Búsqueda Imágenes Maps Play YouTube Noticias Gmail Drive Más »
Iniciar sesión
Usuarios de lectores de pantalla: deben hacer clic en este enlace para utilizar el modo de accesibilidad. Este modo tiene las mismas funciones esenciales pero funciona mejor con el lector.

Patentes

  1. Búsqueda avanzada de patentes
Número de publicaciónUS3837339 A
Tipo de publicaciónConcesión
Fecha de publicación24 Sep 1974
Fecha de presentación3 Feb 1972
Fecha de prioridad3 Feb 1972
También publicado comoDE2326265A1
Número de publicaciónUS 3837339 A, US 3837339A, US-A-3837339, US3837339 A, US3837339A
InventoresS Aisenberg, K Chang
Cesionario originalWhittaker Corp
Exportar citaBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
Enlaces externos: USPTO, Cesión de USPTO, Espacenet
Blood glucose level monitoring-alarm system and method therefor
US 3837339 A
Resumen
A method and apparatus for monitoring blood glucose levels. In the preferred embodiment a glucose diffusion-limited fuel cell is implanted in a living body. The output current of the fuel cell is proportional to the glucose concentration of the body fluid electrolyte and is therefore directly indicative of the blood glucose level. This information is telemetered to an external receiver which generates an alarm signal whenever the fuel cell output current exceeds or falls below a predetermined current magnitude which represents a normal blood glucose level. Valve means are actuated in response to the telemetered information to supply glucose or insulin to the monitored living body.
Imágenes(2)
Previous page
Next page
Reclamaciones  disponible en
Descripción  (El texto procesado por OCR puede contener errores)

ilite tates atent 1191 Aisenberg et al.

[ Sept. 24, 1974 OTHER PUBLICATIONS Updike et al., Nature, Vol. 214, June 3, 1967, pp. 986988.

[75] Inventors: Sol Aisenberg, Natick; Kuo Wei Chang, Lexington, both of Mass. gf f l l t w i g i g vfi f973 1 mm 11 erna r ans, 0 [73] Assignee: Whittaker Corporation, Los g pp Angeles, Calif.

[ Filedi 1972 Primary Exa minerWilliam E. Kamm [2]] Appl No: 223,077 Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Richard J. Birch 52 user .7 128/213, 128/2 P [5 ABSTRACT if 3 A method and apparatus for monitoring blood glucose 8 128/2 05 2 ()5 i 2 i A i 1 levels. In the preferred embodiment a glucose diffu- 2 1 R 2'13 3678 6 sion-limited fuel cell is implanted in a living body. The A 2 6 E 2 6 264/195 B. 237258 output current of the fuel cell is proportional to the glucose concentration of the body fluid electrolyte [56] R f n Ct d and is therefore directly indicative of the blood glue ere ces l e cose level. This information is telemetered to an exter- UNITED STATES PATENTS nal receiver which generates an alarm signal whenever 3,143,111 8/1964 Green 128/213 the fuel cell output current exceeds or falls below a 3,l44,0l9 8/l964 Haberw l28/2.06 A predetermined current magnitude which representsa Ivatanukl et a. normal blood glucose level. Valve means are actuated in response to the telemetered information to supply Murata P glucose or insulin to the monitored FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 1,444,363 5/1966 France 128/419 P 11 4 D'awmg F'gures GLUCOSE V GLUCOSE RESERVOIR 36 7s l 2 f & 26 32 /Uy 1 9o MOD. FREQUENCY GLUCOSE v T GE 7 FREQ. --TO VOLTAGE M A Q27 MON'TORED 1 EXTRACTOR CONVERTER COMPARATOR NSUUN z I L86 V I BODY I 80 RECEIVER V 96 [T INSULIN I INSULIN RESERVOIR ALARM MEANS BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL MONITORING-ALARM SYSTEM AND METHOD THEREFOR BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to glucose monitoring systems in general, and more particularly to an implantable glucose monitor and alarm system for use in the measurement and control of blood glucose levels in diabetics.

It is important for the diabetic patient to maintain normal or near normal blood glucose levels throughout the day. These levels can be obtained through appropriate diets, insulin injections and exercise patterns. However, in order to avoid over or under compensation, it is desirable for the diabetic patient to know his blood glucose level in order to take appropriate compensatory action.

Unfortunately, at the present time, continuous blood glucose measurements can only be performed outside the body. Basically, such measurements involve the following operations: using a double lumen cannula, blood is continuously drainedfrom a vein, mixed with heparin solution and then sent to a dialyasis cell. The glucose which has been dialy zed out is allowed to react with the appropriate amount of reagent such as glucose oxidase, glucose oxidase-HVA-peroxidase mixture, or potassium ferricyanide. The glucose concentration is then obtained by either spectropolarimetry, fluoresence or colorimetry depending upon the reagent used. Blood glucose measurements using this system are obviously time consuming and inconvenient with respect to an ambulatory diabetic patient.

It is accordingly, a general object of the present invention to provide a glucose monitor and alarm system for the measurement and control of blood glucose levels of diabetics.

It is a specific object of the present invention to provide a compact, implantable, self-sustained sensortelemetering system which is capable of providing measurement of blood glucose concentrations.

It is another specific object of the invention to provide a system which releases no harmful materials and which utilizes no toxic chemical to interact with the blood glucose.

It is a feature of the invention that the implantable monitoring device requires only minimal electric power.

It is still another feature of the invention that the implantable device generates only small amounts of heat and consumes very little glucose and oxygen.

It is still another feature of the invention that the implantable device can be conveniently calibrated and recalibrated externally to guard against drift and aging.

It is still another feature of the invention that the implantable device is insensitive to fluctuations of body oxygen tension and pH values.

In the accomplishment of these objects the glucose monitor and alarm system of the present invention utilizes a sensor and telemetering system which is contained within a small chamber covered by a membrane into which body water and oxygen and glucose can freely diffuse. The body fluid within the chamber is in equilibration with the extra-cellular-extravascular' fluid which, is in turn, in nearly constant equilibration with blood in so far as glucose level is concerned. Inside the chamber is a fuel cell comprising two platinum black electrodes (or other catalyst-coated electrodes) using glucose as a fuel and dissolved oxygen as the oxidizer. The fuel cell is operated in an essentially glucose diffusion-limited mode so that the output current of the fuel cell is proportional to the glucose concentration of the body fluid and is, therefore, directly indicative of the blood glucose level. This information is then telemetered to a compact receiver located externally to the body.

The glucose monitor can be implanted directly in the living body to be monitored by the system or, alternatively, can be subcutaneously positioned in the body by means of a hypodermic needle. The system can also be employed as an external monitoring and alarm system.

These objects and features and other objects and features of the present invention will best be understood from a detailed description of a preferred embodiment thereof, selected for purposes of illustration, and shown in the accompanying drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is a diagrammatic view in partial block form showing the glucose diffusion-limited fuel cell and telemetering circuitry;

FIG. 2 is a polarization curve for a typical fuel cell;

FIG. 3 is a block diagram of the electrical circuitry of the blood glucose monitoring system; and,

FIG. 4 is a diagrammatic view in partial block form showing the alarm and control circuitry and the equipment for maintaining a predetermined blood glucose level in a living body.

The present invention utilizes an implantable fuel cell, indicated generally by the reference numeral 10 in FIG. 1 to obtain an electrical indication of the blood glucose level in a living body. Before discussing the fuel cell 10 in detail, it will be helpful to briefly review the characteristics of a fuel cell with special emphasis on the requirements for an in vivo fuel cell.

A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device composed of a nonconsumable anode and cathode, an electrolyte, and suitable arrangements and controls for maintaining selective environments for a fuel anode and an oxidant cathode. Fundamentally, any oxidation-reduction reaction is a fuel cell candidate; the practicality, however, depends primarily on the reaction rate. The most efficient and highly refined fuel cell system known to date is the human body which uses enzymes to catalyze the oxidation of food (fuel) in an electrolyte (body or cell fluid), producing energy-some of which is electrical. By providing different kinds of active catalysts such as platinum, palladium and nickel, certain carbohydrates (glucose, for instance), plentiful in the human body, which contain aldehyde (or similar groups) can be activated at low temperatures in a fuel cell to generate electricity. A metallic catalyst impregnated on the electrode surface will promote the reaction of glucose with water, absorbing electrons and releasing hydrogen ions. This fuel rich electrode constitutes, therefore, the anode of the fuel cell. If, in addition, an identical catalyst-coated electrode supplied with oxygen is introduced into the same electrolyte solution, OH ions will be released and a potential difference can be detected across these electrodes. The latter oxygen rich electrode is naturally the cathode of the fuel cell, and the generated voltage is essentially a constant, characteristic of the fuel used, while the current flowing in leads connecting the electrodes is closely related to the fuel concentration near the anode. Based on this principle, an implanted fuel cell can be considered for the measurement of glucose level of body fluid or blood.

However, simply implanting two catalyst-coated electrodes into the body will not yield any electrical output due to the lack of asymmetry. Provision must be made for alteration of conditions near the electrodes and this can be accomplished by placing the electrodes at different locations within the body to achieve a selective electrode environment. Although electrical energy can thus be obtained, such a system cannot be used to measure glucose concentration. The transport of ions within the porous electrode and electrolyte, will be rate limiting, and the internal cell resistance will be high. The present invention eliminates this problem by utilizing a fuel cell in which the electrical output of the fuel cell is glucose diffusion-limited.

The basic construction of the glucose fuel cell sensor and its associated circuitry are shown in FIG. 1. The fuel cell 10 is principally a controlled-diffusion device which employs artificial membranes and coating materials of varying thickness and characteristics to vary the diffusion rate of glucose relative to that of oxygen on the basis of molecular size, mobility, or solubility in the membrane and coating materials.

The fuel cell 10 and its associated microcircuitry 12 are encased in an external membrane 14 constructed of newly-developed inert high dialysis rate membrane ma terials (such as those developed by Union Carbide, GE, and DuPont) which permit free transmission of oxygen, glucose and similar size compounds but impede the diffusion of large, more complex macromolecules, such as proteins, polysaccharides, cholesterols, etc. The membrane 14 defines a chamber 16 within which are positioned two spaced transition metal catalyst coated electrodes 18 and 20 that comprise an anode electrode and a cathode electrode, respectively. The anodic and cathodic reactions are:

C H O (Glucose)+H O L, C H, O (Gluconic acid )+2H +2e (Anodic) (l) and /2 O2+H2O+2 vZOH (Cathodic) (2) and the overall reaction is /2 Oz +C6H|2O6 C6H|207 (Overall) (3) The cathode which has a larger surface area is covered with a thin layer of an artificial membrane 22 which allows free passage of water, oxygen, etc., but strongly resists the diffusion of glucose so that it serves as an oxygen electrode. The smaller anode 18 is covered with a relatively thick layer of porous plastic material 24 which impedes the diffusion ofglucose and protects the catalyst(platinum) from poisoning and from the physical, chemical, and biological harassment of the body. The body fluid within the membrane encased chamber 16 constitutes an electrolyte 26 for the fuel cell. Alternatively, an anion, a cation exchange membrane, or a combination of the two ion exchange membranes can be interposed directly between the fuel and the oxygen electrodes to serve as a solid electrolyte as well as a partition for the fuel and the oxygen half cells. When both ion exchange membranes are simultaneously displayed in parallel, cell performance is generally improved, noise and signal drift reduced, and problems associated with water accumulation or starvation in the oxygen half cell can be avoided.

Preferably, a platinized anode is used which catalyzes the dehydrogenation of the aldehyde group of the glucose molecules that have diffused through the anode coating 24 and impinged upon the platinum surface. This electrode is therefore the glucose or the fuel electrode. Because the cathode or oxygen electrode 20 is larger, and because oxygen is lighter and smaller and therefore has a larger diffusion coefficient, and further because the diffusion of glucose to the anode is impeded, the rate of oxygen molecules arriving at the cathode can be arranged in such a way that it is always larger than the rate of glucose impingement on the anode surface. As a result, the current that can be drawn from the fuel cell 10 is proportional to the diffusion or arrival rate of glucose molecules and hence to the concentration of glucose in the body fluid, and, in turn, to the concentration of glucose in blood.

To ensure a glucose diffusion-limited fuel cell, an

ample supply of oxygen must be maintained and the following condition must be satisfied at all times and at all possible glucose levels: (D N A /S (2/2 (D N A /ti 4 where Q is the effective steric factor of the anodic reaction, A01 is the area of electrode a N the number density of species B in the body fluid, D the diffusion coefficient for transport of species 8 through the surface layer of electrode a and 8a, the thickness of surface layer of electrode a. Subscripts a, c, g, and 0 pertain to the anode 18, the cathode 20 and the glucose and oxygen, respectively.

The standard open circuit voltage of the glucose fuel cell is approximately 0.85 volt and it is a constant, essentially characteristic of the overall reaction expressed by Eq. (3). This voltage can be evaluated based on known electrochemical constants and is approximately equal to the sum of the theoretical E.M.F. of the participating anodic and cathodic reactions. The electrodes must be arranged in close proximity to one another so that the diffusion of electrode ionic products H+ and OH is not the rate limiting process in the generation of electrical power.

The terminal voltage of a fuel cell depends on its current, and a typical voltage versus current commonly referred to as the polarization curve is given in FIG. 2. Since the glucose concentration is only proportional to the output current that can be sustained by the fuel cell, load resistance 28 must be very small so that the current will correspond to the value at the tail of the polarization curve (i.e., in the concentration polarization regime). Typically the resistance of load resistor 28 is in the range ofO to 10 ohms.

Although a platinum black anode is preferred for use in the glucose fuel cell 10, other Group VIII transition metals can also function satisfactorily as fuel (glucose) electrode catalysts. These metals (palladium, nickel, platinum) are active catalysts for heterogeneous hydrogenation-dehydrogenation reactions. Their catalytic properties can be explained by their electron receiving capacity and by the fact that they are capable of forming covalent bonds with fuels through the metal d-band during the electrode reaction. This also explains why nontransition group metals, whose d-orbitals are completely filled, are not catalytic. The limited catalytic activity of the metals other than Group Vll, notably the Group I metals (gold, silver, copper, etc.) is attributed to a d-s promotion that gives then d-orbital vacancies.

While the selection of (anodic) fuel electrode catalysts is relatively limited, the choice for (cathodic) oxygen electrode catalysts is considerably broader. In contrast to their performance as fuel catalysts, the Group I metals to their oxides are at least as active oxygen catalysts as the Group VIII metals, except perhaps that the path of oxygen reduction is different. The reduction has been postulated as yielding (I) hydroxyl ions (Eq. 2) or (2) perhydroxyl ion and a hydroxyl ion, O2+H20+2e O2H l'OH (5) It has been established through chronopotentiometric studies that the reduction on platinum proceeds according to Eq. (2) in both acid and alkaline electrolytes. For this reason, the use of platinum as oxygen electrode catalysts is favored for more efficient utilization of oxygen.

Finally, it is important to note that it may be more advantageous to employ metals (or metal oxides) such as gold, silver, etc. as the cathode (oxygen electrode) catlayst to achieve asymmetry which is indispensible for generation of electric output. These materials are good oxygen electrode catalysts but poor glucose catalysts (relative to platinum, palladium and nickel). The necessary asymmetry or electrode selectivity can be I achieved through one or all of the following schemes:

(1) differential electrode area; (2) control of diffusion rates by different surface coatings; (3) dissimilar electrode materials.

Although the open circuit equilibrium cell potential is insensitive to the glucose concentration, the rate of charging generally varies with the glucose level. Hence, by periodically discharging the cell. the glucose concentration, can alternavitely be determined by measur ing the rate of potential rise. Other modes of operation ofthe fuel cell sensor include measurements of temperature rise due to glucose oxidation, the change in pH value as a result of the formation of gluconic acid, and the reduction of oxygen tension as a result of 0 consumption, which may be caused by catalytic action of electrodes.

The implantable glucose monitor requires nonautogenous materials for long-time subdermal contact with the human body. These materials must, therefore, be non-antagonistic to the environment into which they are placed. Recent advances in biomaterials research, motivated by the development of artificial kidney, lung, heart and other organs, have resulted in a number of new materials whose biological compatibility has clearly been demonstrated. These include Silastic", silicone rubbers, Teflon, polyethylene, cellulose, semipermeable hollow fibers, collagcns and etc. Since these materials can generally be synthesized into different forms with different porosity and selectivity, they are ideally suited for the present invention.

The output current from the fuel cell is amplified by a current amplifier 30 which has a low input impedance and therefore measures the short circuit current which is proportional to the glucose diffusion rate, which is in turn, proportional to the blood glucose concentration. The amplified output current is converted to a frequency by a current-to-frequency converter 32. The blood glucose level information now in frequency form, is transmitted by transmitter 34 to an external receiver 36.

The detailed circuitry employed in the implantable glucose sensor-monitor alarm system is shown in FIG. 3. Looking at FIG. 3, the output current from fuel cell glucose detector 10 is applied to the current amplifier 30. The amplified current output from amplifier 30 is used to charge a small integrating capacitor 38 to much higher voltages than normally are obtainable from the glucose cell sensor 10. The integrating capacitor 38 together with a low-power electronic device, such as a unijunction transistor 40 is used to provide short pulses in the range of l kilohertz. Since the unijunction transistor draws power only when it is switching, the power requirements for this circuit are quite low.

The frequency of oscillation of the UJT is directly proportional to the current from the glucose fuel cell sensor 10. By the use of a current-to-frequency converter technique, the blood glucose level information can be processed to a form which is much more readily transmitted to the external receiver 36. The output pulses of the UJT oscillator 40 are used to trigger a silicon control rectifier switch 42 to drive a resonant LC network 44 which is tuned to about 1 megahertz. The shock excited resonant circuit 44 generates bursts of l megahertz rf energy at a repetition rate of about 1 kilohertz. The output from the shock excited circuit 44 is directly coupled to an rf radiating plate 46.

The use of the I megahertz carrier extends the transmitting range outside of the body and it also simplifies the receiver tuning to reduce spurious signals. The repetition rate of the rf carrier contains the information with respect to the glucose concentration. The use of brief bursts of rf energy with a low duty cycle of about 10 percent or less reduces the average power requirements of the rf transmitter with a concommitant reduction in the required battery size or an extension of the battery life.

In its preferred form, the telemetering system of the present invention utilizes pulse-code modulation. However, it should be understood that the PCM mode is merely illustrative and that the other modulation modes can be employed to telemeter the blood glucose level information to an external receiver.

The repetition rate at normal glucose levels is chosen to be approximately I kilohertz with provision for a dynamic operating range of a factor :10. In this way, the UJT oscillator 40 is able to operate from hertz up to 10 kilohertz with a nominal value of I kilohertz. These parameters permit telemetering of information about the glucose condition from a value of 1/10 the normal to 10 times the normal level.

The telemetering accuracy of this system is quite high. Under a worst case situation corresponding to 100 hertz, the reception of the signal for I second will be sufficient to give a reading with an accuracy of i1 count corresponding to an accuracy of il%. The accuracy of the system at higher repetition rates is obviously much greater and is far greater than one really needs for the overall system. This provides a satisfactory margin of reserve while at the same time keeping the electronic system reliable and compact.

Since the glucose fuel cell 10 and associated telemetering components shown in FIG. 3 are implanted in the body, it is desirable to provide external adjustment of the electronics within the telemetering system without requiring surgical techniques. This can be accomplished by the inclusion of a tiny adjustable potentiometer 48 to which is attached a small magnetic bar 50 which can be readily rotated by means of a permanent magnet (not shown) located outside of the body. By properly positioning the external permanent magnet and rotating it the required number of turns, it will be possible to adjust the multi-turn potentiometer 48 to change the calibration set points of the telemetering system. This can be done most conveniently in the gaincontrol portion of the current amplifier 30 as shown in FIG. 3.

A variety of options are available with respect to supplying power to the electronic portion of the glucose monitoring system. Referring to FIG. 3, power can be obtained from an internal battery 52. If desired, provision can be made for external recharging of the implanted battery by means of magnetic coupling through the skin. If this mode of operation is employed, a magnetically powered battery recharger, indicated generally by the reference numeral 54, is included within the implanted glucose monitor. Power for the battery recharger 54 is provided by magnetic coupling from an external electromagnet 56.

In the basic mode of operation where the current from the fuel cell sensor 10 is amplified by current amplifier 30, converted to a frequency by a UJT oscillator 40 and used to shock-excite a resonant LC circuit 44, the average power of the electronics is quite low in comparison to the peak rf power transmitted by the internal shock-excited oscillator. This is because the energy stored within a capacitor is periodically dumped into the shock-excited LC circuit 44 and flows for only a short time (on the order of 10 or 20 microseconds). The duty cycle of this oscillator is low so that the average power is quite small compared to the peak power transmitted.

Assuming that the rf radiating plate 46 and the receiver 36 (FIG. 4) normally will be separated by approximately lO feet and that the normal range of a transmitter at milliwatt power levels is approximately l feet, it can be seen that the shock-excited oscillator 44 will have the desired 10 foot radiation range while requiring peak powers on the order of 10 milliwatts or average powers on the order of 1 milliwatt-even allowing for relatively low efficiency in a shock-excited oscillator. Since the power requirements of a unijunction oscillator are negligble except during short periods of time when it acts as a current switch transferring the charge in the capacitor to the resonant LC network, the main power requirement for the system will be from the current amplifier 30. Using off-the-shelf integrated circuits, the current amplifier can be designed to have an average power requirement of about 5 milliwatts. It will, therefore, be appreciated that the information gathering, processing and transmitting electronics of the glucose monitoring system will require an average power of about milliwatts, taking into account the appropriate duty cycles and a continuous transmission of the one kilohertz modulated carrier wave.

Further reduction in the average power requirements can be obtained by providing intermittent telemetering of the glucose level information. This is accomplished by including a relatively simple uni-junction, lowpowered clock oscillator, indicated generally by the reference numeral 58. The clock oscillator circuit comprises a minute UJT clock 60, a 5 second clock 62, a normally OFF flip-flop 64 and a FET switch 66. The clock oscillator turns on the measuring, amplifying and telemetering circuits once every 15 minutes. lfthe telemetering system is turned on for a period of approximately 5 seconds during each 15 minute interval, this corresponds to a duty cycle of one part in 180 and the average power requirement is reduced by a factor 180. Although there will be some minor increases in the power requirements due to the additional electronics, even if this doubled the average power requirements for the electronics, the overall savings will be at least a factor of 90, which is almost IOO-fold reduction of power requirements or a IOO-fold extension of the life of the battery 52, assuming that the shelf life of the battery is not the basic constraint.

Under certain circumstances, it may be desirable to provide a manual override control for the clock oscillator 58. This can be accomplished by providing a mag netically actuated reed relay 68 which bypasses the 15 minute UJT clock 60 and actuates the normally OFF control flip-flop. When FF 64 is in the ON condition, the output thereof biases FET switch 66 into conduction thereby applying power from battery 52 to the power bus 70.

Looking now at FIG. 4, there is shown in diagrammatic and partial block form the external portion of the glucose monitoring-alarm system of the present invention. The radio frequency energy radiated by the implanted radiation plate 46 (FIG. 3) is received by the external receiver 36. The modulation frequency is extracted from modulated rf carrier by extractor 72 and converted to a voltage by converter 74. The output voltage from converter 74 represents the blood glucose level in the monitored living body. This voltage is then inputted to a voltage comparator 76 which compares the blood glucose level input voltage with a voltage or a range of voltages which represent a normal or desired blood glucose concentration.

In the preferred embodiment, two adjustable voltage reference levels 78 and 80 also are inputted to the voltage comparator. These two reference voltages define the acceptable range for the voltage output from the comparator 76. If the output voltage from the frequency-to-voltage converter (which represents the blood glucose concentration in the monitored living body) falls within the range of voltages defined by the two reference levels, no output is generated by the voltage comparator. Normally, the two voltage reference levels .are selected to correspond to the points at which glucose or insulin must be supplied to the monitored living body in order to maintain a normal blood glucose level. For purposes of illustration, the relative voltage levels can be considered only in terms of positive voltages with the glucose voltage level being the most positive. Therefore, it can be seen that if the output voltage from the frequency-to-voltage converter 74 exceeds the glucose voltage reference level, the voltage comparator will produce a glucose output signal on lead 82. Conversely, if the voltage output from the converter falls below the insulin voltage reference level, the voltage comparator will produce an insulin output signal on lead 84. The output leads from voltage comparator are inputted to an OR circuit 86 which in turn is connected to a suitable alarm means 88. Various types of alarm means can be employed including visual, audible, and- /or a physical stimulus to the monitored living body. The alarm means will actuate whenever the output voltage from the frequency to-voltage converter falls outside of the normal range of voltages established by the glucose and insulin reference input voltages.

The glucose and insulin output signals from the voltage comparitor can be used to actuate corresponding electrically actuated fluid valves 90 and 92, respectively. These valves control, respectively, the flow of glucose and insulin from corresponding reservoirs 94 and 96 to the monitored living body, thus providing a fully closed loop system. Obviously, the insulin and the glucose reservoir and dispensing system can also be placed inside the living body with the amplified signal of the fuel cell glucose sensor feeding directly to the voltage comparator to actuate the appropriate fluid valves.

It is well known that in an electrochemical sensing device, the activity of the platinized surface will de grade in time, resulting in a decrease in sensitivity and reproducibility of the signal output. The electrode catalyst of the present glucose sensor can be rejuvenated to maintain its activity so as to eliminate or to reduce the frequency of recalibration after implanation. The rejuvenation is achieved by the use of a short duration cycle of negative and positive potential pulses to maintain a highly active, oxide-free fuel anode.

In the operation of the fuel cell glucose sensor, the platinum surface of the anode may slowly degrade by the external oxidation of the surface. These oxides inhibit the glucose oxidation reaction and decrease the available surface sites on the anode active toward the oxidation of the aldehyde glucose. Also, if oxides are present on the surface of the anode, a fraction of the glucose presented to the anode for oxidation will be consumed in the chemical reduction of the oxide fllm, so that the total amount of glucose present will not be sensed by the anode since no electrons are donated to the anode in the chemical oxide reduction process.

This problem is eliminated by frequently actuating the platinized electrode by an electrochemical pulsing technique such as described in US. Pat. No. 3,509,034, issued April 28, 1970 for PULSE-ACTIVATED PO- LAROGRAPHIC HYDROGEN DETECTOR. The anode is cycled from anodic to cathodic, going from oxygen evolution to hydrogen evolution, by means of a third biased electrode (not shown). The potential pulses are short-duration square waves generated at 20 second intervals. The anodic-cathodic polarization cycle is carried out about three times and is always terminated on the cathodic part of the cycle thereby reducing the platinum oxide surface to a highly active, disordered surface of platinum.

It will be appreciated from the preceding description that the glucose monitor and sensor of the present invention provides an accurate means for determining glucose levels in vivo, either by direct implantation or by subcutaneous insertions or in vitro.

Having described in detail a preferred embodiment of our invention, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that numerous modifications can be made therein without departing from the scope of the invention as defined in the following claims.

What we claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is:

l. A method for monitoring blood glucose levels comprising the steps of:

l. exposing a glucose diffusion-limited fuel cell to the body fluid of a living body;

2. converting the output current generated by said fuel cell into an electrical signal having a characteristic which varies in accordance with the magnitude of the output current, said output current magnitude being proportional to the blood glucose level in said living body;

3. detecting when said electrical signal characteristic departs from a predetermined condition; and,

4. actuating an alarm signal whenever said electrical signal characteristic departs from said predetermined condition.

2. A method for monitoring blood glucose levels comprising the steps of:

l. exposing a glucose diffusion-limited fuel cell to the body fluid of a living body;

2. converting the output current generated by said fuel cell into an electrical signal having a characteristic which varies in accordance with the magnitude of the output current, said output current magnitude being proportional to the blood glucose level in said living body;

3. detecting when said electrical signal characteristic departs from a predetermined condition;

4. introducing glucose into said living body whenever said electrical signal characteristic departs from said predetermined condition in one direction;

5. introducing insulin into said living body whenever said electrical signal characteristic departs from said predetermined condition in an opposite direction; and,

6. terminating the introduction of said glucose or insulin when said electrical signal characteristic returns to said predetermined condition.

3. A method for monitoring blood glucose levels comprising the steps of:

l. exposing a glucose diffusion-limited fuel cell to the body fluid of a living body;

2. converting the output current generated by said fuel cell into an electrical signal having a characteristic which varies in accordance with the magnitude of the output current, said output current magnitude being proportional to the blood glucose level in said living body;

3. detecting when said electrical signal characteristic departs from a predetermined condition;

4. introducing insulin into said living body whenever said electrical signal characteristic departs from said predetermined condition in one direction; and,

5. terminating the introduction of said insulin when said electrical signal characteristic returns to said predetermined condition.

4. An in vivo blood glucose level monitoring system comprising:

1. a glucose diffusion-limited fuel cell, said fuel cell being adapted for implantation in a living body; 2. means for converting the output current generated by said fuel cell when implanted in a living body, into an electrical signal having a characteristic which varies in accordance with the magnitude of the output current, said output current magnitude being a function of the blood glucose level in said living body; and,

3. means for monitoring said electrical signal characteristic.

5. The system of claim 4 wherein said fuel cell comprises:

]. at least one permeable membrane which defines a chamber, said membrane being permeable to body water, oxygen, and glucose;

2. first and second spaced catalyst coated electrodes positioned within said chamber, said first and second electrodes comprising, respectively, a cathode electrode and an anode electrode for said fuel cell;

3. means for glucose diffusion-limiting said fuel cell.

6. An in vivo blood glucose level monitoring system comprising:

1. a glucose diffusion-limited fuel cell, said fuel cell being adapted for implantation in a living body;

2. means for converting the output current generated by said fuel cell when implanted in a living body, into an electrical signal having a characteristic which varies in accordance with the magnitude of the output current, said output current magnitude being a function of the blood glucose level in said living body;

3. means for detecting when said electrical signal characteristic departs from a predetermined condition; and,

4. alarm signal generating means responsive to said electrical signal characteristic for generating an alarm signal whenever said characteristic departs from said predetermined condition. 7. An in vivo blood glucose level monitoring system comprising:

1. a glucose diffusion-limited fuel cell, said fuel cell being adapted for implantation in a living body; and,

2. means for converting the output current generated by said fuel cell when implanted in a living body, into an electrical signal having a characteristic which varies in accordance with the magnitude of the output current, said output current magnitude being a function of the blood glucose level in said living body;

3. means for detecting when said electrical signal characteristic departs from a predetermined characteristic;

4. means for generating a glucose valve actuation sig nal whenever said electrical signal characteristic departs in one direction from said predetermined condition and an insulin valve actuation signal whenever said characteristic departs in the opposite direction from said predetermined condition;

5. first fluid valve means responsive to said glucose valve actuation signal for supplying glucose to the body;

6. second fluid valve means responsive to said insulin valve actuation signal for supplying insulin to the body;

7. a source of glucose fluidly coupled to said first fluid valve means; and,

8. a source of insulin fluidly coupled to said second fluid valve means.

8. An in vivo blood glucose detecting system comprising:

l. a glucose diffusion-limited fuel cell, said fuel cell 12 being adapted for implantation in a living body;

2. means for converting the output current generated by said fuel cell when implanted in a living body, into an electrical signal having a characteristic which varies in accordance with the magnitude of the output current, said output current magnitude being a function of the blood glucose level in said living body;

2. means for detecting when said electrical signal characteristic departs from a predetermined condition;

3. means for generating a insulin valve actuation signal whenever said electrical signal characteristic departs in one direction from said predetermined condition;

4. fluid valve means responsive to said insulin valve actuation signal for supplying insulin to the body; and,

5. a source of insulin fluidly coupled to said fluid valve means.

9. A method for producing an electrical signal representation of blood glucose levels comprising the steps of:

l. exposing a glucose diffusion-limited fuel cell to the body fluid of a living body; and,

2. converting the output current generated by said fuel cell into an electrical signal having a characteristic which varies in accordance with the magnitude of the output current, said output current magnitude being proportional to the blood glucose level in said living body; and,

3. utilizing said electrical signal.

10. A method for monitoring blood glucose levels comprising the steps of:

l. exposing a glucose diffusion-limited fuel cell to the body fluid of a living body;

2. converting the output current generated by said fuel cell into an electrical signal having a characteristic which varies in accordance with the magnitude of the output current, said output current magnitude being proportional to the blood glucose level in said living body; and,

3. monitoring said electrical signal characteristic.

11. A blood glucose level monitoring system comprising:

l. a glucose diffusion-limited fuel cell, said fuel cell being adapted for exposure to the body fluid of a living body;

2. means for converting the output current generated by said fuel cell when exposed to the body fluid of a living body, into an electrical signal having a characteristic which varies in accordance with the magnitude of the output current, said output current magnitude being a function of the blood glucose level in said living body; and,

3. means for monitoring said electrical signal characteristic.

Citas de patentes
Patente citada Fecha de presentación Fecha de publicación Solicitante Título
US3143111 *23 Sep 19604 Ago 1964Winston Electronics LtdBlood pressure follower
US3144019 *8 Ago 196011 Ago 1964Edgar HaberCardiac monitoring device
US3216411 *13 May 19639 Nov 1965Nippon Electric CoIngestible transmitter for the detection of bleeding in the gastrointestinal canal
US3453546 *4 Nov 19661 Jul 1969NasaTelemeter adaptable for implanting in an animal
US3682160 *16 Oct 19698 Ago 1972Matsushita Electric Ind Co LtdPhysiological signal transmitter for use inside the body
FR1444363A * Título no disponible
Otras citas
Referencia
1 *Drake et al., Transactions American Society for Artificial Internal Organs, Vol. XVI, 1970, pp. 199 205.
2 *Updike et al., Nature, Vol. 214, June 3, 1967, pp. 986 988.
Citada por
Patente citante Fecha de presentación Fecha de publicación Solicitante Título
US4055175 *7 May 197625 Oct 1977Miles Laboratories, Inc.Blood glucose control apparatus
US4077405 *22 Mar 19767 Mar 1978Siemens AktiengesellschaftApparatus for infusing liquids into human or animal bodies
US4146029 *31 May 197727 Mar 1979Ellinwood Jr Everett HSelf-powered implanted programmable medication system and method
US4151845 *25 Nov 19771 May 1979Miles Laboratories, Inc.Blood glucose control apparatus
US4245634 *12 Feb 197920 Ene 1981Hospital For Sick ChildrenArtificial beta cell
US4280494 *26 Jun 197928 Jul 1981Cosgrove Robert J JunSystem for automatic feedback-controlled administration of drugs
US4340458 *2 Jun 198020 Jul 1982Joslin Diabetes Center, Inc.Electrode for catalytically promoting electrochemical oxidation of biological fluids
US4344438 *28 Abr 198017 Ago 1982The United States Of America As Represented By The Department Of Health, Education And WelfareOptical sensor of plasma constituents
US4350155 *2 Abr 198021 Sep 1982Medtronic, Inc.Body implantable medical infusion system
US4366033 *11 Abr 197928 Dic 1982Siemens AktiengesellschaftMethod for determining the concentration of sugar using an electrocatalytic sugar sensor
US4395259 *14 Sep 198126 Jul 1983Siemens AktiengesellschaftDevice for the infusion of fluids into the human or animal body
US4396464 *22 Abr 19822 Ago 1983Joslin Diabetes Center, Inc.Method for sensing the concentration of glucose in biological fluids
US4494950 *19 Ene 198222 Ene 1985The Johns Hopkins UniversityPlural module medication delivery system
US4515584 *29 Jun 19837 May 1985Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.Blood sugar measurement, injection unit, arithmetic control
US4526568 *29 Sep 19822 Jul 1985Miles Laboratories, Inc.Diagnostic method and apparatus for clamping blood glucose concentration
US4533346 *25 Ago 19826 Ago 1985Pharmacontrol CorporationSystem for automatic feedback-controlled administration of drugs
US4543955 *1 Ago 19831 Oct 1985Cordis CorporationSystem for controlling body implantable action device
US4566464 *27 Jul 198128 Ene 1986Piccone Vincent AImplantable epilepsy monitor apparatus
US4633878 *10 Abr 19846 Ene 1987Guiseppe BombardieriDevice for the automatic insulin or glucose infusion in diabetic subjects, based on the continuous monitoring of the patient's glucose, obtained without blood withdrawal
US4822336 *4 Mar 198818 Abr 1989Ditraglia JohnBlood glucose level sensing
US4826810 *19 Mar 19872 May 1989Aoki Thomas TSystem and method for treating animal body tissues to improve the dietary fuel processing capabilities thereof
US5152758 *23 Jul 19906 Oct 1992Senju Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.Electroresponsive hydrogel and physiologically active substance release control system
US5368028 *16 Jun 199329 Nov 1994Cb-Carmel Biotechnology Ltd.System for monitoring and controlling blood and tissue constituent levels
US5372133 *3 Feb 199313 Dic 1994N.V. Nederlandsche Apparatenfabriek NedapImplantable biomedical sensor device, suitable in particular for measuring the concentration of glucose
US5372582 *30 Jul 199113 Dic 1994Avl Medical Instruments AgProbe for dialysis
US5569186 *25 Abr 199429 Oct 1996Minimed Inc.For delivering medication to a patient
US5665065 *26 May 19959 Sep 1997Minimed Inc.Medication infusion device with blood glucose data input
US5800420 *19 Dic 19961 Sep 1998Elan Medical Technologies LimitedFor delivering a liquid drug to a subject
US5807375 *2 Nov 199515 Sep 1998Elan Medical Technologies LimitedAnalyte-controlled liquid delivery device and analyte monitor
US5820622 *18 Dic 199613 Oct 1998Elan Medical Technologies LimitedAnalyte-controlled liquid delivery device and analyte monitor
US5848991 *25 Abr 199715 Dic 1998Elan Medical Technologies Limited Athlone, Co.Intradermal drug delivery device and method for intradermal delivery of drugs
US5995860 *6 Jul 199530 Nov 1999Thomas Jefferson UniversityImplantable sensor and system for measurement and control of blood constituent levels
US6049727 *3 Abr 199811 Abr 2000Animas CorporationImplantable sensor and system for in vivo measurement and control of fluid constituent levels
US6103033 *4 Mar 199815 Ago 2000Therasense, Inc.Process for producing an electrochemical biosensor
US6110522 *16 Abr 199829 Ago 2000Masimo LaboratoriesBlood glucose monitoring system
US6120676 *4 Jun 199919 Sep 2000Therasense, Inc.Method of using a small volume in vitro analyte sensor
US6122536 *8 Jul 199619 Sep 2000Animas CorporationImplantable sensor and system for measurement and control of blood constituent levels
US6134461 *4 Mar 199817 Oct 2000E. Heller & CompanyElectrochemical analyte
US6143164 *16 Dic 19987 Nov 2000E. Heller & CompanyCollecting a sample of body fluid of about 500 nl or less; filling a measurement zone of an electrochemical sensor with the sample; holding; and determining analyte concentration using a coulometric technique; measuring blood glucose
US6162611 *3 Ene 200019 Dic 2000E. Heller & CompanyDetecting preferential monosaccharide levels in human using electrochemical detector; grafting detector into human, generating calibration value and monitoring detector signals
US617575230 Abr 199816 Ene 2001Therasense, Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US625126024 Ago 199826 Jun 2001Therasense, Inc.Potentiometric sensors for analytic determination
US62844784 Dic 19964 Sep 2001E. Heller & CompanyElectrochemical sensor; for in situ monitoring of glucose in diabetics
US62997576 Oct 19999 Oct 2001Therasense, Inc.Analytical sensors for the detection of bioanalytes; especially monitoring glucose levels in diabetic patients
US632916122 Sep 200011 Dic 2001Therasense, Inc.A flexible analyte sensor that is adapted for external positioning to an animal and for connection to a device for measuring an electrical signal generated by the sensor; for measuring glucose concentration in diabetes
US633879021 Abr 199915 Ene 2002Therasense, Inc.Small volume in vitro analyte sensor with diffusible or non-leachable redox mediator
US645832624 Nov 19991 Oct 2002Home Diagnostics, Inc.Protective test strip platform
US646149627 Oct 19998 Oct 2002Therasense, Inc.Small volume in vitro analyte sensor with diffusible or non-leachable redox mediator
US648404610 Jul 200019 Nov 2002Therasense, Inc.Electrochemical analyte sensor
US65050596 Abr 19997 Ene 2003The General Hospital CorporationNon-invasive tissue glucose level monitoring
US651471829 Nov 20014 Feb 2003Therasense, Inc.Subcutaneous glucose electrode
US652533028 Feb 200125 Feb 2003Home Diagnostics, Inc.Method of strip insertion detection
US654126628 Feb 20011 Abr 2003Home Diagnostics, Inc.Method for determining concentration of an analyte in a test strip
US65514946 Abr 200022 Abr 2003Therasense, Inc.Non-leachable redox mediator, an air-oxidizable redox mediator, immobilized on a working electrode; determining concentration of glucose in blood
US656262528 Feb 200113 May 2003Home Diagnostics, Inc.Inserting test element into analytical meter system; measuring first optical property of test element; distinguishing test element by identifying predetermined relationship between first and second optical properties; selecting test type
US656550921 Sep 200020 May 2003Therasense, Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US65761016 Oct 199910 Jun 2003Therasense, Inc.Small volume in vitro analyte sensor
US659112527 Jun 20008 Jul 2003Therasense, Inc.Small volume in vitro analyte sensor with diffusible or non-leachable redox mediator
US659274517 May 200015 Jul 2003Therasense, Inc.Method of using a small volume in vitro analyte sensor with diffusible or non-leachable redox mediator
US66168194 Nov 19999 Sep 2003Therasense, Inc.Small volume in vitro analyte sensor and methods
US661893415 Jun 200016 Sep 2003Therasense, Inc.Method of manufacturing small volume in vitro analyte sensor
US665462516 Jun 200025 Nov 2003Therasense, Inc.Mass transport limited in vivo analyte sensor
US672158220 Feb 200113 Abr 2004Argose, Inc.Non-invasive tissue glucose level monitoring
US672856028 Feb 200227 Abr 2004The General Hospital CorporationNon-invasive tissue glucose level monitoring
US674974028 Dic 200115 Jun 2004Therasense, Inc.Small volume in vitro analyte sensor and methods
US688155128 Ene 200319 Abr 2005Therasense, Inc.Insulated, non-corroding conducting metal or carbon wire-based small subcutaneous glucose sensor, allowing one-point calibration in vivo
US68858818 Ene 200226 Abr 2005Steffen LeonhardtDevice for measuring human blood sugar levels
US689355223 Oct 200117 May 2005Arrowhead Center, Inc.Simultaneous amperometric measurement based on glucose oxidase biocatalytic and ruthenium or iridium oxide electrocatalytic activity
US694251828 Dic 200113 Sep 2005Therasense, Inc.Small volume in vitro analyte sensor and methods
US6945934 *18 May 200120 Sep 2005Cardiac Intelligence CorporationSystem and method for determining a reference baseline record for use in automated patient care
US697370631 Mar 200313 Dic 2005Therasense, Inc.Comprises forming channels in surfaces of the substrate, and disposing conductive material by non-impact printing to form electrode/sensor; biocompatability
US6974413 *18 May 200113 Dic 2005Cardiac Intelligence CorporationSystem and method for analyzing patient information for use in automated patient care
US697589325 Nov 200313 Dic 2005Therasense, Inc.Mass transport limited in vivo analyte sensor
US69795711 Ago 200227 Dic 2005Home Diagnostics, Inc.Method of using a protective test strip platform for optical meter apparatus
US700334011 Nov 200221 Feb 2006Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Electrochemical analyte sensor
US705843717 Abr 20036 Jun 2006Therasense, Inc.Methods of determining concentration of glucose
US721285124 Oct 20021 May 2007Brown University Research FoundationMicrostructured arrays for cortex interaction and related methods of manufacture and use
US722553512 Sep 20035 Jun 2007Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Method of manufacturing electrochemical sensors
US72808704 Jun 20039 Oct 2007Brown University Research FoundationOptically-connected implants and related systems and methods of use
US729908724 Jun 200420 Nov 2007Cardiac Intelligence CorporationSystem and method for analyzing a patient status for myocardial ischemia for use in automated patient care
US73811845 Nov 20033 Jun 2008Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Sensor inserter assembly
US73906654 Mar 200324 Jun 2008Gilmour Steven BDistinguishing test types through spectral analysis
US739207916 Mar 200624 Jun 2008Brown University Research FoundationNeurological signal decoding
US746226415 Jul 20059 Dic 2008Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Small diameter flexible electrode for in vivo amperometric monitoring of glucose or lactate with sensing layer of glucose-specific or lactate-specific enzyme (glucose oxidase or lactate oxidase) crosslinked with polyvinylimidazole, polyvinylpyridine, or acrylamide-vinylimidazole copolymer
US748829019 Feb 200410 Feb 2009Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.System and method for assessing cardiac performance through transcardiac impedance monitoring
US7509156 *18 May 200524 Mar 2009Clarian Health Partners, Inc.System for managing glucose levels in patients with diabetes or hyperglycemia
US755006912 Sep 200323 Jun 2009Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Small volume in vitro analyte sensor
US756335015 Sep 200321 Jul 2009Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Small volume in vitro analyte sensor
US75820596 Sep 20071 Sep 2009Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Sensor inserter methods of use
US759180126 Feb 200422 Sep 2009Dexcom, Inc.Integrated delivery device for continuous glucose sensor
US761349114 Abr 20063 Nov 2009Dexcom, Inc.Silicone based membranes for use in implantable glucose sensors
US761500726 Mar 200710 Nov 2009Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US762043831 Mar 200617 Nov 2009Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for powering an electronic device
US764004822 Feb 200629 Dic 2009Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US764709720 Dic 200412 Ene 2010Braingate Co., LlcTranscutaneous implant
US765159618 Ene 200626 Ene 2010Dexcom, Inc.Cellulosic-based interference domain for an analyte sensor
US77132295 Nov 200411 May 2010Lifescan, Inc.Drug delivery pen with event notification means
US772141216 Ago 200525 May 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method of making an electrochemical sensor
US775187719 Nov 20046 Jul 2010Braingate Co., LlcNeural interface system with embedded id
US77668294 Nov 20053 Ago 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for providing basal profile modification in analyte monitoring and management systems
US777597526 Mar 200717 Ago 2010Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US778333310 Mar 200524 Ago 2010Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous medical device with variable stiffness
US781123126 Dic 200312 Oct 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Continuous glucose monitoring system and methods of use
US78376296 Dic 200623 Nov 2010Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.System and method for generating baseline data for automated management of edema
US785067619 Abr 200414 Dic 2010The Invention Science Fund I, LlcSystem with a reservoir for perfusion management
US785776022 Feb 200628 Dic 2010Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US785776721 Dic 200628 Dic 2010Invention Science Fund I, LlcLumen-traveling device
US78605447 Mar 200728 Dic 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US786139730 Oct 20074 Ene 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method of making an electrochemical sensor
US78672179 Ago 200711 Ene 2011The Invention Science Fund I, LlcSystem with a reservoir for perfusion management
US78698536 Ago 201011 Ene 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US78714029 Ago 200718 Ene 2011The Invention Science Fund I, LlcSystem with a reservoir for perfusion management
US787499310 Jun 200525 Ene 2011Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.System and method for diagnosing and monitoring congestive heart failure
US78790239 Ago 20071 Feb 2011The Invention Science Fund I, LlcSystem for perfusion management
US787921330 Oct 20071 Feb 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Sensor for in vitro determination of glucose
US788178030 Dic 20051 Feb 2011Braingate Co., LlcBiological interface system with thresholded configuration
US78856996 Ago 20108 Feb 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US789951812 Sep 20051 Mar 2011Masimo Laboratories, Inc.Non-invasive tissue glucose level monitoring
US790136829 Dic 20058 Mar 2011Braingate Co., LlcNeurally controlled patient ambulation system
US790600930 Jul 200815 Mar 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Small volume in vitro analyte sensor
US79099847 Feb 200822 Mar 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.system for determining the concentration of analyte in a biological fluid from a patient, comprising:at least one substrate associated with at least one transducer;a piercing member adapted to pierce a site on the patient to cause blood to flow therefrom;a sensor positioned adjacent to the site
US79209077 Jun 20075 Abr 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring system and method
US79288508 May 200819 Abr 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring system and methods
US795135713 Jul 200531 May 2011Glusense Ltd.Implantable power sources and sensors
US797227424 Jun 20045 Jul 2011Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.System and method for analyzing a patient status for congestive heart failure for use in automated patient care
US79764926 Ago 200912 Jul 2011Dexcom, Inc.Integrated delivery device for continuous glucose sensor
US797677822 Jun 200512 Jul 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Blood glucose tracking apparatus
US7978064 *21 Sep 200912 Jul 2011Proteus Biomedical, Inc.Communication system with partial power source
US798884528 Ene 20082 Ago 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Integrated lancing and measurement device and analyte measuring methods
US799146123 Dic 20052 Ago 2011Braingate Co., LlcPatient training routine for biological interface system
US799605420 Feb 20069 Ago 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Electrochemical analyte sensor
US79980609 Ene 200716 Ago 2011The Invention Science Fund I, LlcLumen-traveling delivery device
US800078421 Dic 200616 Ago 2011The Invention Science Fund I, LlcLumen-traveling device
US801678910 Oct 200813 Sep 2011Deka Products Limited PartnershipPump assembly with a removable cover assembly
US801941312 Ene 200913 Sep 2011The Invention Science Fund I, LlcLumen-traveling biological interface device and method of use
US802403612 Ene 200920 Sep 2011The Invention Science Fund I, LlcLumen-traveling biological interface device and method of use
US80256243 Mar 200627 Sep 2011Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.System and method for assessing cardiac performance through cardiac vibration monitoring
US80294426 Sep 20074 Oct 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Sensor inserter assembly
US803402610 Oct 200811 Oct 2011Deka Products Limited PartnershipInfusion pump assembly
US806019430 Dic 200515 Nov 2011Braingate Co., LlcBiological interface system with automated configuration
US806497729 Jul 200922 Nov 2011Dexcom, Inc.Silicone based membranes for use in implantable glucose sensors
US80666394 Jun 200429 Nov 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Glucose measuring device for use in personal area network
US806667210 Oct 200829 Nov 2011Deka Products Limited PartnershipInfusion pump assembly with a backup power supply
US806685831 Oct 200729 Nov 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte sensor with insertion monitor, and methods
US808392429 Sep 200927 Dic 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Small volume in vitro analyte sensor and methods of making
US808392829 Sep 200927 Dic 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Small volume in vitro analyte sensor and methods of making
US808392929 Sep 200927 Dic 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Small volume in vitro sensor and methods of making
US808716229 Sep 20093 Ene 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Methods of making small volume in vitro analyte sensors
US809122031 Oct 200710 Ene 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Methods of making small volume in vitro analyte sensors
US809254924 Sep 200410 Ene 2012The Invention Science Fund I, LlcCiliated stent-like-system
US809520927 Dic 200510 Ene 2012Braingate Co., LlcBiological interface system with gated control signal
US810345629 Ene 200924 Ene 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and device for early signal attenuation detection using blood glucose measurements
US810547630 Jul 200731 Ene 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Integrated lancing and measurement device
US811224029 Abr 20057 Feb 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing leak detection in data monitoring and management systems
US81132449 Feb 200714 Feb 2012Deka Products Limited PartnershipAdhesive and peripheral systems and methods for medical devices
US811402115 Dic 200914 Feb 2012Proteus Biomedical, Inc.Body-associated receiver and method
US8114269 *28 Dic 200714 Feb 2012Medtronic Minimed, Inc.couples a sensor electronics device to the sensor and measures the open circuit potential between at least two of the plurality of electrodes
US81142707 Feb 200814 Feb 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Small volume in vitro analyte sensor
US811427129 Sep 200914 Feb 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Small volume in vitro analyte sensor
US811773430 Oct 200721 Feb 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method of making an electrochemical sensor
US811899229 Sep 200921 Feb 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Small volume in vitro analyte sensor
US811899329 Sep 200921 Feb 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Small volume in vitro analyte sensor and methods of making
US81236861 Mar 200728 Feb 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing rolling data in communication systems
US812392929 Sep 200928 Feb 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Small volume in vitro analyte sensor
US813622030 Oct 200720 Mar 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method of making an electrochemical sensor
US814264230 Jul 200827 Mar 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Small volume in vitro analyte sensor
US814264329 Sep 200927 Mar 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Small volume in vitro analyte sensor
US814911729 Ago 20093 Abr 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring system and methods
US815306329 Sep 200910 Abr 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Small volume in vitro analyte sensor and methods of making
US816282930 Mar 200924 Abr 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US816316429 Sep 200924 Abr 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Small volume in vitro analyte sensor and methods of making
US816805130 Oct 20071 May 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Sensor for determination of glucose
US81756739 Nov 20098 May 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US817771621 Dic 200915 May 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US818267029 Sep 200922 May 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Small volume in vitro analyte sensor and methods of making
US818267129 Sep 200922 May 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Small volume in vitro analyte sensor and methods of making
US818604413 Abr 200729 May 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method of manufacturing small volume in vitro analyte sensors
US818789529 Sep 200929 May 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Small volume in vitro analyte sensor and methods of making
US819261129 Sep 20095 Jun 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Small volume in vitro analyte sensor and methods of making
US821136329 Sep 20093 Jul 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Small volume in vitro analyte sensor and methods of making
US822168529 Sep 200917 Jul 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Small volume in vitro sensor and methods of making
US822302810 Oct 200817 Jul 2012Deka Products Limited PartnershipOcclusion detection system and method
US822441310 Oct 200817 Jul 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US822655518 Mar 200924 Jul 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US822655728 Dic 200924 Jul 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US822655827 Sep 201024 Jul 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US822681529 Sep 200924 Jul 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Small volume in vitro sensor and methods of making
US822689131 Mar 200624 Jul 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring devices and methods therefor
US822953520 Feb 200924 Jul 2012Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for blood glucose monitoring and alert delivery
US823153230 Abr 200731 Jul 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US823395812 Oct 200931 Jul 2012Dexcom, Inc.Signal processing for continuous analyte sensor
US823589621 Dic 20097 Ago 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US823624212 Feb 20107 Ago 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Blood glucose tracking apparatus and methods
US825503117 Mar 200928 Ago 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US82589625 Mar 20094 Sep 2012Proteus Biomedical, Inc.Multi-mode communication ingestible event markers and systems, and methods of using the same
US82603929 Jun 20084 Sep 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US826261610 Oct 200811 Sep 2012Deka Products Limited PartnershipInfusion pump assembly
US826299629 Sep 200911 Sep 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Small volume in vitro sensor and methods of making
US826572512 Oct 200911 Sep 2012Dexcom, Inc.Signal processing for continuous analyte sensor
US82657269 Nov 200911 Sep 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US826789210 Oct 200818 Sep 2012Deka Products Limited PartnershipMulti-language / multi-processor infusion pump assembly
US826814429 Sep 200918 Sep 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Small volume in vitro analyte sensor and methods of making
US826816329 Sep 200918 Sep 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Small volume in vitro analyte sensor and methods of making
US826824328 Dic 200918 Sep 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Blood glucose tracking apparatus and methods
US827212529 Sep 200925 Sep 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method of manufacturing in vitro analyte sensors
US827302213 Feb 200925 Sep 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US827322730 Oct 200725 Sep 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Sensor for in vitro determination of glucose
US827324129 Sep 200925 Sep 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Small volume in vitro analyte sensor and methods of making
US82754387 Nov 200825 Sep 2012Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US82754399 Nov 200925 Sep 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US827737829 Sep 20062 Oct 2012Cardiac Pacemakers, IncSystem and method for collection and analysis of patient information for automated remote patient care
US828745427 Sep 201016 Oct 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US82981427 Nov 200830 Oct 2012Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US83065989 Nov 20096 Nov 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US83086503 Nov 201013 Nov 2012Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.System and method for generating baseline data for automated management of cardiovascular pressure
US831174926 May 201113 Nov 2012Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US8318154 *28 Abr 200927 Nov 2012Halozyme, Inc.Super fast-acting insulin compositions
US832114929 Jun 201127 Nov 2012Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US83232639 Dic 20104 Dic 2012The Invention Science Fund I, LlcSystem with a reservoir for perfusion management
US833371410 Sep 200618 Dic 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for providing an integrated analyte sensor insertion device and data processing unit
US833375212 Mar 201018 Dic 2012Lifescan, Inc.Drug delivery with event notification
US833748219 Abr 200425 Dic 2012The Invention Science Fund I, LlcSystem for perfusion management
US834306425 May 20111 Ene 2013Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.System and method for diagnosing and monitoring congestive heart failure
US834633618 Mar 20091 Ene 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US834633730 Jun 20091 Ene 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US835382921 Dic 200915 Ene 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US83538964 May 200615 Ene 2013The Invention Science Fund I, LlcControllable release nasal system
US835709121 Dic 200922 Ene 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US836101319 Abr 200429 Ene 2013The Invention Science Fund I, LlcTelescoping perfusion management system
US83610149 Ago 200729 Ene 2013The Invention Science Fund I, LlcTelescoping perfusion management system
US836105618 Ene 201129 Ene 2013The Invention Science Fund I, LlcSystem with a reservoir for perfusion management
US836290418 Abr 201129 Ene 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring system and methods
US836422918 May 200729 Ene 2013Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensors having a signal-to-noise ratio substantially unaffected by non-constant noise
US836423025 Mar 200829 Ene 2013Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US836423125 Mar 200829 Ene 2013Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US836661430 Mar 20095 Feb 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US836662928 Mar 20115 Feb 2013Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.System and method for diagnosing and monitoring congestive heart failure
US83699376 Dic 20115 Feb 2013Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.System and method for prioritizing medical conditions
US837200521 Dic 200912 Feb 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US83720329 Ago 200712 Feb 2013The Invention Science Fund I, LlcTelescoping perfusion management system
US837226129 Sep 200912 Feb 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Small volume in vitro analyte sensor and methods of making
US837737829 Sep 200919 Feb 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Small volume in vitro analyte sensor and methods of making
US838027311 Abr 200919 Feb 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US839194517 Mar 20095 Mar 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US839652825 Mar 200812 Mar 2013Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US84091317 Mar 20072 Abr 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US84145229 Feb 20079 Abr 2013Deka Products Limited PartnershipFluid delivery systems and methods
US841456331 Dic 20089 Abr 2013Deka Products Limited PartnershipPump assembly with switch
US841474912 Nov 20089 Abr 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Subcutaneous glucose electrode
US841475029 Sep 20109 Abr 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Subcutaneous glucose electrode
US842541625 Mar 200823 Abr 2013Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US84254177 Nov 200823 Abr 2013Dexcom, Inc.Integrated device for continuous in vivo analyte detection and simultaneous control of an infusion device
US842574312 Mar 201023 Abr 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Small volume in vitro analyte sensor and methods of making
US842575829 Sep 200923 Abr 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Small volume in vitro analyte sensor and methods of making
US84473767 Nov 200821 May 2013Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US84494647 Nov 200828 May 2013Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US844975829 Sep 200928 May 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Small volume in vitro analyte sensor and methods of making
US84563018 May 20084 Jun 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring system and methods
US846023111 Jul 201111 Jun 2013Dexcom, Inc.Integrated delivery device for continuous glucose sensor
US84619858 May 200811 Jun 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring system and methods
US84633516 Ago 201011 Jun 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Electrochemical analyte sensor
US846542530 Jun 200918 Jun 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US847302131 Jul 200925 Jun 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US847322023 Ene 201225 Jun 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and device for early signal attenuation detection using blood glucose measurements
US84783777 Nov 20082 Jul 2013Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US848058019 Abr 20079 Jul 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US849157031 Dic 200823 Jul 2013Deka Products Limited PartnershipInfusion pump assembly
US849664631 Dic 200830 Jul 2013Deka Products Limited PartnershipInfusion pump assembly
US851221919 Mar 200720 Ago 2013The Invention Science Fund I, LlcBioelectromagnetic interface system
US851223920 Abr 200920 Ago 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Glucose measuring device for use in personal area network
US851224330 Sep 200520 Ago 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Integrated introducer and transmitter assembly and methods of use
US85327304 Oct 200610 Sep 2013Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US85327318 May 200910 Sep 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Methods of determining analyte concentration
US853273221 Sep 201010 Sep 2013Medtronic Minimed, Inc.Methods and systems for detecting the hydration of sensors
US854063223 May 200824 Sep 2013Proteus Digital Health, Inc.Low profile antenna for in body device
US854063313 Ago 200924 Sep 2013Proteus Digital Health, Inc.Identifier circuits for generating unique identifiable indicators and techniques for producing same
US854066424 Mar 201024 Sep 2013Proteus Digital Health, Inc.Probablistic pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling
US85412328 Mar 200724 Sep 2013Kwalata Trading LimitedComposition comprising a progenitor/precursor cell population
US85421231 Ago 201224 Sep 2013Proteus Digital Health, Inc.Multi-mode communication ingestible event markers and systems, and methods of using the same
US854318420 Oct 201124 Sep 2013Dexcom, Inc.Silicone based membranes for use in implantable glucose sensors
US854540227 Abr 20101 Oct 2013Proteus Digital Health, Inc.Highly reliable ingestible event markers and methods for using the same
US854540328 Dic 20061 Oct 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Medical device insertion
US854543623 Dic 20111 Oct 2013Proteus Digital Health, Inc.Body-associated receiver and method
US85454459 Feb 20071 Oct 2013Deka Products Limited PartnershipPatch-sized fluid delivery systems and methods
US85472481 Sep 20061 Oct 2013Proteus Digital Health, Inc.Implantable zero-wire communications system
US855103930 Mar 20118 Oct 2013Lifescan, Inc.Drug delivery with event notification
US855681020 Ago 200715 Oct 2013Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.System and method for evaluating a patient status for use in heart failure assessment
US855856323 Ago 201015 Oct 2013Proteus Digital Health, Inc.Apparatus and method for measuring biochemical parameters
US85600413 Oct 200515 Oct 2013Braingate Co., LlcBiological interface system
US85625287 Nov 200822 Oct 2013Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US85625585 Jun 200822 Oct 2013Dexcom, Inc.Integrated medicament delivery device for use with continuous analyte sensor
US856871318 May 201229 Oct 2013Halozyme, Inc.Super fast-acting insulin compositions
US857162429 Dic 200429 Oct 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for mounting a data transmission device in a communication system
US85832045 Mar 201012 Nov 2013Dexcom, Inc.Polymer membranes for continuous analyte sensors
US858322723 Sep 201112 Nov 2013Proteus Digital Health, Inc.Evaluation of gastrointestinal function using portable electroviscerography systems and methods of using the same
US85853779 Feb 200719 Nov 2013Deka Products Limited PartnershipPumping fluid delivery systems and methods using force application assembly
US858559110 Jul 201019 Nov 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for providing basal profile modification in analyte monitoring and management systems
US85888812 Mar 200719 Nov 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Subcutaneous glucose electrode
US859141621 Sep 201026 Nov 2013Medtronic Minimed, Inc.Methods and systems for detecting the hydration of sensors
US859145520 Feb 200926 Nov 2013Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for customizing delivery of sensor data
US85931093 Nov 200926 Nov 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for powering an electronic device
US859328720 Jul 201226 Nov 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring system and methods
US85971865 Ene 20103 Dic 2013Proteus Digital Health, Inc.Pharmaceutical dosages delivery system
US85971893 Mar 20093 Dic 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US859757523 Jul 20123 Dic 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring devices and methods therefor
US86029917 Jun 201010 Dic 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte sensor introducer and methods of use
US860299221 Sep 201010 Dic 2013Medtronic Minimed, Inc.Methods and systems for detecting the hydration of sensors
US8608924 *16 Dic 201117 Dic 2013Medtronic Minimed, Inc.System and method for determining the point of hydration and proper time to apply potential to a glucose sensor
US861215916 Feb 200417 Dic 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US861370329 May 200824 Dic 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Insertion devices and methods
US861707121 Jun 200731 Dic 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US862290621 Dic 20097 Ene 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US86262577 Nov 20087 Ene 2014Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US864161921 Dic 20094 Feb 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US864726920 Abr 200911 Feb 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Glucose measuring device for use in personal area network
US86498413 Abr 200711 Feb 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US865075129 Sep 200918 Feb 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Methods of making small volume in vitro analyte sensors
US865204320 Jul 201218 Feb 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US866062717 Mar 200925 Feb 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US866064212 Jul 201125 Feb 2014The Invention Science Fund I, LlcLumen-traveling biological interface device and method of use
US866509130 Jun 20094 Mar 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and device for determining elapsed sensor life
US866646916 Nov 20074 Mar 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US86686453 Ene 200311 Mar 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US867081530 Abr 200711 Mar 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US867284427 Feb 200418 Mar 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US867285631 Oct 200718 Mar 2014Cardiac Pacemakers Inc.System and method for automated diagnosis of myocardial ischemia through remote monitoring
US867482513 Mar 200918 Mar 2014Proteus Digital Health, Inc.Pharma-informatics system
US867651321 Jun 201318 Mar 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and device for early signal attenuation detection using blood glucose measurements
US86824085 Mar 201025 Mar 2014Dexcom, Inc.Polymer membranes for continuous analyte sensors
US86857241 Jun 20051 Abr 2014Kwalata Trading LimitedIn vitro techniques for use with stem cells
US868818830 Jun 20091 Abr 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US869409212 Jul 20118 Abr 2014The Invention Science Fund I, LlcLumen-traveling biological interface device and method of use
US870128229 Sep 200922 Abr 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method for manufacturing a biosensor
US87026036 Dic 200622 Abr 2014Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.System and apparatus for providing baseline data for automated patient management
US870618010 Jun 201322 Abr 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Electrochemical analyte sensor
US870837610 Oct 200829 Abr 2014Deka Products Limited PartnershipMedium connector
US871819319 Nov 20076 May 2014Proteus Digital Health, Inc.Active signal processing personal health signal receivers
US872154018 Nov 201013 May 2014Proteus Digital Health, Inc.Ingestible circuitry
US872158530 Mar 201213 May 2014Dex Com, Inc.Integrated delivery device for continuous glucose sensor
US872829713 Abr 200620 May 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Small volume in vitro analyte sensor
US873003111 Jul 201120 May 2014Proteus Digital Health, Inc.Communication system using an implantable device
US87316484 Feb 201320 May 2014Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.System and method for prioritizing medical conditions
US873218815 Feb 200820 May 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for providing contextual based medication dosage determination
US873434630 Abr 200727 May 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US873434817 Mar 200927 May 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US87381093 Mar 200927 May 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US87415903 Abr 20073 Jun 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Subcutaneous glucose electrode
US87445453 Mar 20093 Jun 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US87509552 Nov 200910 Jun 2014Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US876465730 Mar 20121 Jul 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Medical device inserters and processes of inserting and using medical devices
US876505927 Oct 20101 Jul 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Blood glucose tracking apparatus
US877118316 Feb 20058 Jul 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for providing data communication in continuous glucose monitoring and management system
US87748864 Oct 20068 Jul 2014Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US877488724 Mar 20078 Jul 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US87818473 May 200515 Jul 2014Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.System and method for managing alert notifications in an automated patient management system
US87843082 Dic 201022 Jul 2014Proteus Digital Health, Inc.Integrated ingestible event marker system with pharmaceutical product
US87929559 Jun 201129 Jul 2014Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US879517630 Jul 20075 Ago 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Integrated sample acquisition and analyte measurement device
US880218311 Jul 201112 Ago 2014Proteus Digital Health, Inc.Communication system with enhanced partial power source and method of manufacturing same
US88082285 Jun 200819 Ago 2014Dexcom, Inc.Integrated medicament delivery device for use with continuous analyte sensor
US880853113 Ene 200519 Ago 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Small volume in vitro analyte sensor
US88104096 May 201319 Ago 2014Proteus Digital Health, Inc.Multi-mode communication ingestible event markers and systems, and methods of using the same
US881209630 Dic 200519 Ago 2014Braingate Co., LlcBiological interface system with patient training apparatus
US88168473 Jun 201126 Ago 2014Proteus Digital Health, Inc.Communication system with partial power source
US883651311 Jul 201116 Sep 2014Proteus Digital Health, Inc.Communication system incorporated in an ingestible product
US884055326 Feb 200923 Sep 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US20100004521 *7 May 20077 Ene 2010Epps Spencer J GImplantable voltaic cell
US20100213057 *26 Feb 200926 Ago 2010Benjamin FeldmanSelf-Powered Analyte Sensor
US20120088996 *16 Dic 201112 Abr 2012Medtronic Minimed, Inc.System and method for determining the point of hydration and proper time to apply potential to a glucose sensor
EP0237588A1 *11 Mar 198623 Sep 1987Healthline Systems, Inc.Outpatient monitoring systems and methods
EP0461207A1 *13 Ago 199018 Dic 1991Palti Yoram ProfSystem for monitoring and controlling blood glucose.
EP0689848A1 *23 Jun 19953 Ene 1996Commissariat A L'energie AtomiquePowder inhaler
EP0705071A1 *24 Abr 199510 Abr 1996Minimed Inc.Infusion pump and glucose sensor assembly
EP1742568A2 *2 May 200517 Ene 2007DexCom, Inc.Implantable analyte sensor
EP2019620A2 *7 May 20074 Feb 2009Spencer J.G. EppsImplantable voltaic cell
EP2532356A113 Jul 200512 Dic 2012Glusense Ltd.Implantable power sources and sensors
WO1981003546A1 *1 Jun 198110 Dic 1981Joslin Diabetes Center IncMethod and apparatus for determining glucose in biological fluids
WO1996014026A1 *27 Oct 199517 May 1996Elan Med TechAnalyte-controlled liquid delivery device and analyte monitor
WO1999029230A1 *4 Dic 199817 Jun 1999Heller E & CoBlood analyte monitoring through subcutaneous measurement
WO1999051142A2 *6 Abr 199914 Oct 1999Jenny E FreemanNon-invasive tissue glucose level monitoring
WO2001003572A1 *8 Jul 199918 Ene 2001Steffen LeonhardtDevice for measuring the blood-sugar level in humans
WO2005055821A19 Dic 200423 Jun 2005Novo Nordisk AsReduction of settling time for an electrochemical sensor
WO2007130694A27 May 200715 Nov 2007Spencer J G EppsImplantable voltaic cell
WO2010142734A1 *9 Jun 201016 Dic 2010Imperial Innovations LimitedA glucagon pump controller
WO2011110202A16 Nov 201015 Sep 2011Roche Diagnostics GmbhMethod for the electrochemical measurement of an analyte concentration in vivo, and fuel cell for this purpose
WO2013040079A1 *12 Sep 201221 Mar 2013Dose Medical CorporationIntraocular physiological sensor
Clasificaciones
Clasificación de EE.UU.604/504, 128/903, 604/66, 600/302
Clasificación internacionalH01M8/04, H01M8/08, A61B5/00, A61M5/172
Clasificación cooperativaY02E60/50, A61B5/14532, A61M5/1723, H01M8/08, H01M8/04186, Y10S128/903, A61B5/0002, A61B5/0031
Clasificación europeaA61B5/145G, A61B5/00B9, A61B5/00B, A61M5/172B, H01M8/04C4, H01M8/08
Eventos legales
FechaCódigoEventoDescripción
9 Abr 1984ASAssignment
Owner name: A. S. LABORATORIES, INC. 335 BEAR HILL ROAD, WAKTH
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:GULF & WESTERN MANUFACTURING COMPANY A CORP OF MI;REEL/FRAME:004243/0404
Effective date: 19840404
Owner name: A. S. LABORATORIES, INC., 335 BEAR HILL ROAD, WALT
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:GULF & WESTERN MANUFACTURING COMPANY A CORP OF MI.;REEL/FRAME:004243/0415