US 3896810 A
An aspirator including an open-bottom suction structure defining a vacuum chamber therein which can be evacuated to a desired degree of vacuum to permit the structure to be securely attached to a tumorous part of the body suction. A guide sleeve is fixedly supported along the vertical axis of the suction structure to slidably receive a puncture tube having its lower end cut biaswise to form a sharp edge, and a drainage tube communicated with a source of negative pressure is further slidably accommodated within the puncture tube. A puncture is first performed in the cystic tumor by the bias-cut lower end of the puncture tube, and its fluid contents are removed by suction exerted through the drainage tube. Stable attachment of the suction structure to the tumor may be assured by the provision of an annular air chamber around the guide sleeve or by the provision of a wire netting at the bottom end of the vacuum chamber.
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United States Patent [191 Akiyama [451 July 29,1975
1 1 ASPIRATOR FOR REMOVAL OF THE CONTENTS OF CYSTIC TUMORS Hiroshi Akiyama, No. 2-5-12 Honkomagome Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan  Filed: Dec. 21, 1973  Appl. N0.: 427,070
 Foreign Application Priority Data Dec. 27, 1972 Japan 47-130142  US. Cl. 128/276; 128/302; 128/2 F  Int. Cl A6lm H00  Field of Search 128/276, 302, 297, 303.1,
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,945,496 7/1960 Fosdal 128/276 3,605,747 9/1971 Pashkow.... 3,608,540 9/1971 Sartonas 128/2 R 3,658,066 4/1972 Saidi l28/303.l
3.685.509 8/1972 Bentall 128/302 3.786.801 l/l974 Sartorius 128/2 F FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 1,048.558 11/1966 United Kingdom 128/302 Primary ExaminerRichard A. Gaudet Assistant Examiner-Henry S. Layton Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Hi11, Gross, Simpson, Van Santen, Steadman, Chiara & Simpson  ABSTRACT An aspirator including an open-bottom suction structure defining a vacuum chamber therein which can be evacuated to a desired degree of vacuum to permit the structure to be securely attached to a tumorous part of the body suction. A guide sleeve is fixedly supported along the vertical axis of the suction structure to slidably receive a puncture tube having its lower end cut biaswise to form a sharp edge, and a drainage tube communicated with a source of negative pressure is further slidably accommodated within the puncture tube. A puncture is first performed in the cystic tumor by the bias-cut lower end of the puncture tube, and its fluid contents are removed by suction exerted through the drainage tube. Stable attachment of the suction structure to the tumor may be assured by the provision of an annular air chamber around the guide sleeve or by the provision of a wire netting at the bottom end of the vacuum chamber.
6 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures PATENTED JUL 2 91975 SEEET FIG.1
PATENTEI] JUL 2 9 I975 SHEET FlG.2
ASPIRATOR FOR REMOVAL OF THE CONTENTS OF CYSTIC TUMORS BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates generally to aspirators for medical purposes, and more specifically to an aspirator for particular use for removal of the fluid contents of cystic tumors. The aspirator according to the invention is intended for use with any tumors containing fluid. including abscesses, cysts, hematomas and so forth, whether they are inflammatory or noninflammatory, malignant or benign.
The surgical treatment of, for instance, a malignant giant ovarian cyst requires the removal of its fluid contents. To this end there has been used heretofore an aspirator comprising a trocar fitted with a small tube or cannula, such that the trocar is used to make a puncture in the cystic wall and hence to permit its fluid contents to be drained by suction exerted through the tube.
With this method, however, it is necessary that the tube be manually held in position throughout the processes of puncturing and drainage. Worse yet, the internal pressure of the cyst is usually such that the fluid gushes out when it is punctured and tends to spread over the operating field thereby giving rise to undesired contamination, to secondary infection such as peritonitis, to metastasis of the tumor to the other parts of the body, or to unfavorable prognosis.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In view of the noted deficiencies of the prior art it is an object of this invention to provide a novel and improved aspirator best adapted for removal of the contents of cystic tumors in particular, such that the tumors can be drained of their fluid contents without any leakage.
Another object of the invention is to provide an aspirator including a puncture tube and a drainage tube which are supported coaxially by a suction structure adapted to be easily and securely attached to a tumor of the body by suction so that the fluid contents of cystic tumors can be removed in a highly efficient manner.
A further object of the invention is to provide an aspirator wherein only the puncture tube can be caused to retract into a guide sleeve within the suction structure upon making a puncture in the tumor so that the possibility of unnecessarily injuring the neighboring structures or organs during the process of drainage is minimized.
A further object of the invention is to provide an aspirator including means adapted to prevent the suction exerted by the suction structure from affecting the operations of the puncture tube and drainage tube.
A further object of the invention is to provide an aspirator including a reservoir formed upon the suction structure to collect any fluid drained by capillary action through the intervening spaces between the drainage tube and the puncture tube and between the puncture tube and the guide sleeve.
A still further object of the invention is to provide an aspirator of such construction that even in case an affected area is deeply seated within the body, a minimum degree of incision is required for the apparatus to reach the area.
Stated by way of a brief summary of the invention, the aspirator according to the inventive concepts includes a hollow suction structure defining an openbottom vacuum chamber therein to be placed directly upon a tumor. A first source of negative pressure is communicable with the vacuum chamber to create a desired degree of vacuum therein. A guide sleeve fixedly supported within the suction structure along the vertical axis thereof is adapted principally to slidably support a puncture tube having a sharp bevel to make a puncture in the tumor, and an elongate drainage tube further slidably' extends through the puncture tube. A second source of negative pressure is coupled to the drainage tube, so that the punctured tumor can immediately be drained of its fluid contents by suction exerted through-the drainage tube.
The features which are believed to be novel and characteristic of this invention are set forth with particularity in the appended claims. The invention itself, however, both as to its organization and mode of operation, together with the further objects and advantages thereof, will become more apparent from the following description of preferred embodiments taken in connection with the accompanying drawings wherein like reference characters denote corresponding parts of the several views.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 illustrates, partly in perspective and partly in side elevation, an aspirator constructed in accordance with the principles of this invention;
FIG. 2 is an axial sectional view of a suction structure and associated parts in the aspirator of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a perspective view explanatory of the manner of use of the aspirator of FIG. 1; and
FIG. 4 illustrates, partly in side elevation and partly in axial section, a'suction structure and associated parts by way of another preferred embodiment of the invention.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS The aspirator according to this invention will now be described in terms of a first preferred embodiment thereof illustratedin FIGS. 1 to 3. Referring first to FIGS. 1 and 2, the reference numeral 10 denotes a typically metal-made, hollow suction structure which may be substantially in the shape of a cylinder or truncatedcone. The suction'structure 10 is closed at its top and open at its bottom, and the external diameter of its open bottom may be in the range of from about 25 to 35 millimeters for all practical purposes.
Fixedly supported within the suction structure 10 in coaxial relationship thereto is a partition structure 11 similar in shape with the suction structure but of appropriately reduced diameter, and a guide sleeve 12 is further fixedly supported within the partition structure along its vertical axis. It will be seen from FIG. 2 that the upper end portion of the guide sleeve 12 extends through the closed top 13 of the partition structure 11 and further through the closed top 14 of the suction structure 10, the guide sleeve being thus adapted to receive with some clearance a puncture tube designated by the numeral 15 in FIG. 1, as hereinafter explained in more detail.
Hence, as best shown in FIG. 2, a vacuum chamber 16 of substantially annular shape is defined between the suction structure 10 and the partition structure 11, and an air chamber 17 of similar shape between the partition structure 11 and the guide sleeve 12. It is to be noted, however, that the provision of this air chamber 17 and therefore of the partition structure 11 is not of absolute necessity, although it has been confirmed from actual practice that the air chamber 17 helps facilitate the entire process of removal of the fluid contents of tumors, for reasons hereinafter made apparent. The b om edges of the partition structure 11 and the guide sfzeve 12 would preferably be located slightly above the plane of the bottom edge of the suction structure 10, in order to conform to the swollen surfaces of the tumors to be treated.
Also as best shown in FIG. 2, a reservoir 18 may be defined upon the suction structure as by means of a hollow, open-top cylinder 19 screw-threadedly or otherwise detachably mounted on the closed top 14 of the suction structure. A pair of vertical guide slots 20 are formed in the upper end portion of the cylinder 19 in a diametrically opposed manner. Each of these verti cal guide slots 20 extends from the upper end of the cylinder 19 down to a point intermediate both ends thereof. Furthermore, as seen in part in FIG. 1, a pair of horizontal guide slots 21 extend horizontally from intermediate points of the respective vertical guide slots 20 in a radially symmetrical manner with respect to the axis of the cylinder 19.
Wlth particular reference to FIG. I, the aforesaid puncture tube is formed of suitably rigid material and has its lower end cut biaswise to define a sharp edge 22' adapted to make a puncture in the tumor wall in the use of this aspirator. A collar 23 is somewhat loosely but fixedly fitted over the upper end of the puncture tube 15. This collar is adapted to serve principally as a stop when the puncture tube 15 is fully inserted into the guide sleeve 12 as indicated by the dotand-dash lines in FIG. 2, with the collar or stop 23 resting upon the closed top 14 of the suction structure 10. It will also be noted from FIG. 2 that the puncture tube 15 has such length that when thus fully inserted into the guide sleeve 12, it has its bias-cut lower edge 22 projecting sufficiently downwardly out of the lower end of the guide sleeve. A pair of support rods 24 extend horizontally outwardly from the collar 23 in diametrically opposed relationship to each other so as to be loosely received in the aforesaid vertical guide slots or in the horizontal guide slots 21, as set forth in more detail in the ensuing description of operation.
A conventional pneumatic fitting 25 passes through the suction structure 10 to communicate the vacuum chamber 16 with a suitable source of negative pressure through a pressure conduit 26 of flexible type and a cock 27 as shown in FIG. 1. While the vacuum chamber 16 within the suction structure 10 may be communicated with any known or suitable means capable of exhausting the vacuum chamber to a desired degree of vacuum, it has been confirmed that the objects of this invention can be accomplished by use of a syringe 28 of conventional construction which as used in this embodiment of the invention, consists of a closed-bottom barrel 29 and a plunger 30 slidably but pressure-tightly fitted therein.
Also as illustrated in FIG. 1, an elongate drainage tube 31 is inserted into the puncture tube 15 with appropriate clearance and is communicated with a second source 32 of negative pressure which also can be of any known or suitable construction. The drainage tube 31 may be formed of silicone or natural rubbers.
In another preferred embodiment of the invention correspondingly enlarged vacuum chamber 16a defined between the suction structure 10 and the guide sleeve 12 is fixedly provided at its bottom end with a netting 33 of annular shape such for example as that made of wires with a mesh size of. say, from about 3 to 4 millimeters. Other details of construction of this second embodiment are exactly as set forth above with reference to FIGS. 1 and 2.
For removal of the contents of a cystic tumor that has developed, for instance, within the abdomen by use of the aspirator described hereinbefore with relation to FIGS. 1, 2 and 4, the suction structure 10 together with the parts coupled directly thereto should first be held lightly against the tumor wall through a proper incision made in the adbominal wall. The syringe 28 or its equivalent means is then manipulated to create the desired degree of negative pressure within the vacuum chamber 16, and the cock 27 is succeedingly operated to close the pressure conduit 26. In this manner the suction structure 10 as well as the guide sleeve 12, the cylinder 19 and so forth can be substantially immovably attached to the tumor wall by suction exerted from the vacuum chamber 16.
It will be appreciated that if the annular air chamber 17 is formed within the suction structure 10 as best shown in FIG. 2, the interior of the guide sleeve 12 can be substantially isolated from the vacuum chamber 16 so that the suction structure can be caused to duly adhere to the tumor wall. It is also possible in this manner to prevent the leakage of the fluid drained from within the tumor and further to prevent the spread of a puncture formed by the puncture tube 15. These favorable results can likewise be substantially gained by means of the wire netting 33, FIG. 4, which is provided at the bottom end of the vacuum chamber 16a as an alternative measure to the air chamber 17. That is because the wire netting 33 makes possible the closer adhesion of the suction structure 10 to the affected area.
As the suction structure 10 with its associated parts are securely mounted in position as above stated, the puncture tube 15 together with the drainage tube 31 fitted therein is inserted into the guide sleeve 12, with the support rods 24 of the puncture tube received in the respective vertical guide slots 20 of the cylinder 19 as illustrated in FIG. 3. Upon full insertion of the puncture tube 15 into the guide sleeve 12, the bias-cut lower end 22 of the former forms a puncture in the surface of the affected area. Although in this instance the fluid contents of the cystic tumor may violently flow out due to its high internal pressure, all such fluid will be drained without leakage if the drainage tube 31 is then sufficiently depressed into the puncture tube 15. Since it is assumed thatthe second source 32 of negative pressure coupled to the drainage tube 31 is already set in operation, complete drainage of the fluid from within the tumor can be accomplished by virtue of the suction exerted through the drainage tube, and the fluid removed in this manner may be collected in a suitable receptacle not shown in the drawings.
It will be further noted from FIG. 2 in particular that any fluid drained by capillary action through the intervening spaces between the drainage tube 31 and the puncture tube 15 and between the puncture tube 15 and the guide sleeve 12 can all be collected without leakage in the reservoir 18 formed on the closed top 14 of the suction structure by the cylinder 19. As the tumor is gradually drained of its fluid contents, its surface might become wrinkled. However, since the surface is held tensed by suction exerted from the vacuum chamber 16 according to this invention, the contents of the tumor can be thoroughly removed within a very short period of time.
When the puncture has been formed by the bias-cut lower end 22 of the puncture tube by dropping its support rods 24 into the respective vertical guide slots 20 of the cylinder 19 as previously mentioned, the support rods may be manually lifted again and directed into the respective horizontal guide slots 21 thereby causing the bias-cut lower end 22 of the puncture tube to retract into the guide sleeve 12 while leaving the lower end of the drainage tube 31 within the tumor. In this manner, even though the drainage tube 31 may inevitably oscillate to some extent as it drains the tumor, there is practically no possibility of injuring the neighboring parts or organs of the body by the puncture tube 15. The drainage tube 31 itself can also be protected from possible damage by the puncture tube 15.
It will be unnecessary to give any further details with regard to the use of the aspirator according to the invention as they will belong to the expertise of skilled physicians and surgeons. It may well be added, however, that the aspirator is adaptable for a variety of purposes other than those explained herein, such as for making insertion into body cavities or joints. The suction structure 10 in particular may be employed as a support for a fiberscope or, if desired, as a fixture for a thermograph to be attached at the tip of the fiberscope.
Thus, while it will be apparent from the preferred embodiments of the invention herein disclosed are well calculated to fulfill the objects above stated, it will be appreciated that the invention itself is susceptible to modifications, substitutions or changes within the usual knowledge of the specialties, and in some instances some features of the invention may be employed without the corresponding use of other features. It is therefore appropriate that the invention be construed broadly and in a manner consistent with the fair meaning or proper scope of the subjoined claims.
Terms such as vertical, downwardly, top, bottom and the like are used as terms of reference without regard to the direction of gravity.
1. An aspirator for particular use in removing the contents of a cystic tumor comprising in combination:
a. a hollow suction structure having a closed top and an open bottom for engaging the tumor for defining therewith a vacuum chamber therein for attachment of the structure to the tumor;
b. a first source of negative pressure connectable to said vacuum chamber, said first source of negative pressure being of the type adapted to create a selectable degree of vacuum in said vacuum chamber;
c. a guide sleeve fixedly supported by and within said suction structure along the vertical axis thereof,
said guide sleeve including a portion extending through said closed top of said suction structure;
cl. a reciprocably movable puncture tube open at both ends and slidable in said guide sleeve and having a length greater than said guide sleeve, the lower end of said puncture tube being cut biaswise to define a cutting edge for making a puncture in the cystic tumor;
e. stop means acting between said puncture tube and said suction structure for supporting said puncture tube within said guide sleeve in such a position that said lower end of said puncture tube projects beyond said guide sleeve; and
f. a drainage tube slidable in said puncture tube for extending through said puncture tube and having a lower open end sized smaller than said puncture forming edge for being inserted into the cystic tumor through the puncture formed by said puncture tube, the other end thereof being connectable to a second source of negative pressure for draining the cystic tumor of its fluid contents, whereby the puncture tube may be retracted from the tumor during such drainage.
2. The aspirator as recited in claim 1, including an open-bottom partition structure fixedly supported within said suction structure, said partition structure being adapted to define an annular air chamber between said vacuum chamber and said guide sleeve whereby the interior of said guide sleeve is substantially isolated from said vacuum chamber.
3. The aspirator as recited in claim 1, including a netting fixedly provided at the bottom end of said vacuum chamber.
4. The aspirator as recited in claim 1, including means for defining a reservoir upon said closed top of said suction structure, said reservoir being adapted to collect any fluid removed from within the cystic tumor by capillary action through the intervening spaces between said guide sleeve and said puncture tube and between said puncture tube and said drainage tube.
5. The aspirator as recited in claim 4, wherein said means for defining said reservoir is in the form of an open-top hollow cylinder.
6. The aspirator as recited in claim 5, wherein said cylinder is formed with a first pair of diametrically opposed guide slots each extending vertically from the top of said cylinder down to a point intermediate both ends thereof and with a second pair of guide slots extending horizontally from intermediate points of said first pair of guide slots respectively in a radially symmetrical manner'with respect to the axis of said cylinder, and wherein said puncture tube is provided with a pair of diametrically opposed support rods extending horizontally outwardly therefrom so as to be loosely received in said first or second pair of guide slots respectively, whereby when said support rods are received fully in said first pair of guide slots, said lower end of said puncture tube projects downwardly from said guide sleeve,
whereas when said support rods are received in said second pair of guide slots, said lower end of said puncture tube is retracted into said guide sleeve.
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