US 3852090 A
A waterproof, breathable textile substrate and a process for producing same are disclosed and claimed herein. The substrate is preferably interstice containing and an extensible polymer film is applied onto a side thereof, intended for interior use with respect to contact with water, etc., without striking through to an opposite side thereof. A durable, water repellant composition may also be applied to the complete substrate if desired. The process for producing the waterproof, breathable substrate according to the present invention involves the presentation of a smooth substrate to an applicator unit and the application thereat of a polymeric film forming composition onto one side of the substrate only without any of the composition striking through the substrate to the opposite side thereof. Subsequent to application of the polymeric composition, the substrate is handled on the uncoated side only prior to formation of the film. The film is formed during drying of the substrate, preferably in a completely relaxed condition both in the longitudinal and transverse directions.
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Leonard et al.
WATERPROOF, BREATHABLE COATED TEXTILE SUBSTRATE Inventors: William A.'Le0nard, Lyman;
Anthony F. Kunak, Spartanburg; Cecil M. Burns, Greer; Warren N. Parsons, Spartanburg, all of SC.
Assignee: M. Lowenstein & Sons, lnc., New
Filed: Oct. 2, 1972 Appl. No.: 294,354
Related US. Application Data Continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 238,250, March 27, 1972, which is a continuation of Ser. No. 885,831, Dec. 17, 1969, abandoned.
US. Cl ..1l7/14, 8/1l5.6, 117/15,
117/38, 1l7/135.5, 117/-139.5 CK, 117/161 KP, 117/161 UZ  Int. Cl. 844d l/02, D09d 1/00  Field of Search 117/7, 135.5, 139.5 CK,
l17/14, 15, 38; 260/25 AY; 8/115.6'
 References Cited I UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,989,423 6/1961 Malmquist 117/7 3,000,757 9/1961 Johnston et al.. 1 17/1355 3,023,482 3/1962 Gilboy et al. 28/80 3,024,786 3/1962 Fuzak 117/135.5
3,100,721 8/1963 Holden 117/l35.5
3,265,529 8/1966 Caldwell et a1. 117/7 3,290,752 12/1966 Ormand 28/74 OTHER PUBLICATIONS The Surface Coating and lmpregnation of Fabric by Litzler, Rubber Age, July 1952, pp. 501506.
Primary Examiner-Michael Sofocleous Assistant Examiner-William R. Trenor Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Wellington M. Manning, Jr.
[ 5 7 ABSTRACT A waterproof, breathable textile substrate and a process for producing same are disclosed and claimed herein. The substrate is preferably interstice containing and an extensible polymer film is applied onto a side thereof, intended for interior use with respect to contact with water, etc., without striking through to an opposite side thereof. A durable, water repellant composition may also be applied to the complete substrate if desired. The process for producing the waterproof, breathable substrate according to the present invention involves the presentation of a smooth substrate to an applicator unit and the application thereat of a polymeric film forming composition onto one side of the substrate only without any of the composition striking through the substrate to the opposite side thereof. Subsequent to application of the polymeric composition, the substrate is handled on the uncoated side only prior to formation of the film. The film is formed during drying of the substrate, preferably in a completely relaxed condition both in the longitudinal and transverse directions.
9 Claims, 3 Drawing Figures PATEMEL DEB 3m FIGI WATER PROOF WATERPROOF, BREATHABLE COATED TEXTILE SUBSTRATE CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The textile industry has attempted for years to produce a truly waterproof, but breathable fabric. These two characteristics appear to be inconsistent, in that, a fabric that is truly waterproof, i.e., one that will substantially exclude the passage of water therethrough would seem to likewise require the prevention of the passage of water vapor therethrough. Certainly, an untreated fabric having a plurality of interstices therein is pervious to the passage of both water and air. The opposite extreme envisions the production of a fabric that completelycoats the fabric so as to provide a barrier impervious to the passage of water to render the fabric waterproof.
Numerous attempts have been made to achieve a fabric havingboth of these desirable characteristics. An
article appearing in the American Textile Reporter, the April 1971 issue, contains an article by Harry Demas, the Director of Industrial Marketing at Allied Chemical Company wherein it is stated, in part, I am hopeful that there will be in the next five years a breathable,- waterproof coated synthetic fabric for tents. Such a statement, in effect, negates all of the teachings of the prior art that claim these two characteristics for there is truly no successful waterproof, breathable fabric available for the market today.
Attempts have been made on numerous occasions to produce such a fabric as was mentioned hereinbefore. Among these attempts, the following approaches set forth at least in part, the work done prior to the present invention. Fabrics have been coated with frangible elements dispersed throughout the coating, whereby subsequent to coating, the frangible elements are ruptured to produce passageways through the coating for breathability. Likewise, salts of various chemical description have been utilized-in coating operations, and subsequent to the coating operations are removed by leaching or otherwise so as to provide voids throughout the coated fabric to permit breathability. Further, attempts have been made to completely coat the fabric to the point that the interstices found therein are filled except for both micro and macroscopic openings which permit the passsage of vapor therethrough. A further attempt to achieve a breathable, waterproof fabric involves the pretreatment of the fabric with a fluorochemical com- -position such that a particular oil spray rating is achieved after which the fabric is coated with an elastomer which, by virtue of the water repellant treatment is precluded from impregnating the fiber bundles.
The present invention achieves a truly waterproof, but breathable textile fabric and is an improvement over all prior attempts at achieving same. As such, it is now possible for the production of normal garments that are waterproof and breathable while at the same time having a desirable hand such that the garment is not substantially different in appearance or feel from those currently in existence that combined characteristics.
The prior art is devoid of any teaching or suggestion of the present invention. Exemplary of the prior art are US. Pat. Nos. 2,149,750 to Schwartz;'2,698,8l6 to Dosmann, et al.; 2,771,661 to Foster; 2,885,303 to Kaplan; 3,143,436 to Dosmann; 3,228,821 to Trope; 3,265,529 to Caldwell, et al.; 3,272,685 to Kagan; 3,326,713 to Smith et al.; 3,483,016 to McCool and 3,486,968 to Mater.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is an object of the present invention to provide a waterproof, breathable fabric.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a waterproof, breathable fabric for rainwear.
Still another object of the present invention is to provide a waterproof, breathable fabric for tentage and the like.
Still further, another object of the present invention is to provide a novel process according to the teachings of the present invention for producing a waterproof, breathable fabric.
Generally speaking, the present invention relates to a waterproof, breathable textile substrate comprising an interstice containing fabric, said fabric having an extensible polymer only on a side thereof that is intended do not possess these as the interior side of the substrate, said film being substantially free of pinholes and having an extensibility characteristic of greater than 1,000 per cent based on a film thickness of 0.005 inch and exhibiting no strike through on an opposite side of said substrate. Further, the substrate may be coated with a conventional water repellant treatment if desired.
More specifically, the present invention relates to a fabric that is first coated with a polymeric film forming composition in such a manner that the composition is placed on one side of the fabric only in such a manner that none of the polymer composition passes through said substrate to an opposite side thereof. Thereafter, depending upon the intended use of the substrate, the substrate may be given a treatment with a conventional water repellant composition dried and cured.
The process of the present invention generally comprises providing an interstice containing substrate, insuring that said substrate is in a smooth, creaseless condition; applying a metered amount of a controlled viscosity, film forming composition onto a side of said substrate that is intended for the interior side, without any of said composition striking through said substrate to an opposite side thereof; handling said substrate subsequent to application of said composition thereon without making contact with said coated side; and drying said substrate to form said film, said substrate being completely relaxed during drying in a longitudinal and a transverse direction during drying so as to assume substantially the same dimensions that were present during the coating.
The present process more specifically provides for driving the interstice containing substrate in a smooth manner to a roll type applicator unit. It is very important that the substrate be in a flat, crease and wrinklefree condition at the applicator unit and that the width of the substrate be maintained substantially constant at the applicator roll. Speed of travel of the substrate relative to speed of rotation of the applicator roll is important, as is the area of contact between the substrate and the applicator roll. Further, subsequent to application of the composition, the composition is evened across the face of the substrate without forcing any of the composition through the substrate to an opposite or upper side thereof. Subsequent to application of the composition, the substrate is dried at a width approximating the width of the substrate at the coating unit. The substrate is thus dried in a completely relaxed condition in both the longitudinal and transverse directions. This particular coating arrangement precisely deposits the film forming polymeric composition across only the desired face of the substrate and forms an extensible film that is virtually free of pinholes. Surprisingly for open weave fabrics, water vapor and air vapor will pass through the substrate from the coated side, but while the uncoated side will wet out, no water will pass through the coating on the interior side of the substrate. A tightly woven fabric will permit passage of water vapor and air vapor and will exclude the passage of water from both sides.
.After application of the film forming composition onto the interior sideof the substrate, the substrate is a waterproof barrier from the uncoated side. It may be desirable for garment use in particular, however, to apply a durable water repellant composition to both sides of the substrate which avoids the wetting out of the uncoated side of the substrate. A conventional water repellant treatment is generally sufficient to accomplish this purpose, though a larger composition add on may be desirable due to the lack of pickup by the previously coated interior side of the substrate. Hence the substrate may be padded with a conventional water repellant composition, dried and cured. Thereafter, it may further be desirable to scour the fabric to improve the ultimate hand.
In producing the fabric according to the teachings of the present invention, several factors are important. First, the film forming polymeric composition must be properly applied to the substrate so as to coat the proper side only without strike through to the opposite side of the substrate. Several factors are in point. First, the viscosity of the composition to be applied must be suitable for the particular fabric or substrate being treated. Too low viscosity composition will pass through the interstices while too high viscosity composition will require slow speed coating. Moreover, the ultimate film should be extensible to bridge the interstices without cracking or rupture during subsequent distortion of the substrate. Speed of the substrate relative to the applicator roll speed must be closely controlled as should be the angle of approach and exit of the substrate relative to the applicator to provide only a predetermined area of contact between the substrate and the applicator. Once the composition is applied onto the substrate, the substrate is contacted by an evening means such as a blade that is vertical with respect to the substrate or at some angle forward of vertical with respect to the substrate. As such, the blade skims off excess composition while evening same across the coated face thereof. Pressure of the substrate on the evening means is controlled to prevent forcing any of the composition through the substrate. After application of the composition onto the substrate. the substrate is handled in such a manner that the composition is not contacted prior to formation of the film, and at no time should the substrate be tensioned to a point where the composition is pulled away from the fiber bundles to produce an opening through an interstice.
Once the extensible film is formed, the substrate may then be subjected to a padding operation where a water repellant composition is applied thereto. The water repellant composition, which may contain a crease resistant textile resin or the like may now be applied after which the fabric is dried and cured. A pernament press, water repellant, breathable substrate may then be produced. These characteristics of a substrate permit the conversion of the substrate into garments that will withstand extreme water conditions while remaining permeable to the passage of air or water vapor therethrough. As such, an individual wearing a garment produced from the fabric according to the teachings of the present invention remains both dry and comfortable.
Polymeric compositions that may be applied to the substrate include virtually any polymer that forms an extensible film upon drying having a film extensibility characteristic of greater than approximately 1,000 per cent based on a film thickness of 0.005 inch. Certain polymer compositions are, however, preferred for a substrate intended for products that will be washed and/or dry cleaned. In this regard, certain polymer compositions afford better durability to washing and/or dry cleaning than others. Further, certain compositions afford a softer hand to the substrate and these compositions are preferred where garments are to be produced from the substrate. Likewise, other product characteristics may dictate a preference for one polymer composition over another, both between different types of polymers and also different formulations of the same general type formula. In general, and without being limited thereto, vinyl, acrylic and urethane polymer compositions that form extensible films upon drying are quite suitable, for the process and product of the present invention.
In those circumstances where a water repellant composition is desired, as mentioned above, conventional formulations may be utilized. For example, fluorocarbon, silicone or the like based formulations may be successfully employed. Further, creaseproof textile resins may be added along with the water repellant formulation to afford crease resistant properties to the ultimate product.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a line drawing of a suitable process line according to the teachings of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is an enlarged cross sectional view of a portion of a substrate according to the teachings of the present invention.
FIG. 3 is an enlarged cross sectional view ofa portion of a substrate showing a further embodiment of the present invention.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring to FIG. 1, the process of the present invention will now be described in detail. A roll 10 of a substrate S is fed to an applicator unit generally indicated as 20. Prior to the applicator unit 20 is located a tension device 12 and a wrap angle roll 14. Tension device 12 insures a smooth drive from roll 10 to applicator unit 20. Wrap angle roll 14 is adjustable up and down so as to permit substrate S to be fed to applicator unit 20 from a predetermined angle whereby a predetermined degree of area contact is realized between substrate S and applicator unit 20.
Applicator unit 20 as shown in FIG. 1 is a reverse roll kiss coat unit comprising a part 21, a pick up roll 22 and an applicator roll 23, though other type applicator roll systems may be employed. A polymeric film forming composition is thus provided in pan 21 and removed therefrom by rotation of pick up roll 22 in the direction shown by the arrow. The composition is then transferred from pick up roll 22 to applicator roll 23 for presentation to substrate S. After passing applicator roll 23, substrate S, now having composition placed on the proper side thereof, passes over an evening means illustrated as a blade 25 that is set at a predetermined angle in a range of from vertical to such a point forward of vertical 'where blade 25 only barely contacts the coating deposited onto substrate S. A further adjustable roll 27'is provided above substrate S whereby the degree of pressure on substrate S against blade 25 may be controlled. Subsequent to roll 27 guide rolls 29 and 31 are provided which reverse the direction of substrate S and position the coated side of substrate S up andout of contact with other process equipment. Substrate S then passes coated side up through a dryer 30 where the film forming composition is converted to a film substantially completely across said side of substrate S. After dryer 40, substrate S is passed around cooling cans 45 and wound up on a roll 50. At this point, the substrate is coated so as to preclude the passage of water from the direction of the uncoated substrate, while being permeable to the passage of air.
Strike through of coating composition from the coated side of the substrate to the opposite side thereof is fatal to the attainment of a substrate having waterproof, breathable characteristics. Effort is thus made to apply the composition to the proper position in even fashion and to prevent disruption of the composition or forcing of same through the substrate. Several factors are worth mention as possible controls to prevent strike through. Excess substrate tension at the applicator roll may cause composition to strike through or be forced through the substrate. Likewise, too much area contact between the substrate and the applicator roll can cause strike through as can a system where the drive or feed ing of substrate to the apparatus is not smooth. Further, the substrate should not absorb the composition too rapidly, which could reflect on the substrate, per se, the
composition make up and/or the viscosity ofthe composition.
Other factors of importance that could affect the success ofthe process of the present invention are set forth below. Substrate speed at the applicator roll should be coordinated with rotational speed ofthe applicator roll. Likewise, uneven pressure across the substrate produced by uneven tension on the substrate at the applicator roll may lead to a variable add on from side to side across the substrate. Control of substrate tension across the applicator roll also presents a constant width substrate to the applicator roll which further aids in even deposition of composition thereon. Thus from the above it may be seen that the process of the present invention is critical in several areas. A loss of control in any ofthese areas may lead to the production of an unsatisfactory product.
Substrate S is dried in dryer 40 which is preferably a tunnel dryer in a completely relaxed condition. There is thus substantially no tension on substrate S in either a longitudinal or transverse direction. The substrate is thus dried at substantially the same dimensions at which the coating is applied. Composition is therefore not disrupted from its location and dried while completely bridging substantially all the interstices of substrate S. For certain end products it is desirable to dry and thus form the film in a tenter type dryer under controlled tension in the filling direction. Under no circumstances, however, should tension on the substrate be sufficient to rupture the film or to pull composition away from the yarn bundles prior to formation of the film.
After drying the extensibiity of the film permits normal substrate distortion without tearing away from the fiber bundles or rupture over an interstice. Hence by drying under virtually tensionless or controlled tension conditions, the film may be properly formed to achieve its intended purpose. Further, a softer hand is imparted to the substrate when drying under the relaxed conditions while a firmer hand is imparted when drying under-controlled positive tension, such as in the tenter frame type dryer. Operation of the dryer, which preferably is a tunnel dryer, may vary depending on the particular substrate and/or composition applied to one side thereof. General dryer temperatures are in the neighborhood of 340 to 450F'. This particular air tem perature yields a substrate temperature in the range of from about 275F. to about 340F., depending on the substrate speed through the dryer. In any case, the drying temperature should be sufficient to form the film while not damaging the film or the substrate.
Insofar as the substrate is concerned for the present invention, the size of the interstices in the substrate are an important factor. In this regard, it is necessary that a relationship be established such that the polymeric film forming composition that is used to coat the substrate is capable of substantially bridging the interstices so as to close same. Two factors are thus involved, one of which is the physical dimensions of the interstices and the other of which is the viscosity of the polymeric composition. Substrates, without being inclusive, that are suitable for treatment according to the process of the present invention include woven, knitted and nonwoven goods. A substrate having small interstices as represented by a tightly woven or knitted substrate is preferred. Insofar as the materials are concerned for the manufacture of the substrate, both natural and synthetic materials have been successfully employed such as, for example, cotton, rayon, polyesters, polyamides, and the like including blends of same.
Polymer compositions for application to substrates according to the present invention include any film forming, polymeric composition that produces a very extensible film preferably characterized as having above about 1,000 per cent extensibility based on a 0.005 in thick film. Moreover, the viscosity of the composition should be such that the interstices can be bridged without the composition striking through the substrate to the opposite side thereof. Very suitable film formers for use according to the present invention are acrylics, vinyls, and urethane polymeric compositions as will be described in more detail hereinafter.
Subsequent to the coating of the substrate according to the process of the present invention, as mentioned hereinbefore, care should be taken not to tension the substrate in either a longitudinal or transverse direction substantially more than tension or dimensional conditions on the substrate at the time of coating. This precaution is necessary to avoid the removal of composition from within the interstices of the substrate. Likewise, after the composition has been dried and the film is formed, the tension conditions should likewise be such that the substrate is not distorted in either a longitudinal or transverse direction sufficient to rupture the film, though the distortion after drying is not nearly so critical as before the film is formed and in general, normal handling will not disrupt the continuity of the film.
When a blade is employed as the evening means 25 as shown in FIG. 1, the position of the blade may well determine the success of the process. For example, while an angle of 45 forward of vertical may be satisfactory for a low speed application, say in the neighborhood of l'to 30 yards per minute, a much smaller angle may be required for a higher speed. In fact, at speeds in the neighborhood of 70 to 80 yards per minute, the blade should be positioned almost flat, barely making contact with the coating to even same and shave off any excess composition.
In addition to the attainment of waterproof, breathable characteristics for the substrate, it has unexpectedly been ascertained that the tear strength of the substrate is not adversely affected by the instant treatment thereto to the degree produced by conventional coating processes. While there is no intention to be limited to any particular theory for this feature, it is believed that the bridging of the interstices between the yarn bundles with an extensible film utilizes the substrate to the point that a force applied to one section of the substrate for the purpose of tearing is likewise distributed to the surrounding area such that the force is dissipated to a level beneath that normally required to tear the substrate.
The bath of film forming polymeric composition, for optimum results, should be continuously maintained at an even mix density and viscosity while avoiding the formation of excess air bubbles therein. Such conditions enable the coating composition to be continuously metered fr om the bath in a constant fashion to provide an even amount of composition across the substrate. Hence procedures may be instituted to avoid entrappment of air in the mixture and to prevent excess foaming.
Referring to FIG. 2, a cross section of an interstice containing textile substrate is shown having a waterproof coating C on the underside thereof. The substrate indicated generally as S is made up of a plurality of warp ends W and fill ends F. Waterproof coating C substantially covers the underside of substrate S, but extends only partially through substrate S, the upper limit being indicated by the broken line C. Hence, coating C does not strike through substrate to be visible from the upper side thereof. As shown in FIG. 2, substrate S is waterproof from the uncoated side indicated by an arrow, but is not waterproof from the coated side unless a tight weave construction substrate is employed.
FIG. 5 illustrates further treatment of the substrate affording water repellence, and wash and dry cleaning durability to the substrate. A vertical cross section of the substrate is illustrated comprising warp ends W, fill ends F, a waterproof coating C on the underside only of the substrate and a water repellant coating, WRC on the top side of the substrate. Coating C is applied to said one side of said substrate only by precision techniques to control the amount of coating and also the placement of same (without strike through). Thereafter, the water repellant coating, if desired, is applied by dipping, padding or the like. Lesser amounts of the water repellant composition adhere to the waterproof coating. A larger than normal add on of water repellant composition may thus be required. Due to the small add on of water repellant coating on top of the waterproof coating, none is illustrated in FIG. 5.
Insofar as film forming polymeric compositions are concerned that may be applied according to the teachings of the present invention, any polymer may be utilized that is film forming, may be evenly applied, and that will bridge the interstices of the fabric to form a film thereat while not wicking indiscriminately into the fiber bundles. Likewise, the film formed should be extensible so as to improve the utility of the treated fabric and preferably the film should have an extensibility characteristic of at least 1,000 per cent of its original length or width based on a 0.005 in thick film. In situa tions where the end use of the fabric is a garment or another similar product, the film is preferably a soft film as opposed to a hard film whereby the hand and drape of the substrate are not adversely affected. The polymeric film forming compositions for use according to the present invention should therefore preferably be thermoplastic in nature. Acrylics, vinyls, urethanes and the like including copolymers thereof with other cortipounds are exemplary of suitable polymers. Furthermore, a self-crosslinking polymer is often desirable and is preferred, such as a self-crosslinking acrylic polymer. Obviously, the complete polymer composition would include other ingredients such as fillers, thickeners, viscosity control agents, surfactants, softeners, pigments and the like.
Insofar as the subsequent water repellant composition is concerned, any suitable system may be employed. For example, numerous silanes, silicones and fluorochemicals are known as basic ingredients for water repellant compositions. Any of these may be suitably employed on the previously coated substrate according to the teachings of the present invention. Likewise, numerous textile resins may be simultaneously or otherwise applied to the pretreated substrate so as to achieve durable press characteristics for the ultimate substrate. Insofar as the water repellant and textile resin compositions are concerned, it is generally desirable to include various auxiliary constituents such as binders, catalyst, softeners, extenders and the like. Certainly these constituents would be included if necessary or desirable for the successful deployment of the particular composition to the pretreated substrate.
A better understanding of the present invention may be had by reference to the following examples.
Example I A film forming, waterproof composition was produced comprising 625 pounds of X-279-74, an acrylic monomer emulsion comprising ethyl acrylate, butyl acrylate, methacrylic acid and acrylonitrite, produced by Polymer Industries, Inc., Greenville, S.C.; 32 pounds of X-286-86A, an acrylic polymer emulsion comprising ethyl acrylate and methacrylic acid, produced by Polymer Industries, Inc.; 3 pounds of ammonia; 1 pound of Nopco NDF, a defoaming agent produced by Nopco Chemical Company, Morristown, N.J., and sufficient water to produce 100 gallons of composition. The com- Examples 2-7' Using apparatus arranged as shown in FIG. 1, composition A was applied to various substrates. An amount of composition A was placed in fountain 21 with applicator roll 23 rotating at an equivalent linear speed of 58 yards per minute. The substrates were fed through the apparatus at a linear speed of 1 1 yards per minute. Evening blade 25 was set at an angle of approximately 45 forward of vertical (leaning in the direction of oncoming substrate). Throw off roll 27 was preset to permit passage of substrate over blade 25 at virtually tensionless conditions. The substrates were untouched on the coated side subsequent to coating and prior to formation of the film and were dried under substantially tensionless conditions in a tunnel dryer where the fab ric temperatureaveraged 300F.
Substrates identified in Table l were treated under the above recited process conditions.
As can be seen from Table I, different add on values are realized, depending upon the particular substrate being processed. Yet each of the listed substrates were suitably coated on one side only and without strike through. Moreover, each of the substrates was suitably coated to be waterproof from the direction of the uncoated side.
The substrates were next padded with a water repellant composition comprising 30 per cent Hylite, a dihydroxy dimethyol ethylene urea resin produced by Proctor Chemical Company, Inc., Salsbury, NC; 6 per cent various water tests in original condition, after five home washings and after five commercial dry cleanings. A spray test was conducted in accordance with AATCC Method 22, and a Hurricane test was performed. The Hurricane test is a modification of the Slowinske Rain Test, AATCC Method 35 where a 6 foot water head is employed for 5 minutes instead of the conventional 3 foot head for 2 minutes. Ratings from the Spray and Hurricane Tests are recorded in Table The Hurricane test is conducted under most adverse conditions. Lesser tests such as rain and shower tests would show greatly improved result-s over the Hurricane results. Hence, a successful substrate in a Hurricane test would unquestionably pass the rain and shower tests with ease.
As can be seen from Table Hi, all samples showed excellent original results (after coating) except the Gaberdine of Example 3, which may be erroneous. Moreover, all of the substrates show good protection for practical uses of the substrates. Likewise, sprayratings of the samples indicate suitable water'repellence of the substrates.
Example 8-l0 Samples of 55% polyester/% rayon (8), 5071 polyester/% combed cotton (9) and 65% polyester/35% combed cotton (10) fabrics were treated according to Examples 2 -7. After coating and applying the water repellant finish thereto the fibers were tested for Spray and Hurricane ratings and for water vapor transmissions to determine the degree of breathability of catalyst AMP, an amine hydrochloride produced by 45 0f the Substrate. Data are listed in'Tilble Lyman Printing and Finishing Company, Lyman, South TABLE N Carolina; 6 per cent FC-208, a fluorocarbon water repellant composition, produced by Minnesota Mining Example NW 8 9 m and Manufacturmg Company, St. Paul, M1nn.; 6 per 50 t cent Nelan W, an extender for the FC-208. produced Test, s 0 6 0 S 0 0 by Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company, St. A/SW 1;; Paul, Minn.; 2 percent methanol and the balance wa- QI 06 l S ter. Wet p1ck up for the var1ous substrates are hsted 1n fig '00 90 90+ Table ll. A/5w s0 s0 90 g A/SDC 50 70 70+ TABLE ll Water Vapor Transmission gms/m /hr. Unfinished 635 1 466 690 Example No. Substrate Wet Pick Up l1. OWF Finished 357 733 355 2 Poplin 35 I 40 i giflffff 40 Table IV thus shows the degree of waterproofing of 5 Covert I the three substrates. Note for example that only this fijfg fj l4 particular sample of 50% polyester/50% cotton passed Subsequent to padding the water repellant composition, the substrates were dried and cured for 2 minutes at 340F. Each of the substrates was then subjected to more than 1 gram of water under any circumstances, and this occurred after five dry cleanings of the sample.
5 Further only the 50% polyester/50% cotton exhibited less than a spray rating and this also occurred only after five dry cleanings. At the same time, each of the l 1 samples showed approximately 50 per cent less water vapor transmission after being coated and given the water repellant treatment. Hence with a virtually continuous coating across a surface of the substrate, the
substrate continued to pass 50 per cent of the amount 5 of water vapor passed by the untreated substrate. At this level of transmission, a suitable comfort factor. is realized to enable use of the substrate as a breathable fabric.
Table lV is further, a good indication of the durabil- 1O ity of the waterproof coating and the water repellant composition applied to the substrate.
Examples 11-30 Coating emulsions were prepared from the resins listed in Table V for the waterproof precision coating 7 process of the present invention. Each of these compositions contained comparable constituents to the composition of Example 1. Likewise the pH of each composition fell in the range of 7.0 to 9.5 and composition viscosity ranged from about 8,000 to about 12,000 cps. Table V lists the resin ingredients along with a summary of performance of a coated 55% polyester/45% rayon substrate with the particular coating compositrons.
TABLE V 1. A waterproof, breathable textile substrate, said substrate having an extensible film coating secured to one side of said substrate only, said film having been formed in situ substantially covering said side of said substrate and not striking through said substrate and having a characteristic of at least about 1,000 per cent extensibility based on a film thickness of 0.005 inch, said substrate being waterproof from the direction of said uncoated side.
2. A waterproof, breathable textile substrate as defined in claim 1 wherein said substrate is a woven fabric.
RESIN SYSTEMS FOR WATERPROOF, BREATHABLE COATINGS Example No. Resin Resin Type Performance Hand of Substrate ll Glue (l) O.W.D. F 12 l409R-l (l) acrylic O.W.D. F 1.3 Rhoplex E358 (2) acrylic O.W.D. Fi l4 Hycar 28 l572x45 (3) G 15 Hycar 28 2679 (3) O.W.D. G 16 Hycar 28 2679x6 (3) acrylic O.W. G I? Styrene (4) O.W. G l8 Rhoplex E366 (2) acrylic O.W. G l) X-300-l7 (5) acrylic 0 Pi 20 X 279-74 (5) acrylic O.W.D. VS. 21 TFZGRL (5) acrylic O.W.D. VS. 22 Geon 652 (3) (ll) 23 Geon 450x20 (3) (l2) O.W. G 24 Gafcoat styrene butadiene O.W. G 25 Gafcoat 2528 (6) do. O.W. G 26 Goodrite (3) d0. 27 Polectron 450 (7) polyvinylpyrolidone O.W. Fi 28 Polectron 430 (7) do. 0 Fi 29 Solucote 82H (8) solvent urethane O.W.D. V.S. 30 MC-560-9 (9) (ll) 0 V.S.
(l) Metro Atlantic (2) Rohm & Haas (3) B. F. Goodrich (4) Bert Southern (5) Polymer Southern (6) General Aniline (7) General Aniline Film (8) Solvol (9) Texize (l0) carhoxy modified butadiene/ acrylonitrite copolymer From Table V, it can be seen that numerous resin systems perform satisfactorily according to the present invention. Only the products of Examples 10, 22 and 26 did not perform. The vinyl chloride copolymer of Example 22 and the styrene butadiene resin of Example 26 were both incompatible with the thickeners employed. Note also that certain of the resins exhibited better durability than others. A lack of durability through the washing and/or dry cleaning, however, does not means failure of the system. Instead, the lack of durability just dictates the intended use of the product. For example, durability to washing and dry cleaning is not a prime prerequisite for tarps, tents, awnings (ll) vinylidiene chloride copolymer (12) vinyl chloride/acrylic copolymer O=$atisfactory after coating W=satisfactory after 5 washings D=satisfactory after 5 dry cleanings F=fair hand Fi=firm hand G=good hand VS=very soft hand 3. A waterproof, breathable textile substrate as defined in claim 2 wherein said film is an acrylic film.
4. A waterproof, breathable textile substrate as defined in claim 2 wherein said film is a vinyl film.
5. A waterproof, breathable textile substrate as defined in claim 1 wherein said film is a urethane film.
7. A waterproof, breathable textile substrate as defined in claim 6 wherein said water repellant composition has a crease proofing textile resin therein, whereby film thickness of 0.005 inch, said fabric further having a crease proof, water repellant composition on both sides thereof, said fabric being waterproof from the direction of said opposite side of said fabric.
9. A waterproof, breathable fabric as defined in claim 8 wherein said water repellant composition comprises a silicone resin.
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