|Número de publicación||US3831860 A|
|Tipo de publicación||Concesión|
|Fecha de publicación||27 Ago 1974|
|Fecha de presentación||18 Dic 1972|
|Fecha de prioridad||18 Dic 1972|
|Número de publicación||US 3831860 A, US 3831860A, US-A-3831860, US3831860 A, US3831860A|
|Inventores||G Gullaksen, G Jatho|
|Cesionario original||Wrightway Mfg Co|
|Exportar cita||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Citas de patentes (7), Citada por (23), Clasificaciones (12), Eventos legales (2)|
|Enlaces externos: USPTO, Cesión de USPTO, Espacenet|
nited States Patent 1 Guiiaksen et a1.
LOW FLOW VOLUME SHOWER HEAD Inventors: Gilbert V. Guliaksen, Monee;
George W. Jatho, Oak Lawn, both of I11.
Dec. 18, 1972 US. C1 239/500, 239/504, 239/5533,
int. C1 B50!) l/34, B05b 1/14 Field of Search 239/396, 427, 461, 472,
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS Aug. 27, 1974 3,224,793 12/1965 Benjamin 239/427 X 3,232,541 2/1966 Aghnides 239/427 3,322,352 5/1967 Alcantara 239/461 X Primary Examiner-Robert S. Ward, Jr. Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Hibben, Noyes 8: Bicknell 1 ABSHRACT A low flow volume shower head wherein a disk having a flow restricting orifice extends across the water flow passage of the head so as to restrict the flow of water discharged from the head. The flow restricting disk is positioned upstream from a perforated, jet-forming disk that also extends across the flow passage. The area of the orifice in the flow restricting disk is less than the total area of the apertures in the perforated disk by a predetermined amount; the orifice in the flow restricting disk is spaced upstream from the jetforming disk by a predetermined distance; and the space between the jet-forming disk and a portion of the flow restricting disk having the: orifice therein is of a predetermined volume.
10 Claims, 6 Drawing Figures LOW FLOW VOLUME SHOWER HEAD This invention relates to shower heads, and more particularly relates to a shower head having a restricted flow capacity for water conservation purposes.
The current concern with matters affecting the ecology and natural resources has resulted in the creation of many new, and the redesign of many existing, devices in order to give effect to these considerations. Fresh water is one of the natural resources that is presently the subject of extensive conservation efforts, some of which are now being directed to devices which curtail or restrict excessive domestic use of fresh water. In this regard, physicians and sanitation workers have heretofore advocated the use of showers, instead of tub bathing, as a preferred form of personal cleanliness. However, even though showers are usually less wasteful of water than tub bathing, large quantities of water can be used during showering, particularly in areas where high pressures are maintained in the water mains. Consequently, there has been and there is now a progressively growing need for a shower producing device for domestic, institutional and industrial use, which will limit the volume of water delivered and thereby assist in the conservation of this resource.
Accordingly, it is a general object of the present invention to provide a novel shower head construction having a restricted flow capacity which prevents the use of excessive amounts of water.
Another object is to provide a novel shower head of the foregoing character, wherein the normal shower producing characteristics thereof are unchanged.
A further object is to provide a novel shower head of the character described, which is simple in construction, reliable in operation and economical to manufacture.
Other objects and advantages will become apparent from the following detailed description and accompanying drawing, in which:
FIG. 1 is a side elevational view of the outlet end of a shower pipe having a control valve assembly connected thereto and a swivel shower head embodying the features of the present invention connected to the control valve assembly;
FIG. 2 is a somewhat enlarged, fragmentary, longitudinal sectional view taken along the line 22 of FIG.
FIGS. 3 and 4 are fragmentary, transverse, sectional views taken substantially along the lines 3-3 and 4-4, respectively, of FIG. 2; and
FIGS. 5 and 6 are perspective views of the water conserving and spray generating parts of the shower head illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2.
In FIG. 1, a low flow volume shower head embodying the features of the present invention is illustrated and indicated generally at 10. The shower head 10, in the present instance, is shown connected to the socket portion 11 of a swivel assembly 12. The connecting portion, indicated at 13, of the swivel assembly 12 may, for example, be connected to the lower end of a flow control valve assembly 14 having a plunger 16 that is laterally shiftably mounted therein. Movement of the plunger 16 in opposite directions serves to progressively open or close a flow passage (not shown) in the valve. Consequently, the amount of water flowing through the shower head can be regulated, depending upon the position of the plunger. The upper end of the control valve 14 is shown threaded onto the lower or discharge end of a shower pipe 17.
Referring now to FIG. 2, it will be seen that the shower head 10 comprises an elongated tubular body or casing 21 having a central, axially extending bore 22 therethrough comprising passage means through the body. The upper end of the bore 22 is counterbored as at 23 to define a shoulder 24, and the upper portion of the counterbore 23 is threaded as at 26 to receive the externally threaded lower tubular portion 27 of the swivel assembly socket portion 11, or the threaded terminal end of a water supply conduit, such as the shower pipe 17. The lower end of the bore 22 may be counterbored or undercut, as at 28, to soften the stream discharging from the shower head 10, as will be described more fully hereinafter.
In order to convert the flow of water from the conduit 17 into a plurality of discrete jets, jet-forming means is provided in the body 21. Such jet-forming means, in the present instance, comprises a plate member or disk 40 having at least one and preferably a plurality of apertures 42 therethrough. The diameter of the disk 40 is greater than the diameter of the bore 22 and somewhat less than that of the counterbore 23 so that the disk 40 is marginally retained on the shoulder 24 when the disk is mounted in the body.
As best seen in FIGS. 4 and 6, twelve apertures 42 are provided in the disk 40, the apertures being arranged in a ring in equidistant, circumferentially spaced relation with the center of the ring concentric with that of the disk 40. According to the illustrated specific embodiment of the invention, the diameter of each aperture is about 0.046 inches so that the total area of the apertures is about 0.0199 square inches. The distance between the centers of each diametrically oppositely arranged pair of apertures is about 0.405 inches.
With the foregoing construction, it will be apparent that water entering the upper endl of the body 21 will be converted into a plurality of discrete jets upon passing through the ring of apertures 42 in the disk 40, the jets issuing from the lower end of the body 21 in a conical pattern. The angle of divergence of the jets is such that when the shower head 10 is positioned about 7 feet above the floor, a circular pattern having a diameter of approximately 18 inches will be formed on the floor. The counterbore or undercut 28 provides an annular space or void surrounding the jets of water issuing from the apertures 42, which serves to soften the stream by causing a partial aeration thereof.
According to the present invention, the shower head 10 includes orifice means for restricting the flow of water through the head so that, for a given line 'pressure, a substantial reduction in the volume of the water discharged from the head is achieved. Such orifice means, in the present instance, comprises another plate-like member or disk 50 of substantially the same diameter as the disk 40 and having a central opening 52 therethrough of smaller cross sectional area than the total cross sectional area of the apertures 42. Thus, assuming that the total cross sectional area of-the ring of apertures 42 in the disk 40 is about 0.0199 square inches, the area of the opening 52 in the disk 50 is preferably about 0.0143 square inches, which is about 28 percent less than the cross sectional area of the apertures 42. However, the aforementioned percentage difference between the cross sectional areas of the apertures 42 and opening 52 could vary plus or minus 10 percent.
Since the distance between the centers of each diametrically oppositely arranged pair of the apertures 42 is about 0.405 inches, as previously described, and, since the center of the ring of apertures 42 is concentric with that of the opening 52 and the latter is preferably circular in form and has an area of about 0.0143 square inches, the apertures 42 are spaced radially outwardly of the opening 52. This relationship is best seen in FIG. 4.
In addition to the foregoing relationship, the opening 52 is spaced upstream from the upper surface of the disk 40 on which the disk 50 rests by about 0.063 inches plus or minus about 10 percent or between about 0.069 inches and 0.057 inches. To This end, at least a portion of the disk 50, in this instance the central portion 53 thereof, is displaced or bulged in an upstream direction from the margin, indicated at 54, of the disk to provide the aforementioned desired spacing between the opening 52 and disk 40. In the present instance, the central portion 53 comprises a portion of a hollow sphere having an inside radius of curvature of about 0.665 inches. When the margin 54 of the disk is resting on the upper surface of the disk 40, the volume of .the space, indicated at 55, between the central portion 53 of the disk 50 and the upper surface of the disk 40 is about 0.00803 cubic inches plus about percent or minus about 2 percent. In other words, the volume of the space 55 may be within the range of about 0.00843 to about 0.00787 cubic inches.
It will be understood that the aforementioned upstream spacing of the opening 52 from the upper surface of the disk 40 and the volume of the space 55 could be provided by forming the central portion 53 of the disk 50 to some shape other than that shown in FIG. 2, or could be formed without any displacement of the central portion 53 relative to the peripheral portion 57. For example, the central portion 53 could be made cylindrical, instead of a segment of a sphere, or could be flat with an appropriately sized washer interposed between the margins of the disks.
In FIG. 2, the disks 40 and 50 are shown held on the shoulder 24 in the body 21 by the lower end 27 of the swivel assembly socket portion ll 1 and by the lower end of a cylindrical gasket 56 in the socket portion. A sealing washer 57 may be provided between the upper surface of the margin 54 of the disk 50 and the engaging structure of the socket portion lll.
Since the area of the opening 52 in the flow restricting disk 50 is about 28 percent less than the total area of the apertures 42 in the disk 40, plus or minus about percent, a significant restricting or choking action of the flow through the shower head 10 is obtained. Tests have shown that when the flow restricting disk 50 is present in the shower head 10 and the line pressure of water at the head is about 10 pounds per square inch, the volume of water discharged by the shower head is about percent less than the amount that would be discharged if the disk 50 were not present. Moreover, if the flow restricting disk 50 is present and the shower head 10 is operating at a line pressure of about 100 pounds per square inch, the volume of water discharged is about 33- /a percent less than the amount that would be discharged if the disk 50 were omitted.
While only one embodiment of the invention has been herein illustrated and described in detail, it will be understood that modifications and variations thereof may be effected without departing from the scope of the invention as set forth in the appended claims.
1. A low flow volume shower head comprising, a tubular shower head body having an inlet end adapted to be connected to a source ofliquid under pressure, a liquid outlet end spaced from said inlet end, and a bore therethrough extending between said ends, said bore defining passage means extending between said inlet and outlet ends of said body, jet-forming means disposed in said passage means between said ends for converting liquid entering said inlet end into a plurality of discrete jets, and orifice means disposed in said passage means upstream from said jet-forming means for re stricting the volume of liquid flowing through said passage means and out of said outlet end, the cross sectional area of said orifice means being less than the total cross sectional area of said jet-forming means, and the portion of said passage means downstream from said jet forming means coacting with said jets to control the angle of dispersion of the flow discharging from the outlet end of said body, whereby the volume of liquid flowing through said shower head is restricted at all times by said orifice means and the stream of liquid discharging from the outlet end of said body is in a predetermined pattern.
2. The shower head of claim 1, further characterized in that said jet-forming means comprises a plate member extending across said passage means and having a plurality of apertures therein, and said orifice means comprises another plate member extending across said passage means and having a central opening therein, the apertures in said first mentioned plate member being spaced radially outwardly of the opening in said other plate member.
3. The shower head of claim 2, further characterized in that said apertures in said first mentioned plate member are arranged in a ring, said opening in said other plate member is concentric withv the center of said ring of apertures, and the diameter of said portion of said passage means downstream from said first mentioned plate member is greater than the diameter of said ring of apertures.
4. The shower head of claim 2, further characterized in that the cross sectional area of said opening is about 28 percent less than the total cross sectional area of said apertures plus or minus about l0 percent.
5. The shower head of claim 4, further characterized in that cross sectional area of said opening is about 0.0143 square inches, and the total cross sectional area of said apertures is about 0.0199 square inches.
6. The shower head of claim 2, further characterized in that opening in said other plate-like member is spaced upstream from said first-mentioned plate member by about 0.063 inches plus or minus about 10 percent.
7. The shower head of claim 6, further characterized in that at least the portion of said other plate-like member having said opening therein is spaced in an upstream direction from said first-mentioned plate-like member to provide a space therebetween, and the volume of said space is about 0.00803 cubic inches plus about 5 percent or minus about 2 percent.
said other plate-like member comprises a portion of a spherical surface.
10. The shower head of claim 1, further characterized in that the end of said bore adjacent to the outlet end of said body is counterbored, and said counterbore coacts with said jets to effect partial aeration of the liquid stream discharging from the outlet end of said body.
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|Clasificación de EE.UU.||239/500, 239/553.3, 239/590.3, 239/504|
|Clasificación internacional||E03C1/08, B05B1/30|
|Clasificación cooperativa||E03C2001/026, E03C2001/082, E03C1/08, B05B1/30|
|Clasificación europea||B05B1/30, E03C1/08|
|18 May 1987||AS02||Assignment of assignor's interest|
Owner name: BEATRICE COMPANIES, INC., A DE. CORP.
Owner name: TWENTIETH CENTURY COMPANIES, INC., A DE. CORP.
Effective date: 19870501
|18 May 1987||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: TWENTIETH CENTURY COMPANIES, INC., A DE. CORP.
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:BEATRICE COMPANIES, INC., A DE. CORP.;REEL/FRAME:004713/0819
Effective date: 19870501