US 3797990 A
A candle comprising a container having therein a candle wax layer, a wick extending through said candle wax layer and above the upper surface thereof, and a safety wax capable of melting at the temperature generated by the wick but non-flammable at such temperatures; in the molten state said safety wax having a specific gravity greater than that of the candle wax.
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United States Patent 1 1 1 3,797,990
Rogers et al. Mar. 19,1974
[ CANDLE 3.586.473 6/1971 Galloway et a]. 431/288 21.706 10/1858 Tatum.... 431/288  Inventors: gfig fig gg hgi A 756L322 4/1904 Boersig 431/291 a 3 t ,T d.bth fN.Y. Ma esevac O o O Prlmar v ExaminerCarroll B. Dorlty. Jr. Assigneei Avon Products, n. NY. Attorney, Agent, or FirmPennie & Edmonds  Filed: Oct. 30, 1972  Appl. No.: 301,801 v  ABSTRACT A candle comprising a container having therein a can- 52 US. Cl. 431/291, 431/288 dle Wax layer a wick extending thmugh Said candle  Int. Cl. F23d 3/16 Wax layer and above the upper surface thereof and a  Field of Search 431/288, 291 Safety Wax Capable 0f melting at the temperature erated by the wick but non-flammable at such temper-  References Cited atures; in the molten state said safety wax having :1
UNITED STATES PATENTS specific gravity greater than that of the candle wax.
2.240.071 4/1941 Gisolfi 431/291 10 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures 'fill'l'liii KI% i l i i i i i CANDLE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Candles of the type comprising a candle wax in a metal or glass container frequently contain bits of extraneous material, such as charred portions of wick and matches. As the candle is burned, these charred materials accumulate and are often ignited by the burning wick resulting in sudden explosion of flame called flaring. This flaring may burn the person who is lighting the wick or even cause the container to break with the fragments causing injury to persons nearby. In the past container breakage in glass containers was mitigated by the use of a nylon or other plastic or metal netting made to fit snugly around the container. This approach provided only limited protection to the individuals in the vicinity of the candle. In addition, although it tended to hold the candle together, it provided no protection to one who was actually lighting the candle from burns that a flareup might cause. Further, the netting often detracted from the appearance of the candle as any design on the container would be partially hidden.
The present invention eliminates the need for the nylon netting and protects the user from being burned when he is lighting or otherwise in close proximity to the candle.
The object of this invention is to prepare candle compositions which prevent flaring and its resulting damage to persons and property.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION A safety wax is placed in the bottom of a candle container. The wick and wick clip are placed either on top of or underneath the safety wax, and candle wax is then charged into the container. As the candle burns toward its end, the safety wax melts and mixes with the candle wax to entrap foreign particles and inhibit the flow of candle wax to the flame, thus extinguishing the candle and preventing flareup.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a perspective view of the candle of this invention;
FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view taken along line 2-2 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a sectional view showing candle having been burned nearly to the bottom of the container;
FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view of an alternate embodiment of the invention in which the wick clip assembly is beneath the safety wax;
FIG. 5 is a candle having been burned nearly to the bottom of the container.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION Refer now to FIG. 2 which shows a container and candle materials in the unburned state. A small portion of safety wax 4 molded into a form exactly similar to the bottom of the container is placed into the bottom of the container ahead of the other materials. The wick clip assembly composed of the wick clip 3 which holds the wick 2 in position is placed on top of the safety wax. The candle wax is then placed on top of the safety wax with the wick 2 extending therethrough.
FIG. 3 demonstrates the operation of the anti-flaring safety wax configuration. As the candle is burned nearly to the bottom of the container 1 the safety wax is melted and traps the foreign particles 7. In this position the proximity of the flame causes the wick clip 3 to heat up. The hot wick clip melts the surrounding wax causing the wick clip assembly to sink into the safety wax. In addition, the direct heat from the flame and the heat transferred from the already molten candle wax melts the safety wax. The molten safety waxeventually mixes with :the candle wax resulting in an extremely viscous fluid 6 that traps the foreign particles 7. The safety wax is of such a composition that when molten it impedes the flow of the candle wax to the flame eventually causing the flame to be. extinguished.
Another embodiment of the invention is shown in FIG. 4 where the wick clip assembly is placed in the container before the other waxes. In this embodiment the safety wax 8 is placed on top of the wick clip 3 with the wick extending through the safety wax. Here, the safety wax isnot in a form similar to that of the container bottom, but is of a cylindrical shape having a radius approximately equal to that of the wick clip. This results in the candle wax 5 sharing an interface not only on the upper surface but along the sidewalls of the safety wax as well.
Similar to the operation in FIG. 3, FIG. 5 portrays the FIG. 4 embodiment in a condition where the candle is burned nearly to the bottom of the container. Here again the combination of the heat from the wick clip 3, the flame itself and the candle wax melts the safety wax. The molten candle wax and safety wax form a viscous mixture which, as in the first embodiment, entraps foreign particles and impedes flow of candle wax to eventually extinguish the flame.
In both the above embodiments the extinguishing and entrapping characteristics of the container configuration combine to prevent flaring. By entrapping the foreign particles they are not allowed to flow toward the flame where they might ignite causing a flareup. As a necessary complement to the entrapping qualities is the extinguishing characteristics. If the flame was not extinguished at some point in the process, the entrapping would be a useless temporary occurrence as a foreign particle would eventually be brought in close enough proximity to ignite as the wax neared its end.
The candle wax material can be any known candle wax such as a parafin wax and the like.
The entrapping qualities of the safety wax are believed to be a result of the high viscosity of the resultant molten wax. The extinguishing qualities are a bit more complex. In operation, as the safety wax is melted, components of the safety wax such as fatty acid salts, as described herein below, are drawn in close proximity to the wick impeding the flow of the candle wax to the flame. The result of such impediment is the eventual extinguishment of the flame.
The composition of the safety wax which has been found useful in substantially preventing flaring and causing extinguishment of the flame of candles into which it is formed comprises a high melt wax, such as petroleum microcrystalline waxes, polyethylene waxes, ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers and the like. In addition, the safety wax can containsmall amounts of a metal soap of a higher fatty acid such as zinc, magnesium, calcium, aluminum, and the like, salts of oleic, stearic, isostearic, palmitic, acids and the like. The amounts of said metal fatty acid soap may range from about 0.5 parts to about 5 parts per parts of the safety wax with from about 1 part to about 4 parts being preferred. The ratio of safety wax to candle wax can range from about 4parts to about 8 parts per 100 parts of candle wax.
The metal soap additive of the safety wax composition can be formed from any higher fatty acid and preferably from oleic acid and mixed fatty acids of which oleic acid is the major constituent.
EXAMPLE I Tests were conducted on both laboratory and production prepared materials. The candle container was first loaded with 8 parts of safety wax and subsetluently loaded with a wick clfifi wick and lOO parts of candle wax. Under the test conditions, the container candles were loaded with four charred matches and allowed to burn for 8 hours at a time until all the fuel, candle wax,
was consumed, or flaring took place. The results of the test are shown in the chart below.
A hard high melt petroleum microcrystalline wax, melting point 180 190F.
' Lab Prepared Production Prepared EXAMPLE II In the same manner as in Example I, tests are conducted on candle compositions of Table I in which the aluminum soap blend is replaced, separately and in turn, by an equivalent amount of each of the following metal soaps; zinc stearate, zinc isostearate, zinc palmitate, magnesium stearate and magnesium palmitate, and mixtures thereof. In each case, the candle compositions containing safety wax shows decreased flaring similar to the samples of Example I.
EXAMPLE III In the same manner as in Example I, tests were conducted on candle compositions of Table I in which the high melt petroleum wax is replaced, separately and in turn, with a polyethylene wax and with 40:60 copolymer of ethylene-vinyl acetate. In each case, the candle compositions containing safety wax shows decreased flaring similar to the samples of Example I. g
It should be emphasized that the safety wax is not limited to the particular blend described above. Any metal soap having the required flame temperature will suffice, and these are well known to those skilled in the art.
The safety wax composition should be capable of melting at temperatures generated by the wick, wick clip and the candle wax. The safety wax, in order not to act as an additional fuel element, must be nonflammable at the temperatures generated. It has been found that the safety wax compositions of this invention are substantially nonflammable under the conditions used The above description is merely the preferred embodiments for preventing flareup of a container candle. It is not intended by this description to limit the invention in any way to the described means. There may be other means available and it is intended that those means may be used with the invention as embodied in the claims herein.
What is claimed is:
l. A candle comprising a container having therein a candle wax layer, a safety wax, and a wick in at least said candle wax and said wick being mounted on a wick clip, said candle wax being of a material having a lower ignition point than said safety wax, and said safety wax being of a material which will not normally ignite from the flame of said candle wax burning on said wick, said safety wax being present in an amount sufficient to trap flammable charred material in said container to prevent ignition thereof.
2. The candle of claim 1 comprising a safety wax having temperature of about 500600 F.
3. The candle of claim 2 whereby said safety wax is a composition comprising from about 1 percent to 4 percent metallic higher fatty acid soaps and correspondingly from about 99 percent to 96 percent of high melt microcrystalline wax material.
4. The candle of claim 3 wherein the safety wax comprises from about 1 percent to about 4 percent aluminum soap and correspondingly from about 99 percent to 96 percent of high melt microcrystalline material selected from petroleum, polyethylene, and vinyl acetateethylene copolymer waxes.
5. A method of making a candle resistant to flareups which comprises charging a high viscosity, high ignition temperature safety wax in addition to fuel wax, wick and other materials into a container, said fuel wax being of a material having a lower ignition point than said safety wax, and said safety wax being of a material which will not normally ignite from the flames of said fuel wax burning on said wick.
6. The method of claim 5 whereby the safety wax is first charged into the bottom of the container, the wick and wick clip is placed on top of the safety wax layer and the candle wax is charged into the container.
7. The method of claim 6 whereby the safety wax is charged into the container after the wick and wick clip are placed in the bottom of the container, but before the candle wax is charged therein.
8. The method of claim 6 wherein said safety wax has an ignition temperature of about 500-600 F.
9. The method of claim 8 wherein said safety wax is a composition comprising from about 1 percent to 4 percent metallic higher fatty acid soaps and correspondingly from about 99 percent to 96 percent high melt wax material.
10. The method of claim 9 wherein said safety wax comprises from about I percent to about 4 percent aluminum soap and correspondingly from about 99 percent to 96 percent of high melt material selected from petroleum, polyethylene and vinyl acetate-ethylene copolymer waxes.
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