US 3813791 A
Surveyor's target for mounting on a traffic cone comprising a cap for the traffic cone with an arm extending from the cap and a target on the end of the arm, the arm being sufficiently long that, when a plumb bob is dropped from the target, it hangs beyond the base of the cone.
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Mitten States Patent 1191 Stewart et a1.
SURVEYOR'S TARGET Inventors: Larry C. Stewart, 7104 Jordan Ave., Apt. 4; Stephan C. Taylor, 20409 B Altar St., both of Los Angeles, Calif. 91304 Filed: May 2, 1972 Appl. No.: 248,960
U.S. Cl. 33/263, 33/295 Int. Cl Glllc 15/00, Glc /08 Field of Search 33/295, 293, 263, 299;
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 4/1957 Digiacinto 33/295 1 June 4, 1074 2,843,347 7/1958 King 33/293 2,873,531 2/1959 33/295 3,271,865 9/1966 Glidden et a1. 33/295 3,596,628 8/1971 Wright 411/ N Primary ExaminerL0uis R. Prince Assistant Examiner-Richard R. Stearns Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Allan M. Shapiro  ABSTRACT Surveyors target for mounting on a traffic cone comprising a cap for the traffic cone with an arm extending from the cap and a target on the end of the arm, the arm being sufficiently long that, when a plumb bob is dropped from the target, it hangs beyond the base of the cone.
15 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures 1 suavavoa's TARGET BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The surveyors target includes means to mount the target on a traffic cone.
2. Description of the Prior Art In the normal course of surveying, a transit is set up over a point, and one or more targets are respectively set up over one or more other points. Using these targets, an angle is turned or a line is given. It is desirable to have a target which can be set up in a minimum of time and hold its position accurately. Various types of targets have been used in the past. Among these are, for example, the cylindrical can which is appropriately painted as a sight. Similarly, a flat, painted target on a stake has been employed. In another case, a target is formed so that a plumb line and plumb bob can be hung therebelow, so it can be hand-held over a point. In order to eliminate this manpower requirement, wood or metal tripods or other types of stands are employed to hold the target over a point, being positioned with a plumb bob. Sometimes, a light is employed on such a stand, instead of a painted target. When the target can lie close to the ground, a painted brick or painted block of wood can be employed as a target.
These prior target sites have different disadvantages. Those which are close to the ground have poor visibility in heat conditions, because of heatwaves rising from pavement or the like. Targets or lights on metal stands often require two men to accurately set up. Furthermore, they are large, expensive, occupy a considerable space in storage and in traffic, and often pose traffic hazards by themselves.
The conventional tripod is traditionally used in sur-,
veying work, because of its stability when erected.
However, tripods are expensive devices and, when they are being set up, two men are often required to accurately make the adjustment. The plumb bob must be held in place while the tripod is adjusted. Once set up, tripods are subject to being knocked out of position or knocked over, because of the spread of the legs. When in the roadway, traffic cones are set around such a tripod so that the emplacement occupies considerable traffic space.
It is thus apparent that a need arises for an inexpensive target which can be quickly and accurately set up over a point by one man, and not be subject to others of the above-mentioned disadvantages.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In order to aid in the understanding of this invention, it can be stated in essentially summary form that it is directed to a surveyors target which is mounted upon an arm which is generally horizontally extending in use, and the arm is mounted to extend from mounting means which is mountable on a standard traffic cone.
flects under the weight of a plumb bob and, when it moves as a result of removal of the plumb bob weight, the target moves into a predictable position. It is a further object to provide a surveyors target which is mounted on an arm which is cantilevered out from mounting means which is arranged to fit upon the top of the traffic cone, so that the surveyors target is mountable on a traffic cone, but cantilevered out beyond the base thereof so that a plumb line can be dropped from the target to a point on the ground adjacent the base of the target cone.
The features of the present invention which are believed to be novel are set forth with particularity in the appended claims. The present invention, both as to its organization and manner of operation, together with further objects and advantages thereof, may be understood best by reference to the following description, taken in connection with the accompanying drawings.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is an isometric view of the surveyors'target of this invention, shown mounted upon a traffic cone, and shown as being employed with a plumb line and plumb bob.
FIG. 2 is an enlarged side elevational view thereof, with parts broken away and parts taken in section.
FIG. 3 is a section taken generally along the line 3-3 of FIG. 2.
, FIG. 4 is a front elevational view of the target itself.
FIG. 5 is a vertical section, taken on the line 55 of FIG. 4 through the target panel, with parts broken away, and showing a plumb bob reel case in association therewith.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT The surveyors target of thisinvention is generally indicated at 10 in the drawings and is shown in FIG. 1 as being mounted upon a traffic cone 12.. Traffic cone 12 is a conventional structure having a conical portion 14 mounted upon an outwardly-flanged base 16 which is substantially planar on the bottom for engagement upon the ground or street surface. The base 16 is flanged outwardly for increasing the standing stability of the cone 12 and for occasionally receiving auxiliary weights to hold down the cone during high wind conditions. The upper portion of traffic cone 12 terminates in a neck 20, see FIG. 2, which is usually cylindrical both on the inside and outside. The conventional traffic cones 12 are formed of brightly-colored molded thermoplastic synthetic polymer composition material, such as polyvinyl chloride. It usually contains enough plasticizer that it is not brittle and rigid, but is somewhat resilient and elastic. Such traffic cones are inexpensive and are widely used in road construction work and in other places where highway traffic control is required.
The surveyors target 10 of this invention is arranged to be mounted on the top of such a traffic cone. The surveyors target 10 comprises mounting means 22, support arm means 24, and the target itself on target panel 26.
In the best mode contemplated, mounting means 22 comprises plug 28 which enters down into and engages on the interior of neck 20. Protrusion 30, in the form of an escutcheon pin or an integrally molded bump, extends outward from the lower portion of plug 28 to engage under the neck 20. The size of the protrusion 30 is such that the plug 28 can be thrust down into the resilient neck 26, and the protrusion 36 engaged beneath the neck in the larger interior portion of the body of traffic cone 12. Thus, there is some restraint against pulling the mounting means 22 upward out of the neck of the traffic cone.
As a further aid for support of plug 28, it is preferably formed with a foot 3i thereon. Foot M is shaped to be able to pass into the top of cone 12 through its upper opening and engage interiorly of conical portion 14. Thus, the structure is also useful in traffic cones which do not have a cylindrical neck.
Cap 32 is supported upon the top portion of plug 28 and extends downward in resilient engagement over the outside of neck of the traffic cone. Furthermore, plug 28 has a shoulder 34 thereon which engages on the top of neck 20 when the mounting means is in position. Thus, the neck 26 is engaged both inside and out so that the mounting means is firmly, yet removably, mounted on the top of the traffic cone. There is full support for the mounting means on the top of the cone, particularly with foot 33 engaging in the cone, to provide as much rigidity as is possible with a flexible, resilient structure such as traffic cone R2. The above described plug structure is the best mode contemplated and it is clear that other mounting means, even purely external mounting means which grippingly, surroundingly, or engagingly cooperates with the cone as mounting means can effectively be employed.
Support arm means 24 comprises separate rods 36 and 38 which are secured in spaced cavities in the mounting means 22, so that the rods extend as cantilevers from the mounting means 22. While the target panel 26 is light and, from a purely structural viewpoint, one such rod would be adequate to support the target panel, two are provided in order to provide satisfactory rigidity of support for the target panel, especially in twisting. Rods 36 and 33 are metallic preferably and carry stop sleeves dill and 52 on their ends. Stop sleeves 4t) and 42 can have any kind of shoulder or abutment thereon. The outer ends of rods 36 and 38 are threaded and carry wing nuts Ml and 46, respectively.
Target panel 26 (particularly see FIG. 41) is a conventional target structure conveniently made out of thin material such as masonite, sheet metal or a polymer. it has mounting holes 48 and 50 therein for the respective receipt of rods 36 and 38. The target panel mounts against the stop sleeves Ml and 42 and is secured in place by wing nuts 44 and 46, as is shown in H0. 3. Mounting hole Alt; is arcuate around mounting hole 56 so that, under the circumstance that the ground is not substantially horizontal, the target panel can be rotated until it is substantially upright and, thereupon, clamped in place by means of the wing nuts. Final positioning of the target is by torquing the rods. The front, and optionally the back, of the target panel carries a conventional diamond target insignia 52. The target insignia can be conventionally red on a white background, or vice versa, so that it is clearly visible through a surveyors telescope. The upper corner of the diamond target insignia 52 is the sighting point for the telescope. lt easily can be sighted upon with crosshairs. String notch 56 extends downward form upper edge 54. in some constructions, the target insignia reaches the upper edge of the panel so the sighting point is at that position.
The target panel 26 is illustrated as principally extending downward from the support arms 24. This is the preferred orientation. Under a few circumstances, it is desirable that the target be higher so it can be seen from both sides, and for this reason, the diamond target insignia may intersect with the bottom edge 58, and a string notch 60 is furnished intersecting with the bottom edge 58 at the lower portion of the diamond target insignia and extending into the body of the panel. With this construction, if such an arrangement is desired, the wing nuts can be loosened and removed, the target panel turned over so it principally extends above the support arm means 24, and the wing nuts replaced and tightened so that the edge 58 becomes the top edge.
It should be noted that the support arm means 24 includes bends at 62 in each of the rods 36 and 38. The purpose of this bend arrangement is so that the target panel 26 has its upper edge 54 positioned closer to the mounting means 22 than the lower edge 58. The purpose of this support arm structure will become apparent upon a consideration of the manner in which the surveyors target is employed.
When it is desired that the surveyors target 10 be positioned over a point, such as point 64 on surface 18, the target is first mounted upon a cone 12. This is done simply by pressing firmly downward on the target 10 to thrust plug 28 into neck 20 until protrusion 30 engages under the neck 20, and shoulder 34 engages the top thereof. This plus the resilient engagement of cap 32 on the outside of neck 20, and the engagement of foot 31 within the cone, causes the mounting means 22 to be fairly rigidly mounted with respect to the body of traffic cone 112. The traffic cone 12 carrying the surveyors target lit) is moved roughly into position, with the target panel visible from the transit position. As shown in FIG. l, the line-of-sight 66 illustrates the manner in which the target would be seen from a transit. When roughly positioned, the plumb line 68 is dropped through the string notch 56, and plumb bob 70 is positioned over surface 118, not far from point 64. conventionally, the plumb line 68 is carried in a reel case 72. The reel case can be positioned behind target panel 26 and wedged to lock the line. Such a structure is shown in US. Pat. No. 3,172,205. Thus, the entire structure of plumb line, plumb bob, and reel case are supported on target panel 26. Since the target panel 26 is inclined forward, as previously described, the plumb line 68 hangs free of the surface of the target panel to prevent any mispositioning. When in such a condition, the surveyors target 10 is moved by bodily moving the entire traffic cone into such position that the plumb bob hangs directly over point 64. It now will be appreciated that one man can perform this operation readily without assistance.
It can be fully understood that the structure is not perfectly rigid, especially the traffic cone, but that the weight of the plumb bob, plumb line, and reel case on the target 26 causes downward deflection thereof by bending of the support arms and bending of the traffic cone. While the support arms may be made more rigid, the traffic cone is a standard resilient construction and thus cannot be relied upon for substantial rigidity. instead, the deflection of the usual traffic cone under such load is fairly predictable. This downward deflection of target panel 26, caused by the weight of the plumb bob and its equipment, as a result of deflection of the support arms and traffic cone, as well as the interengagement between the mounting means 22 and the traffic cone, causes the target to have a motion component which moves forward along the line-ofsight toward the viewing point. This is the rightward direction, as seen in FIG. 2. When the depth of the string notch 56 is correct and the angle of the target panel 26 is correct with respect to the vertical, the horizontal distance along the line-of-sight from the bottom of the string notch to the top of the target panel is equal to the amount of motion in that direction resulting from de-' flection caused by the weight. Thus, the weight of plumb bob 70 causes the target panel 26 to swing down, as seen in FIG. 2, and the removal of the plum bob weight permits the target panel 26 to swing upward. The horizontal component of the deflection substantially equals the sine of the angle of the target panel with respect to the vertical times the depth of the string notch 56 so that, upon removal of the weight of the plumb bob, the top of the sighting insignia and notch move a distance in the direction of the line-of-sight so that they now lie over the point 64. By this means, this error caused by the hanging of the plumb lmb on the surveyors target which is, in turn, supported by a resilient traffic cone, is minimized or eliminated.
Field tests with the surveyors target disclosed herein, under varying conditions, indicates minimized error when the effective overall angle of support arms 24 is depressed about 5 from the horizontal, panel 26 is angled about from the vertical, and slot 56 is about 9% inch long.
Furthermore, with the support arms 24 depressed below the horizontal, as described above, field tests indicate that temperature change does not substantially affect target position.
The surveyors target 10 can be readily removed from the traffic cone by firmly lifting upward on the mounting means 22 while holding the cone down. Traftic cones are conveniently available and are often carried with the surveyor, as the means for traffic guidance, as well as means for marking roadway obstructions and the like. Thus, traffic cones, such as the traffic cone 12, are widely available. Furthermore, they can be fairly roughly treated without damage and do not need interior storage when not in use. Thus, the traffic cone which serves as a base for the surveyors target 10, is an inexpensive and convenient device which does not need special care. The surveyors target itself, when removed from the traffic cone, is small and is sufficiently sturdy that a plurality of them can be thrown into a storage box without danger of damage. While the support arms 2% are long enough to permit the plumb bob 70 to extend past base 16, the surveyors target 10 is not so long that it is inconvenient to store. Thus, it is conveniently set up, easily demounted and readily stored.
While particular embodiments of the present invention have been shown and described, it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that changes and modifications may be made without departing from this invention in its broader aspects and, therefore, the aim in the appended claims is to cover all such changes and modifications as fall within the true spirit and scope of this invention.
What is claimed is:
l. A surveyors target comprising:
mounting means for mounting the surveyors target on a traffic cone having an upper exterior surface of generally circular section and having a base, said mounting means including a substantially circular ring engageable on said upper exterior surface for support of said mounting means on a traffic cone;
support arm means supported on and extending generally horizontally from said mounting means; and
a target panel mounted on said support arm means at a sufficient distance from said mounting means so that, when said mounting means is mounted on the upper exterior surface of a traffic cone, said target panel is supported laterally from said mounting means past the base of the traffic cone for disposition above a surveyors mark.
2. The surveyors target of claim 1 wherein said mounting means comprises a cap, said cap including said ring and exteriorly downwardly terminated by said ring, for extending downwardly exteriorly partially over the top of said traffic cone in resilient engagement therewith.
3. The surveyors target of claim 2 wherein said support arm means comprises first and second rods extending generally horizontally from said mounting means, and said target panel is mounted on said rods.
4. The surveyors target of claim 3 wherein a stop sleeve is positioned adjacent the outer end of each of said rods, and said target panel is positioned against and secured against said stop sleeves.
5. The surveryors target of claim 4 wherein said target panel is mounted on said rods so that in normal operative position it is tilted away from the vertical, so that the upper edge of said target panel is farther away the axis of said cone thanthe lower edge thereof.
6. The surveyors target of claim 5 wherein said target panel has a target insignia and said target insignia has a sighting point thereon, a notch extending into said target panel from its upper edge and intersecting said target insignia, said notch being for reception of a plumb line.
7. A surveyors target comprising:
mounting means for mounting the surveyors target on a traffic cone having a base, said mounting means comprising a plug for extending downwardly interiorly of the upper end of said traffic cone;
support arm means supported on and extending generally horizontally from said mounting means; and
a target panel mounted on said support arm means at a sufficient distance from said mounting means so that. when said mounting means is mounted on a traffic cone, said target panel is supported laterally from said mounting means past the base of the traftic cone for disposition above a surveyors mark.
8. The surveyors target of claim 7 wherein said mounting means has a cap for extending downwardly exteriorly partially over the top of a traffic cone in resilient engagement therewith.
9. The surveyors target of claim 8 wherein said plug has a protrusion extending outwardly thereon for engaging interiorly of a traffic cone.
10. The surveyors target of claim 7 wherein said support arm means comprises first and second rods extending generally horizontally from said mounting means, and said target panel is mounted on said rods.
11. The surveyors target of claim 10 wherein a stop sleeve is positioned adjacent the outer end of each of said rods, and said target panel is positioned against and secured against said stop sleeves.
12. The surveyors target of claim 11 wherein said target panel is mounted on said rods so that in normal operative position it is tilted away from the vertical, so that the upper edge of said target panel is farther away from the axis of said cone than the lower edge thereof.
13. The surveyors target of claim 7 wherein said target panel has a target insignia and said target insignia has a sighting point thereon, a notch extending into said target panel from its upper edge and intersecting said target insignia, said notch being for reception of a plumb line.
14. The surveyors target of claim 13 wherein said target panel is supported on said support arm means so that the upper edge of said target panel is positioned farther away from said mounting means than the bottom of said plumb line notch.
15. The surveyors target of claim 14 wherein the distance between said upper edge of said target and said bottom edge of said notch times the sine of the angle of tilt of said target with respect to the vertical is substantially equal to the horizontal component of movement of the top edge of said target caused by hanging a plumb bob on said target panel.
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