Búsqueda Imágenes Maps Play YouTube Noticias Gmail Drive Más »
Iniciar sesión
Usuarios de lectores de pantalla: deben hacer clic en este enlace para utilizar el modo de accesibilidad. Este modo tiene las mismas funciones esenciales pero funciona mejor con el lector.

Patentes

  1. Búsqueda avanzada de patentes
Número de publicaciónUS3779602 A
Tipo de publicaciónConcesión
Fecha de publicación18 Dic 1973
Fecha de presentación7 Ago 1972
Fecha de prioridad7 Ago 1972
Número de publicaciónUS 3779602 A, US 3779602A, US-A-3779602, US3779602 A, US3779602A
InventoresBeard T, Van Meurs P
Cesionario originalShell Oil Co
Exportar citaBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
Enlaces externos: USPTO, Cesión de USPTO, Espacenet
Process for solution mining nahcolite
US 3779602 A
Resumen
The process of solution mining sodium bicarbonate (e.g., nahcolite) from a subsurface sodium bicarbonate containing, oil shale formation with water is improved by conducting leaching operations at a selected temperature greater than 250 DEG F and adjusting pressure to a particular preferred value for the selected leaching temperature.
Imágenes(3)
Previous page
Next page
Reclamaciones  disponible en
Descripción  (El texto procesado por OCR puede contener errores)

United States Patent [191 Beard et al.

[451 Dec. 18, 1973 PROCESS FOR SOLUTION MINING NAI-ICOLITE Thomas N. Beard, Denver, Colo.; Peter Van Meurs, Houston, Tex.

[75] Inventors:

Shell Oil Company, Houston, Tex.

Aug. 7, 1972 Assignee:

Filed:

Appl. No.:

U.S. Cl. 299/5, 166/303 Int. Cl E2lb 43/28 Field of Search 299/4, 5; 166/272,

References Cited UNlTED STATES PATENTS 2,388,009 Pike 299 5 x Pike et a1 299/5 X Papadopoulos et a1 299/5 Primary ExaminerErnest R; Purser Attorney-Theodore E. Bieber [57] ABSTRACT The process of solution mining sodium bicarbonate (e.g., nahcolite) from a subsurface sodium bicarbonate containing, oil shale formation with water is im proved by conducting leaching operations at a selected temperature greater than 250F and adjusting pressure to a particular preferred value for the selected leaching temperature.

6 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures I i-viii 7 I 1 EU um; I 8 I975 sum in; 3

0 0 0% @wwmm w 0 0 0 0 0 Q\.-m.wh; WD Q Q \CSQG KO MEQQ IREOID PATENIED DEC 18 I975 SHEET 2 BF 3 Dam saw Dom QQN ou z E zocqmEqm 252m 0% oux z I 3G9 8 2 m5 815 SE 8 2 E8 E 295%: 3 a

PROCESS FOR SOLUTION MINING NAHCOLITE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Field of the Invention This invention relates to the field of producing minerals from subsurface formations; and more particularly, to a process for solution mining nahcolite from subsurface oil shale formations Description of the Prior Art The recovery of water-soluble minerals from subsurface deposits by solution mining with aqueous fluids is well known. In such a process, aqueous fluid is flowed downa well into contact with a subsurface deposit. The solution dissolves some of the soluble mineral. The mineral-containing solvent is then flowed to the surface where it is treated to remove the dissolved mineral, e.g., by evaporation.

The solubility of most commercially interesting water soluble minerals increases with increasing temperature. Therefore, aqueous solution-mining fluid is often heated to increase its mineral carrying capacity before it is injected into a subsurface mineral deposit. For example, U.S. Pat. No. 1,649,385 issued Nov. 15, 1927, to H. Blumenberg, Jr. teaches a method of solution-mining crystallized boron compounds by using a mixture of hot air and steam.

In the western United States, there are large subsurface oil shale formations which contain substantial amounts of water-soluble, heat-sensitive bicarbonate minerals such as trona and nahcolite. These minerals are present both in inter-bedded substantially pure soluble mineral layers and as dispersed nodules in certain layers which predominently contain oil shale.

It is known that theseheat-sensitive, water-soluble minerals can be solution-mined with hot aqueous solutions. *See, for example, U.S. Pat. 3,050,290, issued Aug. 21, 1962, to N. A. Caldwell et al. A co-pending commonly assigned application of T. N. Beard, Ser.

No. 75,009, filed Sept. 24, 1970, teaches a method of producing oil from such mineral-containing oil-shale formations which includes permeabilization of the formation by dissolution of mineral with hot aqueous solution.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION We have now found that the process of removing heat-sensitive, water-soluble bicarbonate minerals from subsurface oil shale deposits by solution-mining with hot aqueous solutions is improved by injecting steam into the formation at a selected temperature greater than 250F, and advantageously, greater than 300F, to leach water-soluble mineral from the formation; maintaining the temperature of fluid in the leached zone greater than 250F; and adjusting pressure in the leached zone to a particular optimum pressure for the selected temperature.

The optimum pressure is that pressure at which the sodium mineral-carrying capacity of the aqueous leaching fluid is at a maximum. At pressures below the optimum, excessive conversion of bicarbonate material to carbonate with attendant precipitation of carbonate leads'to a reduced mineral-carrying capacity. At higher pressures than the optimum, conversion of bicarbonate material to carbonate is inhibited and the mineralcarrying capacity of the leaching fluid is thereby reduced.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. I is a graphical representation of cavity growth rate versus cavity temperature for a nahcolite leaching operation conducted in a nahcolite-containing oil shale formation.

FIG. 2 is a graph of sodium content expressed as equivalent pounds of nahcolite per pound of water for a sodium carbonate saturated, sodium bicarbonatewater system as a function of temperature.

FIG. 3 is a schematic view, partly in cross section, of a solution-mining well equipped for the practice of this invention. FIG. 4 is a schematic view, partly in cross-section, of another well system for use in the practice of this invention.

DESCRIPTION OF A PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Referring to FIG. 3, we see a subsurface oil shale formation 10 containing strata 11 of substantially pure nahcolite (NaHCO and strata 12 which are predominantly oil shale but which contain a substantial amount of nahcolite, e.g. 20 to 40 percent nahcolite dispersed in discreet nodules.

A solution-mining well 13 extends into the oil shale formation 10 from the earth surface. The well 13 has been completed in a conventional manner with casing 14 sealed in place with cement 15. A solution-mining fluid injection tubing string 16 and a solution-mining fluid production tubing string 17 are extended into the well 13. The lower end of the injection tubing 16 is preferably positioned adjacent the top of a zone 9 of the oil shale formation 10 to be solution-mined. The lower end of the production tubingstring is preferably positioned near the bottom of the zone 9.

Pack-off means such as packer 18 may be positioned in the casing 14 above the lower end of the tubing string 16. Production tubing string 17 is provided with suitable means for lifting solution-mining fluid to the surface. For example, pumping apparatus may be positioned adjacent the bottom of production string 17 or the production string 17 may be equipped for gas lift as shown in FIG. 3. In the embodiment illustrated, a pressure actuated gas lift valve 19 is operatively connected to production tubing 17 at a point above packer 18. A conduit 20 for injection gas is connected to the casing 14 at the surface. To lift fluid in the tubing 17, gas is injected through conduit 20 into casing 14. When the pressure of this gas exceeds a certain threshold value, valve 19 opens and admits gas into the interior of tubing 17. This gas lightens the column of fluid in tubing 17 thereby reducing the pressure necessary to cause fluid to flow from the bottom of tubing 17 to the earth surface.

To solution mine nahcolite from formation 10, hot aqueous solution-mining fluid, preferably low quality steam, is injected down tubing 16. This fluid contacts water-soluble minerals in the formation 10 and dissolves them thereby forming a leached zone and, eventually, a cavity 21. The cavity 21 may be at least partially filled with fragmented particles of oil shale and nahcolite 22.

We have found that in leaching formations similar to that shown in FIG. 1 with steam, the cavity growth rate varies logarithmically with the cavity temperature as shown in FIG. 1 and that cavity growth rate is only slightly dependent upon the rate of fluid injection. It is believed that this increase in cavity growth rate with temperature is at least in part due to more rapid thermal fracturing at higher temperatures of oil shale surrounding discreet nahcolite nodules. Such fracturing allows injected aqueous fluid to reach the nahcolite nodule and leach it from the formation leaving an exposed oil shale face which is in turn thermally fractured opening up communication to yet another nodule.

As can be seen in FIG. 1, for temperatures below 250F, growth rate of cavity radius is quite low, less than 0.08 feet per day; whereas at 300F, growth rate is almost doubled to 0.15 feet per day. Thus, for maximum mineral removal, cavity temperature should be maintained above 250F and preferably above 300F.

We have also found that in solution-mining nahcolite from an oil shale formation with aqueous fluid, the rate of mineral recovery can be maximized by selecting an operating temperature for maximum desired cavity growth rate as by reference to FIG. 1, and then during operation adjusting cavity pressure to a pressure at which the sodium carrying capacity of the aqueous leaching fluid is a maximum for the selected cavity temperature. This pressure is less than that required to bydraulically fracture the formation and is greater than the pressure at which nahcolite decomposition to sodium carbonite, carbon dioxide and water is maximized.

Operating in this manner can significantly reduce the energy requirement for carrying out the process since heat can be carried to the formation by relatively low pressure steam. Additionally, water requirements are reduced because the total amount of sodium mineral removed from the cavity 21 by a given volume of leaching luid is maximized.

The particular selected leaching temperature will vary from operation to operation depending upon economic conditions and the desired cavity growth rate for each particular case. Operating pressure for a particular selected temperature is determined from pressure, temperature, saturation relationships such as those given in FIG. 2. That figure shows total sodium concentration in pounds of nahcolite per pound of water for a sodium carbonate saturated, sodium carbonate/- sodium bicarbonatewater system. The graph reflects the amount of nahcolite removed from a nabcolite formation which is present in the solution even though the actual composition of the solution includes both sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate generated by nahcolite decomposition. Best results are obtained by operating at the pressure for which the isobar intersects the upper dashed curve at the selected operating temperature. Good results are obtained at pressures varying as much as percent above or below this pressure.

Looking at FIG. 2 for a temperature of 400, it can be seen that at that temperature and about 200 psi only sodium bicarbonate is present in the solution (as given by the lower dotted line of the Figure) and that the total amount of equivalent nahcolite dissolved is around 0.55 pounds per pound of water. However as pressure is increased, the amount of sodium bicarbonate in the system increases until at about 1,000 psi, the total sodium content is equivalent to about 1.25 pounds per pound of water even though sodium carbonate saturation remains the same. Further pressure increase to a pressure for which the extention of an isobar would intersect the 400F isotherm above the upper dotted line results in the precipitation of sodium bicarbonate and an effective reduction in the equivalent nahcolite saturation of the system. Thus at 400F, leaching operations can be maximized if pressure in the cavity 21 is maintained at about 1,000 psi. To maintain this pressure, it is necessary to artiflcally lift fluid from the cavity 21 if the fluid head of solution-mining fluid in production tubing 17 is greater than 1,800 psi. Therefore, the well 13 is provided with a gas lift system as heretofore described.

FIG. 4 shows a well 22 extending into the formation 10 that is completed in a manner particularly advantageous for the practice of this invention. The well 22 is completed with casing 23 which extends into the nahcolite-containing formation 10. The casing 23 is cemented in place with cement 24 and perforated adjacent formation 10 with perforations 25 to open the interior of the casing into communication with the formation 10.

A liquid production tubing string 26 and a gas production tubing string 27 extend into the well from the surface. The liquid production tubing string 26 preferably terminates at the point adjacent the bottom of the interval of the formation 10 to be treated whereas the gas production tubing string 27 terminates at a point above the lower end of the liquid production tubing 26 but below the perforations 25. The interior of the casing is preferably sealed to fluid flow by pack-off means such as packer 28 at a point above the terminal ends of the two tubing strings 26 and 27 and below the perforations 25.

The liquid production tubing string is provided with means for lifting liquid from the formation 10 to the surface. This may be a down-hole pump or gas lift means (as illustrated in FIG. 4) in which a gas injection string extends into the well 22 and is connected in communication with production tubing 26 at a point near the lower end of that tubing. The particular point of intersection will be determined by the fluid head desired to be maintained in liquid production string 26.

In operation, hot aqueous fluid having a temperature greater than 250 and preferably greater than 300F is injected into casing 23 through conduit 30 and then down the casing until it passes through perforations 25 into the formation 10. This fluid leaches nahcolite from the formation creating a cavity 31 which may be filled with fragmented particles of oil shale and nahcolite 32. The aqueous fluid advantageously contains high proportion of steam which upon contacting the formation 10 condenses to form a liquid phase capable of carrying dissolved mineral in solution. Simultaneously with the injection of steam down the casing 22, liquid is produced from the lower part of the cavern 31 through production tubing string 26 and gas is produced from the cavern 31 through gas production tubing string 27. The production rate of these fluids is preferably adjusted to maintain the pressure in the cavern 31 at a particular preferred value for the selected temperature operation. The removal of gas through the tubing 26 draws both steam and CO from the cavern 31. This results in a reduction of the partial pressure of CO in the cavern and further promotes the decomposition of nahcolite (NaHCO to sodium carbonate, CO and water (e.g., 2 NaHCO, Na CO3 C0, H O).

Both FIGS. 3 and 4 illustrates single well systems for the practice of this invention. However, it should be understood that two or more wells may at any one time be in communication with any particular cavern 21 or 31 or other permeabilized zone. In such a case, aqueous fluid may be injected into the formation through one well and produced from the formation through a separate well.

Both FIGS. 3 and 4 illustrate the process after a cavity 21 or 31 has been formed. It should be understood that in many cases, initial treatment will be confined to a substantially cylindrical wellbore and that the cavern is formed only after a period of leaching has expanded the wellbore radically.

We claim as our invention:

1. In a method for solution-mining heat sensitive water-soluble sodium bicarbonate minerals from a subsurface bicarbonate mineral containing oil-shale formation of the type wherein a hot aqueous fluid is injected into the formation to leach bicarbonate mineral therefrom, the improvement comprising:

injecting steam into the formation at a temperature greater than 250F to leach water-soluble mineral from the formation and thereby create a leached zone; maintaining the temperature of fluid in the leached zone at a temperature greater than 250F; and

adjusting pressure in the leached zone to an optimum pressure at which the sodium mineral carrying capacity of water at the selected temperature is a maximum.

2. The method of claim 1 further comprising producing liquid containing dissolved sodium bicarbonate from a liquid layer adjacent the bottom of the leached zone through a production tubing string using artificial lift means to lift the liquid to the surface.

3. The method of claim 2 further comprising withdrawing gas containing CO from a gas layer adjacent the top of the leached zone.

4. A method for solution-mining nahcolite from a subsurface oil-shale formation comprising the steps of:

traversing a nahcolite-containing zone of the oilshale formation with a well;

extending a production string of tubing into the well to a point adjacent the bottom of the nahcolitecontaining zone;

extending an injection tubing string into the well to a point adjacent the top of the nahcolite-containing zone; injecting steam into contact with the nahcolite containing zone through the injection tubing at a temperature such that upon contacting the formation at least some of the steam condenses to liquid which liquid flows to the bottom of the nahcolite zone leaching nahcolite therefrom; producing nahcolite-containing aqueous liquid from the nahcolite zone through the production tubing;

controlling the rate and temperature of steam injection to maintain a selected temperature of aqueous liquid adjacent the bottom of the nahcolite zone;

adjusting the pressure in the aqueous liquid adjacent the bottom of the nahcolite zone to an operating pressure substantially equal to that pressure at which the amount of sodium mineral the aqueous liquid can carry at the selected temperature is a maximum; and

maintaining the pressure in the aqueous liquid adjacent the bottom of the nahcolite zone substantially constant at the operating pressure.

5. The method of claim 4 wherein the operating pressure is a pressure less than that required to hydraulically fracture the formation.

6. The method of claim 5 wherein the operating pressure is greater than the pressure at which the rate of nahcolite decomposition is a maximum at the selected temperature.

Citas de patentes
Patente citada Fecha de presentación Fecha de publicación Solicitante Título
US2388009 *19 Oct 194330 Oct 1945Pike Robert DSolution mining of trona
US2625384 *1 Jul 194913 Ene 1953Fmc CorpMining operation
US3700280 *28 Abr 197124 Oct 1972Shell Oil CoMethod of producing oil from an oil shale formation containing nahcolite and dawsonite
Citada por
Patente citante Fecha de presentación Fecha de publicación Solicitante Título
US3880238 *18 Jul 197429 Abr 1975Shell Oil CoSolvent/non-solvent pyrolysis of subterranean oil shale
US3957306 *12 Jun 197518 May 1976Shell Oil CompanyExplosive-aided oil shale cavity formation
US3967853 *5 Jun 19756 Jul 1976Shell Oil CompanyProducing shale oil from a cavity-surrounded central well
US3987851 *2 Jun 197526 Oct 1976Shell Oil CompanySerially burning and pyrolyzing to produce shale oil from a subterranean oil shale
US4033412 *18 Jun 19765 Jul 1977Barrett George MFluid carrier recovery system and method
US4264104 *16 Jul 197928 Abr 1981Ppg Industries Canada Ltd.Rubble mining
US4557910 *29 Mar 198210 Dic 1985Intermountain Research & Development CorporationProduction of soda ash from nahcolite
US4815790 *13 May 198828 Mar 1989Natec, Ltd.Nahcolite solution mining process
US5588713 *20 Dic 199531 Dic 1996Stevenson; Tom D.Process for making sodium bicarbonate from Nahcolite-rich solutions
US5607018 *29 Sep 19944 Mar 1997Schuh; Frank J.Viscid oil well completion
US5955043 *29 Ago 199621 Sep 1999Tg Soda Ash, Inc.Production of sodium carbonate from solution mine brine
US632276719 May 200027 Nov 2001Fmc CorporationProcess for making sodium carbonate decahydrate from sodium carbonate/bicarbonate liquors
US660976110 Ene 200026 Ago 2003American Soda, LlpSodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate production from nahcolitic oil shale
US6699447 *31 Mar 20002 Mar 2004American Soda, LlpSodium bicarbonate production from nahcolite
US6845298 *27 Ago 200218 Ene 2005Force FlowDiluting system and method
US704039724 Abr 20029 May 2006Shell Oil CompanyThermal processing of an oil shale formation to increase permeability of the formation
US71108613 Dic 200419 Sep 2006Force FlowDiluting system and method
US7128886 *15 Jul 200331 Oct 2006Solvay Chemicals, Inc.Sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate production from nahcolitic oil shale
US7410627 *25 Ene 200612 Ago 2008American Soda, LlpSodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate production
US7611208 *17 Ago 20053 Nov 2009Sesqui Mining, LlcMethods for constructing underground borehole configurations and related solution mining methods
US764476519 Oct 200712 Ene 2010Shell Oil CompanyHeating tar sands formations while controlling pressure
US767368119 Oct 20079 Mar 2010Shell Oil CompanyTreating tar sands formations with karsted zones
US767378620 Abr 20079 Mar 2010Shell Oil CompanyWelding shield for coupling heaters
US767731019 Oct 200716 Mar 2010Shell Oil CompanyCreating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations
US767731419 Oct 200716 Mar 2010Shell Oil CompanyMethod of condensing vaporized water in situ to treat tar sands formations
US768164719 Oct 200723 Mar 2010Shell Oil CompanyMethod of producing drive fluid in situ in tar sands formations
US768329620 Abr 200723 Mar 2010Shell Oil CompanyAdjusting alloy compositions for selected properties in temperature limited heaters
US770351319 Oct 200727 Abr 2010Shell Oil CompanyWax barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations
US771717119 Oct 200718 May 2010Shell Oil CompanyMoving hydrocarbons through portions of tar sands formations with a fluid
US773094519 Oct 20078 Jun 2010Shell Oil CompanyUsing geothermal energy to heat a portion of a formation for an in situ heat treatment process
US773094619 Oct 20078 Jun 2010Shell Oil CompanyTreating tar sands formations with dolomite
US773094719 Oct 20078 Jun 2010Shell Oil CompanyCreating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations
US77359351 Jun 200715 Jun 2010Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation containing carbonate minerals
US778542720 Abr 200731 Ago 2010Shell Oil CompanyHigh strength alloys
US779372220 Abr 200714 Sep 2010Shell Oil CompanyNon-ferromagnetic overburden casing
US779822018 Abr 200821 Sep 2010Shell Oil CompanyIn situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment
US779822131 May 200721 Sep 2010Shell Oil CompanyIn situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US783113421 Abr 20069 Nov 2010Shell Oil CompanyGrouped exposed metal heaters
US783248418 Abr 200816 Nov 2010Shell Oil CompanyMolten salt as a heat transfer fluid for heating a subsurface formation
US784140119 Oct 200730 Nov 2010Shell Oil CompanyGas injection to inhibit migration during an in situ heat treatment process
US784140818 Abr 200830 Nov 2010Shell Oil CompanyIn situ heat treatment from multiple layers of a tar sands formation
US784142518 Abr 200830 Nov 2010Shell Oil CompanyDrilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures
US784541119 Oct 20077 Dic 2010Shell Oil CompanyIn situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system
US784992218 Abr 200814 Dic 2010Shell Oil CompanyIn situ recovery from residually heated sections in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US786037721 Abr 200628 Dic 2010Shell Oil CompanySubsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters
US786638520 Abr 200711 Ene 2011Shell Oil CompanyPower systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid
US786638613 Oct 200811 Ene 2011Shell Oil CompanyIn situ oxidation of subsurface formations
US786638813 Oct 200811 Ene 2011Shell Oil CompanyHigh temperature methods for forming oxidizer fuel
US791235820 Abr 200722 Mar 2011Shell Oil CompanyAlternate energy source usage for in situ heat treatment processes
US793108618 Abr 200826 Abr 2011Shell Oil CompanyHeating systems for heating subsurface formations
US794219721 Abr 200617 May 2011Shell Oil CompanyMethods and systems for producing fluid from an in situ conversion process
US79422034 Ene 201017 May 2011Shell Oil CompanyThermal processes for subsurface formations
US795045318 Abr 200831 May 2011Shell Oil CompanyDownhole burner systems and methods for heating subsurface formations
US798686921 Abr 200626 Jul 2011Shell Oil CompanyVarying properties along lengths of temperature limited heaters
US801145113 Oct 20086 Sep 2011Shell Oil CompanyRanging methods for developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US802757121 Abr 200627 Sep 2011Shell Oil CompanyIn situ conversion process systems utilizing wellbores in at least two regions of a formation
US804261018 Abr 200825 Oct 2011Shell Oil CompanyParallel heater system for subsurface formations
US805776524 Sep 200915 Nov 2011Sesqui Mining, LlcMethods for constructing underground borehole configurations and related solution mining methods
US807084021 Abr 20066 Dic 2011Shell Oil CompanyTreatment of gas from an in situ conversion process
US808381320 Abr 200727 Dic 2011Shell Oil CompanyMethods of producing transportation fuel
US811327213 Oct 200814 Feb 2012Shell Oil CompanyThree-phase heaters with common overburden sections for heating subsurface formations
US814666113 Oct 20083 Abr 2012Shell Oil CompanyCryogenic treatment of gas
US814666913 Oct 20083 Abr 2012Shell Oil CompanyMulti-step heater deployment in a subsurface formation
US81518809 Dic 201010 Abr 2012Shell Oil CompanyMethods of making transportation fuel
US815190710 Abr 200910 Abr 2012Shell Oil CompanyDual motor systems and non-rotating sensors for use in developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US816205913 Oct 200824 Abr 2012Shell Oil CompanyInduction heaters used to heat subsurface formations
US816240510 Abr 200924 Abr 2012Shell Oil CompanyUsing tunnels for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US817233510 Abr 20098 May 2012Shell Oil CompanyElectrical current flow between tunnels for use in heating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US817730510 Abr 200915 May 2012Shell Oil CompanyHeater connections in mines and tunnels for use in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US819163028 Abr 20105 Jun 2012Shell Oil CompanyCreating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations
US819268226 Abr 20105 Jun 2012Shell Oil CompanyHigh strength alloys
US819665813 Oct 200812 Jun 2012Shell Oil CompanyIrregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US820007224 Oct 200312 Jun 2012Shell Oil CompanyTemperature limited heaters for heating subsurface formations or wellbores
US82205399 Oct 200917 Jul 2012Shell Oil CompanyControlling hydrogen pressure in self-regulating nuclear reactors used to treat a subsurface formation
US822416324 Oct 200317 Jul 2012Shell Oil CompanyVariable frequency temperature limited heaters
US822416424 Oct 200317 Jul 2012Shell Oil CompanyInsulated conductor temperature limited heaters
US822416521 Abr 200617 Jul 2012Shell Oil CompanyTemperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor
US823092716 May 201131 Jul 2012Shell Oil CompanyMethods and systems for producing fluid from an in situ conversion process
US823378229 Sep 201031 Jul 2012Shell Oil CompanyGrouped exposed metal heaters
US823873024 Oct 20037 Ago 2012Shell Oil CompanyHigh voltage temperature limited heaters
US824077413 Oct 200814 Ago 2012Shell Oil CompanySolution mining and in situ treatment of nahcolite beds
US82565129 Oct 20094 Sep 2012Shell Oil CompanyMovable heaters for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US82618329 Oct 200911 Sep 2012Shell Oil CompanyHeating subsurface formations with fluids
US82671709 Oct 200918 Sep 2012Shell Oil CompanyOffset barrier wells in subsurface formations
US82671859 Oct 200918 Sep 2012Shell Oil CompanyCirculated heated transfer fluid systems used to treat a subsurface formation
US827245513 Oct 200825 Sep 2012Shell Oil CompanyMethods for forming wellbores in heated formations
US827666113 Oct 20082 Oct 2012Shell Oil CompanyHeating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier
US82818619 Oct 20099 Oct 2012Shell Oil CompanyCirculated heated transfer fluid heating of subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US832768118 Abr 200811 Dic 2012Shell Oil CompanyWellbore manufacturing processes for in situ heat treatment processes
US83279329 Abr 201011 Dic 2012Shell Oil CompanyRecovering energy from a subsurface formation
US83533479 Oct 200915 Ene 2013Shell Oil CompanyDeployment of insulated conductors for treating subsurface formations
US835562322 Abr 200515 Ene 2013Shell Oil CompanyTemperature limited heaters with high power factors
US838181518 Abr 200826 Feb 2013Shell Oil CompanyProduction from multiple zones of a tar sands formation
US84345559 Abr 20107 May 2013Shell Oil CompanyIrregular pattern treatment of a subsurface formation
US84487079 Abr 201028 May 2013Shell Oil CompanyNon-conducting heater casings
US845935918 Abr 200811 Jun 2013Shell Oil CompanyTreating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones
US848525211 Jul 201216 Jul 2013Shell Oil CompanyIn situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US853649713 Oct 200817 Sep 2013Shell Oil CompanyMethods for forming long subsurface heaters
US855597131 May 201215 Oct 2013Shell Oil CompanyTreating tar sands formations with dolomite
US856207825 Nov 200922 Oct 2013Shell Oil CompanyHydrocarbon production from mines and tunnels used in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US857903117 May 201112 Nov 2013Shell Oil CompanyThermal processes for subsurface formations
US860609120 Oct 200610 Dic 2013Shell Oil CompanySubsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates
US860824926 Abr 201017 Dic 2013Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US86278878 Dic 200814 Ene 2014Shell Oil CompanyIn situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US86318668 Abr 201121 Ene 2014Shell Oil CompanyLeak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
US863632325 Nov 200928 Ene 2014Shell Oil CompanyMines and tunnels for use in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US866217518 Abr 20084 Mar 2014Shell Oil CompanyVarying properties of in situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation based on assessed viscosities
US8678513 *29 Jul 200925 Mar 2014Solvay Chemicals, Inc.Traveling undercut solution mining systems and methods
US87017688 Abr 201122 Abr 2014Shell Oil CompanyMethods for treating hydrocarbon formations
US87017698 Abr 201122 Abr 2014Shell Oil CompanyMethods for treating hydrocarbon formations based on geology
US87398748 Abr 20113 Jun 2014Shell Oil CompanyMethods for heating with slots in hydrocarbon formations
US875290410 Abr 200917 Jun 2014Shell Oil CompanyHeated fluid flow in mines and tunnels used in heating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US878958612 Jul 201329 Jul 2014Shell Oil CompanyIn situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US879139618 Abr 200829 Jul 2014Shell Oil CompanyFloating insulated conductors for heating subsurface formations
US88204068 Abr 20112 Sep 2014Shell Oil CompanyElectrodes for electrical current flow heating of subsurface formations with conductive material in wellbore
US88334538 Abr 201116 Sep 2014Shell Oil CompanyElectrodes for electrical current flow heating of subsurface formations with tapered copper thickness
US88511709 Abr 20107 Oct 2014Shell Oil CompanyHeater assisted fluid treatment of a subsurface formation
US885750624 May 201314 Oct 2014Shell Oil CompanyAlternate energy source usage methods for in situ heat treatment processes
US88818069 Oct 200911 Nov 2014Shell Oil CompanySystems and methods for treating a subsurface formation with electrical conductors
US889969129 Jul 20112 Dic 2014Sesqui Mining, LlcMethods for constructing underground borehole configurations and related solution mining methods
US90163706 Abr 201228 Abr 2015Shell Oil CompanyPartial solution mining of hydrocarbon containing layers prior to in situ heat treatment
US902210921 Ene 20145 May 2015Shell Oil CompanyLeak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
US90221189 Oct 20095 May 2015Shell Oil CompanyDouble insulated heaters for treating subsurface formations
US90330428 Abr 201119 May 2015Shell Oil CompanyForming bitumen barriers in subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US90518299 Oct 20099 Jun 2015Shell Oil CompanyPerforated electrical conductors for treating subsurface formations
US91275238 Abr 20118 Sep 2015Shell Oil CompanyBarrier methods for use in subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US91275388 Abr 20118 Sep 2015Shell Oil CompanyMethodologies for treatment of hydrocarbon formations using staged pyrolyzation
US91297289 Oct 20098 Sep 2015Shell Oil CompanySystems and methods of forming subsurface wellbores
US918178018 Abr 200810 Nov 2015Shell Oil CompanyControlling and assessing pressure conditions during treatment of tar sands formations
US923441621 Mar 201412 Ene 2016Solvay Chemicals, Inc.Traveling undercut solution mining systems and methods
US926091828 Oct 201416 Feb 2016Sesqui Mining LLC.Methods for constructing underground borehole configurations and related solution mining methods
US93097554 Oct 201212 Abr 2016Shell Oil CompanyThermal expansion accommodation for circulated fluid systems used to heat subsurface formations
US93999054 May 201526 Jul 2016Shell Oil CompanyLeak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
US943389425 Abr 20146 Sep 2016Tronox Alkali Wyoming CorporationRemoval of hydrogen sulfide from gas streams
US20020029885 *24 Abr 200114 Mar 2002De Rouffignac Eric PierreIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a movable heating element
US20020038711 *24 Abr 20014 Abr 2002Rouffignac Eric Pierre DeIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using heat sources positioned within open wellbores
US20020040780 *24 Abr 200111 Abr 2002Wellington Scott LeeIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a selected mixture
US20020043365 *24 Abr 200118 Abr 2002Berchenko Ilya EmilIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected ratio of heat sources to production wells
US20020056551 *24 Abr 200116 May 2002Wellington Scott LeeIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation in a reducing environment
US20020057905 *24 Abr 200116 May 2002Wellington Scott LeeIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce oxygen containing formation fluids
US20020077515 *24 Abr 200120 Jun 2002Wellington Scott LeeIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce hydrocarbons having a selected carbon number range
US20020084074 *24 Sep 20014 Jul 2002De Rouffignac Eric PierreIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to increase a porosity of the formation
US20030050736 *27 Ago 200213 Mar 2003Mark NelsonDiluting system and method
US20030102124 *24 Abr 20025 Jun 2003Vinegar Harold J.In situ thermal processing of a blending agent from a relatively permeable formation
US20030102125 *24 Abr 20025 Jun 2003Wellington Scott LeeIn situ thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation in a reducing environment
US20030102130 *24 Abr 20025 Jun 2003Vinegar Harold J.In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with quality control
US20030131994 *24 Abr 200217 Jul 2003Vinegar Harold J.In situ thermal processing and solution mining of an oil shale formation
US20030155111 *24 Oct 200221 Ago 2003Shell Oil CoIn situ thermal processing of a tar sands formation
US20030205378 *24 Oct 20026 Nov 2003Wellington Scott LeeIn situ recovery from lean and rich zones in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20030209348 *24 Abr 200213 Nov 2003Ward John MichaelIn situ thermal processing and remediation of an oil shale formation
US20040026982 *15 Jul 200312 Feb 2004American Soda, LlpSodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate production from nahcolitic oil shale
US20040177966 *24 Oct 200316 Sep 2004Vinegar Harold J.Conductor-in-conduit temperature limited heaters
US20040231109 *1 Mar 200425 Nov 2004Nielsen Kurt R.Sodium bicarbonate production from nahcolite
US20050051327 *23 Abr 200410 Mar 2005Vinegar Harold J.Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US20050102067 *3 Dic 200412 May 2005Force FlowDiluting system and method
US20060039842 *17 Ago 200523 Feb 2006Sesqui Mining, LlcMethods for constructing underground borehole configurations and related solution mining methods
US20060120942 *25 Ene 20068 Jun 2006American Soda, LlpSodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate production
US20070137857 *21 Abr 200621 Jun 2007Vinegar Harold JLow temperature monitoring system for subsurface barriers
US20100066153 *24 Sep 200918 Mar 2010Sesqui Mining, LlcMethods for constructing underground borehole configurations and related solution mining methods
US20100147521 *9 Oct 200917 Jun 2010Xueying XiePerforated electrical conductors for treating subsurface formations
US20110084030 *12 Oct 201014 Abr 2011Force FlowMethod and system for monitoring and/or tracking sodium hypochlorite use
US20110127825 *29 Jul 20092 Jun 2011Solvay Chemicals, Inc.Traveling undercut solution mining systems and methods
CN102112699B29 Jul 20099 Jul 2014索尔维化学有限公司Traveling undercut solution mining systems and methods
WO2003035801A2 *24 Oct 20021 May 2003Shell Oil CompanyProducing hydrocarbons and non-hydrocarbon containing materials from a hydrocarbon containing formation
WO2003035801A3 *24 Oct 200217 Feb 2005Shell Oil CoProducing hydrocarbons and non-hydrocarbon containing materials from a hydrocarbon containing formation
Clasificaciones
Clasificación de EE.UU.299/5, 166/303, 423/206.2
Clasificación internacionalE21B43/00, E21B36/00, E21B43/28
Clasificación cooperativaE21B43/281, E21B36/00
Clasificación europeaE21B43/28B, E21B36/00