 26. The actuator arm 27 is disposed generally rearward from the rod 26 toward the uppermost terminal end of the gate 21, and is operable to raise the gate 21 in response to rotation of the rod 26. It is to be understood that the tracks 24 are operable to guide the travel of the gate 21 and that inclined members 24' are operable to cam the gate 21 over the framing member'lS.

Referring now to the FIGS. 1 and 2, the exit gate 22 includes a substantially rectangular, tubular frame which is configured to fill the vertical, rectangular area formed by the frame 14. The gate 22 is divided by three horizontally and parallelly disposed tubular members into a substantially closed area in its lower portion filled with rectilinearly disposed boards 22' and into an open area in the upper portion filled by moveable bars 22", as hereinafter later described. The side exit gate 22 is hingedly mounted on one of the rearward upstanding posts 15". As shown by the FIG. 2, the gate 22 is projected inwardly at its lowermost terminal end. The exit gate 22 may be fastened at its uppermost terminal end to a sleeve 29 which slidably engages the rearward post 15". The gate 22 is fastened at its lowermost terminal end to an arm member 30. The arm member 30 is fastened at one of its terminal ends to a sleeve 29, similar to the sleeve 29. It is to be understood that the arm member 30 is operable to project the lowermost terminal side of the gate 22 inwardly when the gate 22 is in the closed position, and is operable to project the rearward portion of the gate 22 inwardly to miss the wheel 17 when the gate 22 is in the open position. The gate 22 may be actuated by means ofa rope 31. The rope 31 is fastened through an eye 32 at the forward end of the uppermost terminal side of the upper framing member 15 of the frame 14 on the side opposite the gate 22 and through an eye 33 at the uppermost forward end of the gate 22. The gate 22 may be selectively closed by pulling the rope 31 through the eye 33. The gate 22 may be opened by releasing the tension on the rope 31 to permit the generally downwardly inclined gate 22 to swing on the sleeves 29 and 29'.

Referring to the FIGS. 1 and 3, the body-restraining wall 23 has a configuration substantially similar to the side exit gate 22. The body-restraining wall 23 is hingedly mounted to the lowermost framing member 15 of the frame 14 to further restrain an animal in the apparatus 10. The body-restraining wall 23 is provided with means operable to selectively move the uppermost terminal edge of the wall 23 with respect to its lowermost terminal edge. The actuator means may include a lever-actuated ratchet 34 disposed in a suitable frame 35 from the uppermost framing member 15. It is to be understood that the ratchet 34 is pivotally mounted at the uppermost terminal edge of the wall 23 to permit changes in the vertical disposition of the wall in its arc of rotation as a result of actuating the ratchet 34. It has been found to advantage to position a ratchet handle 36 on the same side of the apparatus 10 as the end gate actuator handle 28 and the end of rope 31, as set out above, to provide convenient access by those operating the apparatus 10. The wall 23 is divided into a substantially closed area on its lower portion filled with rectilinearly disposed boards 23' and an open area in the upper portion filled by moveable bars 23". The bars 23" are disposed between the horizontally disposed tubular framing members of the wall 23. As shown more clearly in the FIG. 4, each of the bars 23" comprises a substantially T-shaped member 23" in which the rectilinearly and horizontally disposed portion is journaled for rotation on a suitable rod 37 fastened to side posts 15" and a verticle portion is operable to reach between the upper horizontal tubular member of the wall 23. Each of the bars 23" is held in a upstanding position by means of clamps 38 fastened on the upper horizontally and rectilinearly disposed framing member of the wall 23. Each of the clamps 38 is fabricated of rod-like material. Each of the clamps 38 comprises a pair of rings 39 disposed vertically distally apart on the upper horizontal member of the wall 23 to permit the vertically disposed bars 23" to pass between the rings 39. Each of the clamps 38 also includes a bracket fastener 40. The bracket fasteners 40 are held in a substantially horizontal rectilinear position by the rings 39. Each of the fasteners 40 includes a outwardly projecting curved portion 41 disposed between the rings 39. The outwardly projecting curved portions 41 are operable to hold the bars 23" in a vertical position by retaining the upper terminal portions of the bars 23" between the curved portions 41 and the tubular framing member of the wall 23. The fasteners 40 are provided at each of the terminal ends with portions 42 and 42' which are perpendicularly disposed thereon. The portions 42 and 42 are operable to guide the fasteners 40 in a quarter arc on the horizontal tubular member of the wall 23. Therefore, the end portions 42 and 42 are disposed in perpendicular planes to guide the curved portions 41 of the fasteners 40 from a substantially vertical position to a substantially horizontal position. In operation, each of the fastener portions 40 of the clamps 38 may be rotated to a vertical position with one of the end portions 42 or 42' contacting the main horizontal tubular member of the wall 23, and the bars 23" may be rotated outwardly to permit access to the body of the animal for inoculation, examination, and the like. it is to be understood that the bars 22" 'of the side exit gate 22 are constructed in a manner substantially similar to the bars 23 of the wall 23 to provide similar access to the animal.

Referring again to the FIGS. 1, 2 and 3, the headholding assembly 13 comprises a collar 43 and a halter 44. The collar 43 is vertically disposed between the forward, upstandingly disposed posts and between 1 the framing members 15 and 15'. The collar 43 comprises a pair of pivotally mounted panels 45 and 45 which divide the area between the posts 15'', generally at its midpoint. Each of the panels 45 and 45 has a curved recede portion 46 disposed on the interior terminal edge of each of the respective panels 45 and 45. The portions 46 are operable together to closely conform to the configuration of the animals neck. Each of the panels 45 and 45 is provided with a suitably reenforced frame 47 disposed generally about the perimeter of the panels 45 and 45'. The panels 45 and 45' include a suitable wall material 47, such as sheet metal, to cover each of the panels 45 and 45' in order to'direct the animals head through the opening formed by the curved portions 46. Each of the collar panels 45 and 45' is pivotally mounted at the interior corner of its lowermost terminal end to the uppermost terminal side of the lower framing member 15 of the chassis assembly 14. The collar panels 45 and 45 are provided with lever-like means operable to force the upper portions of the panels 45 and 45 apart. The lever-like means may include a lever-actuated handle 48. The handle 48 is pivotally mounted by means of a plate 49 to one of the forward, upstandingly disposed, posts 15''. The actuator handle 48 is a substantially vertically disposed rod connected to the interior corners at the uppermost terminal end of the collar panels 45 and 45'v by means of linking rods 50 and 50, respectively. The linking rod 50 is pivotally mounted to the interior corner of the uppermost terminal end of the panel 45 and is pivotally mounted at the uppermost terminal end of the handle 48. The linking rod 50 is pivotally mounted to the upper interior corner of the panel 45", and is pivotally mounted, distally from the midpoint of the handle 48, on a bracket means 51 fastened to the rod-like handle In operation the recede portions 46 may be rotated outwardly by pivoting the handle 48 at its lowermost terminal end toward the forward upstanding post 15''. It has been found to advantage to include a spring urging means 48' operable to rotatethe panels 45 and 45 to a closed position.

The halter 44 is disposed on the tongue 16, as shown more clearly in the FIGS. 5, 6 and 7. The halter 44 includes a halter stanchion 52, a chin plate 53, and a halter strap 54. The stanchion 52 has a substantially inverted U-shaped configuration, and is fabricated of heavy tubular material operable to support the head and to withstand the force applied to it by the animal retained in the apparatus 10. The stanchion 52 is pivotally mounted on one of its legs or posts 52' and 52" to a fixedly mounted, upstandingly disposed sleeve 55 fastened to the framing of the tongue 16. The halter 44 may be rotated on the axis provided by the sleeve 55, as shown more clearly in the FIG. 6. The stanchion 52 is provided with selectively engageable locking means 56 provided on the post 52' opposite the sleeve 55 of the stanchion 52. The locking means 56 includes the The chin plate 53 is a substantially convexly curved plate fastened to the uppermost terminal portion of the U-shaped stanchion 52. The plate 53 is suitably configured to permit the animals head to be cradled by the plate 53. The halter strap 54 is operableto engage the animal over its nose and head portions. The strap 54 is fastened to a windlass 59. The windlass 59 is fastened to the upstanding legs or posts 52 and 52" of the U- shaped stanchion 52. It is to be understood that the straps 54 are passed through the plate 53 to secure the animals head to the chin plate 53. As shown by the FIG. 5, the windlass 59. is provided with a suitable ratchet 60 to retain the tightened strap 54 during use.

In operation, the apparatus 10 can be parked at the discharging end of a'commonly known chute, or other cattle-control apparatus. The animal can beherded into the chute means provided by the chassis frame l4 by raising the gate 21 at the rearwardmost end of the apparatus 10. The animals head may be directed through the collar 43 by pivoting the uppermost terminal ends of the panels 45 and 45 apart, and closing the panels 45 and 45. The animals head may be directed to the chin plate 53, and the halter strap 54 may be secured, as set out above. The animal may be secured further by pivotally displacing the body-retaining wall 23 toward the side exit gate 22, as set out above, by means of the ratchet 34. Access may be had to the animals body portions by selectively engaging the disengaging the bars 22 and 23", as set out above. When the animal hasbeen sufficiently ministered to,the animal may be discharged by releasing the halter 54, opening the panels 45 and 45, and opening the gate 22 in response to the release of tension on the rope 31. It is to be understood that, while the headholding assembly 13 in this embodiment has been disposed on a chassis assembly 11, the headholding assembly 13 may be used independently or with commonly known stalls or chutes.

Having thus described in detail a preferred apparatus which embodies the concepts and principles of the invention and which accomplishes the various objects, purposes and aims thereof, it is to be appreciated and will be apparent to those skilled in the art that many physical changes could be made in the apparatus without altering the inventive concepts and principles embodied therein. Hence, it is intended that the scope of the invention be limited only to the extent indicated in the appended claims.

We claim:

1. A headholding assembly comprising a collar, said collar including a pair of pivotally mounted panels upstandingly, adjacently disposed within a suitable substantially rectangular frame, each of said panels including a curved recede portion on the interior terminal edge of said panels, said recede portions being operable to closely conform to the configuration of an animals neck, each of said panels being pivotally mounted at their respective corners adjacent the lowermost terminal edges to said frame, said panels being provided with means operable to force said panels apart at their upper portions, and a halter, said halter including a stanchion having a substantially inverted U-shaped configuration disposed distally forwardly of said collar, a chin plate having a substantially convexly curved configuration to said stanchion, said chin plate being fastened to the uppermost terminal portion of said U-shaped stanchion, and a halter strap operable to engage the animal over its nose and head portions, said strap being connected through holes in said chin plate to a Windlass mounted on said legs of said U-shaped stanchion.

2. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein said collar is disposed between the forwardmost transverse posts of a cattle chute.

3. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein said headholding assembly is disposed on a cattle-restraining apparatus, said cattle-restraining apparatus including a chassis assembly, said chassis assembly including a frame fabricated of heavy tubular metal operable to form a substantially rectangular box-like housing operable to closely surround said animal, said frame provided with wheels distally from the rearwardmost terminal end of said frame, and a substantially Y-shaped, horizontally disposed member fastened with its outwardly projecting legs at the forwardmost terminal end of said frame to form a tongue, said center leg having hitching ball coupler means;

a end gate being a substantially rectangular lattice of a configuration operable to travel with the rearwardmost terminal end of said frame opposite said tongue, said end gate being operable to be raised and lowered within said frame;

a side exit gate having a substantially rectangular configuration similar to the vertical rectilinear configuration of said frame, said exit gate being pivotally mounted on one of the rearward posts of said frame; and

a restraining wall being a substantially rectangularly configured lattice of substantially similar configuration to the side exit gate, said restraining wall being pivotally mounted at its lowermost terminal edge to the lowermost side of said frame, said restraining wall including ratchet actuator means operable to selectively pivot said restraining wall toward the side opposite said collar and being disposed between the forward upstanding posts of said frame, and said halter being disposed within said stanchion fastened to said tongue.

4.. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein said inverted U- shaped stanchion is pivotally mounted at one of its legs and provided with selective locking means operable to permit selectively locked rotation of said halter.

5. The apparatus of claim 3 wherein the upstanding, rectilinear bars of said lattice are operable to be selectively pivoted away to permit selective access to said animal and wherein said bars are provided at their ends opposite said pivoting means with suitable locking means.

Citas de patentes
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US1572982 *29 Abr 192516 Feb 1926Barger Harvey FDehorning mechanism
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US2764129 *22 Mar 195425 Sep 1956Delphi Products Company IncCattle chute
US3010429 *23 Feb 196028 Nov 1961Grissom David LAnimal catching and holding gate
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US4214555 *14 Abr 197829 Jul 1980Ken SawbyCattle vise
US4324206 *7 Jul 198013 Abr 1982Pearson's Inc.Panel mounting arrangement for squeeze chutes
US4513690 *11 May 198330 Abr 1985Waldron Curtis RAnimal mugger
US5035204 *20 Oct 198930 Jul 1991Doyle KnossHead restraint for a livestock squeeze chute
US5111773 *12 Dic 199012 May 1992Akins Edward ASqueeze chute
US5174240 *15 Jun 199229 Dic 1992Steve DarvillLivestock trailer with catch gate
US5184572 *12 Nov 19919 Feb 1993Roch MeierAnimal control chute
US5329882 *12 Ene 199319 Jul 1994Hunt Roy HSmall livestock head restraint device
US5488926 *9 May 19946 Feb 1996Hunt; Roy H.Adjustable livestock stand
US6609480 *25 Ene 200226 Ago 2003Step 5, Inc.Squeeze chute apparatus
US8360010 *12 Oct 201129 Ene 2013Boaldin Johnny BCalf handling apparatus
Clasificaciones
Clasificación de EE.UU.119/733
Clasificación internacionalA61D3/00
Clasificación cooperativaA61D3/00, A61D2003/003
Clasificación europeaA61D3/00