Búsqueda Imágenes Maps Play YouTube Noticias Gmail Drive Más »
Iniciar sesión
Usuarios de lectores de pantalla: deben hacer clic en este enlace para utilizar el modo de accesibilidad. Este modo tiene las mismas funciones esenciales pero funciona mejor con el lector.

Patentes

  1. Búsqueda avanzada de patentes
Número de publicaciónUS4232676 A
Tipo de publicaciónConcesión
Número de solicitudUS 05/961,192
Fecha de publicación11 Nov 1980
Fecha de presentación16 Nov 1978
Fecha de prioridad16 Nov 1978
Número de publicación05961192, 961192, US 4232676 A, US 4232676A, US-A-4232676, US4232676 A, US4232676A
InventoresAndrew Herczog
Cesionario originalCorning Glass Works
Exportar citaBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
Enlaces externos: USPTO, Cesión de USPTO, Espacenet
Surgical cutting instrument
US 4232676 A
Resumen
The present invention provides a surgical cutting instrument having a blade portion and cutting edge therefor with electric input elements located near the cutting edge for cutting the tissue and cauterizing the surfaces of the incision, thereby allowing surgery to be more rapidly performed. This is accomplished in accordance with the illustrated embodiments of this invention by providing electrodes of opposed polarity, applied to the blade, near the cutting edge. With an electrical potential applied, no current will flow between the electrodes and no heat is produced unless the electrode gap is bridged by a conducting medium such as a high conductivity physiological fluid. Heat is then generated by electric discharge below an arcing threshold in all areas where the blade is in contact with moist tissue. Little electric discharge or heat occurs elsewhere. Moreover, if movement of the blade is halted, heat generation will substantially diminish as the cut tissue becomes dry as a result of cauterization. A process according to the present invention may include hemostasis of intact tissue and selected use of the instrument for cutting other materials compatible with the process.
Imágenes(1)
Previous page
Next page
Reclamaciones(7)
I claim:
1. A surgical instrument adapted to be coupled to a source of electrical power for cauterizing tissue which is moist and electrically conductive due to the presence of physiological fluid and for simultaneous hemostasis thereof, the instrument comprising:
a blade, a cutting edge formed integrally with said blade along an edge thereof for incising tissue, and at least one pair of electrically-conductive electrodes disposed in the vicinity of the cutting edge in spaced relation to each other and adapted to be electrically coupled to the source of power, each electrode formed as an electrically conductive film surface on the blade surface including a common current carrying member evenly spaced from the cutting edge and integral transverse elongated narrow fingers extending therefrom being relatively closely interdigitated with fingers of another of said electrodes, a distal end of each of said fingers for an electrode being located on the same blade surface as the common current carrying member for the other electrode to conduct electrical power along a plurality of electrical current paths transversely from one finger to an immediately adjacent interdigitated finger for directly heating the tissue along the cutting edge in response to the electrical power applied thereto; and
connection means on said instrument providing electrical connections to said electrodes for supplying the electrical power thereto.
2. The surgical cutting instrument of claim 1 wherein said electrodes are disposed in lateral spatial relationship on opposite sides of said cutting edge with a distal portion of each finger traversing said cutting edge.
3. The surgical cutting instrument of claim 1 wherein said electrode spacing is between about 1 and 0.1 millimeters.
4. A method of effecting simultaneous cauterization and resulting hemostasis in tissue comprising the steps of:
contacting the tissue with a tissue cauterizing means;
impressing a voltage from about 20 to about 80 volts across the cauterizing means;
alternating the impressed voltage at a frequency from about 10 KHz to about 10 MHz;
maintaining said impressed voltage below a threshold for arcing
establishing an elevated temperature in tissue by conducting current only along a plurality of current paths located along said cauterizing means which are in contact with relatively moist tissue;
dissipating between about 5 to 50 watts of average power in regions of the cauterizing means which are selectively conductive upon contact with moist tissue for the purpose of cauterizing said tissue and thereby producing hemostasis.
5. The method according to claim 4 wherein:
conducting of current along the plurality of current paths is dependent on the conductivity of the tissue.
6. The method according to claim 4 wherein dissipating power in the region of the cauterization means in contact with moist tissue results in increasing the resistance of the current paths by decreasing moisture of the tissue.
7. The method according to claim 4 further including the step of: orienting the current paths in at least one of the directions along and across the cauterization means.
Descripción
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

During application of a surgical knife or scalpel bleeding can be reduced by cauterizing the cut tissue through heat. According to the prior art, this can be obtained, for example, by applying resistance elements near the cutting edge of the scalpel which is electrically heated to provide a temperature of 200°-500° C. in contact with the tissue. In doing so, however, parts of the blade not in contact with tissue may become grossly overheated, presenting a hazard to both patient and surgeon. Several methods have been recommended to overcome this problem. Generally, all have disadvantages. For example, segmented heating elements require individual temperature-power control systems; heating elements with a large negative temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) require a very high voltage drive; and, high frequency electric discharge applied through the patient's body produces bad scars and is hard to control.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Accordingly, the present invention provides a surgical cutting instrument having a blade portion and cutting edge therefor which is adapted with electric input elements for cutting the tissue and cauterizing the surfaces of the incision, thereby allowing surgery to be more rapidly performed. This is accomplished in accordance with the illustrated embodiments of this invention by applying electrodes of opposed polarity to the blade near the cutting edge. With an electrical potential applied, no current will flow between the electrodes and no heat is produced unless the electrode gap is bridged by a conducting medium, such as moist tissue rendered conductive by the presence of physiological fluid. Heat is then generated by electric discharge below an arcing threshold in all areas where the blade is in contact with moist tissue. No electric discharge or heat occurs elsewhere. Moreover, if movement of the blade is halted, heat generation will automatically diminish as the tissue becomes dry as a result of cauterization. Cauterization and hemostasis may occur in both intact and incised tissue.

The electrodes may be made of films of platinum, palladium and other stable metals or alloys satisfying physiological requirements. While the potential applied may be DC or AC, the latter is preferred. In AC mode of operation, particularly at higher frequencies, the system will react as a lossy capacitor when a high conductivity material such as salt-containing water appears within the electrode gap or fringing field between electrode segments. In this case, the heating effect can be controlled by frequency modulation.

The substrate or blade is formed of an insulating material, preferably a glass or glass-ceramic or ceramic with fine grains. The present invention may take various forms for example:

(a) a substrate either conductive or non-conductive having interleaved alternate layers of conductors and insulators near the cutting edge to produce heating by conduction or discharge through the moist incised tissue;

(b) sets of longitudinal electrodes applied to one or both sides of blade having interleaved conductive fingers;

(c) a metallic cutting edge providing a common connection to one electrode on both sides of the blade; or

(d) one electrode connected on each side of blade, interleafing across the cutting edge.

Herczog and Murphy describe (a) and (c) in their U.S. application Ser. No. 961,189 filed this same date and assigned to Corning Glass Works, the assignee herein.

The handle of the cutting instrument is electrically insulated from the blade. To permit comfortable use of the instrument, the handle and blade are lightweight detachable modules for easy replacement and interchangeability with blades having cutting edges of various shapes and sizes determined by the nature of the incision to be made and the tissue to be cut.

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1a is a schematic side view of an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 1b is a schematic and section view of FIG. 1a taken along line 1b--1b illustrating, the basic principle of operation of the present invention is described including tissue cutting with hemostasis.

FIGS. 2-3 show variations of the present invention wherein an elongated electrode is located on one or both the sides of a blade with interleaved patterns of conductive fingers.

FIG. 4 is a fragmented end section taken along line 4--4 of FIG. 3.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

In FIG. 1a there is shown in schematic from a preferred embodiment of the present invention illustrating the basic principle of operation. A substrate of an insulating material forms a surgical instrument or blade 10 having a cutting edge portion 11. The blade 10 carries electric input elements 12 which are conductive and are labeled respectively as electrodes E and E'. The input elements 12 may be metal foil overlays or coatings having interdigitated discrete elements c1 and c2 for respective electrodes E and E'. Conductors 13 are electrically coupled to input elements 12 via leads or contacts 18 and are supplied with high frequency electrical energy.

The present invention will be further described below mainly with respect to incised tissue but it should be understood that incision is not absolutely necessary for the invention to provide hemostasis. The normally moist tissue of a human may be cauterized by the application of electrical energy in accordance with the principles of the present invention since the moist fluid associated with tissue conducts. Thus successful experiments using various forms of animal tissue have shown that the desired effect of cauterization can occur merely by placing the instrument 10 in contact with moist tissue. As physiological fluid dries the process diminishes to a low level but may continue if the instrument is left in one position. The principle described herein does not therefore require incision, release of fluid and cauterization to produce hemostasis as a multistep process but in reality requires the passage of electrical energy through any available electrolytic medium in or on the tissue surfaces to be cauterized. For purposes of explanation however, the main thrust of the disclosure will refer to the practice of incising and cauterizing tissue simultaneously.

In FIG. 1b tissue 14 is incised at 15 by the cutting edge 11 and opposed surfaces 15a-15b of incision 15 has a surface layer of conductive physiological or body fluid 16 exposed. The spacing of blade 10 and surfaces 15a-15b is exaggerated for clarity but in reality they are in intimate contact. The electrical power is conducted to cutting edge 11 via the electric input elements 12 and, physiological fluid 16 provides one or more paths 17 for current conduction from one electrode E to the other E'. A similar process may occur if input elements 12 are also provided for the left side of blade 10. For example, in FIG. 1a the input elements 12 are shown located on one side of the blade 10. However, this arrangement may be duplicated so that each side of the blade has a pair of input elements 12 as illustrated in FIG. 1b described herein. The latter arrangement is preferred.

AC is preferred since undesirable polarization of the electrodes E-E' and muscular stimulation is possible when DC is used. Further, high frequency AC of 100 kHz-10 mHz is preferred since the input voltage can be as low as 30-50 volts, well below a threshold for arcing.

As the incision 15 is cauterized by the heat generated along conduction paths 17, the body fluid 16 is dried by the heating action. Thus conduction paths 17 disappear and the process is self-limited. As the incision 15 is lengthened or deepened the newly incised portions again release body fluid 16 and the current flows in that newly moistened area. The present invention does not require complex control of portions or segments of the blade 11 since the current paths 17 are produced only when the tissue 14 in incision 15 is moist, i.e. there is body fluid 16 present, resulting from a fresh incision. Wide temperature excursions causing overheating of tissue or portions of the blade 10 is thereby eliminated.

Referring now to FIGS. 2 and 3 of the drawing, there is shown another preferred embodiment of the present invention, wherein similar elements illustrated and explained with regard to FIG. 1 are referenced with the same numerals. The surgical cutting instrument 10 includes the blade cutting edge 11 formed in the desired shape of a surgical cutting instrument which is detachable from handle or holder not shown. The blade 10 may sometimes hereinafter be referred to as a substrate as it carries the electrical input elements 12 thereon disposed in the region of the cutting edge 11. Electrical connections 13 couple input elements 12 to a high frequency voltage source 8 via contacts 18-18', cable 19 and cable connectors 20-20'. The input elements 12 may be comprised of electrodes E and E', the former deposited as a layer of conductive film along the cutting edge 11 and having interdigitated fingers c1. The arrangement is similar to FIG. 1 except that the electrode E1 is adjacent and deposited on the cutting edge. The electrode E' is spaced away from cutting edge 11 and carries fingers c2 which are interdigitated with the fingers c1 of electrode E to provide potential current path sites 17 from electrode E to E'.

As mentioned previously, it is contemplated, in the present invention that the tissue 14 is conductive fluid due to the presence of body fluid 16 bound up in cells (not shown) on the surfaces of intact tissue or surfaces of newly incised tissue, (see FIG. 1). Such fluid satisfactorily conducts electricity. Once the region of the incision 15 is cauterized, the fluid 16 in the vicinity of the incision 15 or area of contact with blade 10 dries and the electrical current reduces by a self-limiting process. This localizes the portion of the input element 12 in which power is dissipated to the portion in contact with moist tissue 14 (see FIG. 1b). The tissue temperature near such portions of the input element 12 may thus be maintained substantially constant.

In the embodiments of the present invention, illustrated in FIGS. 1a-2, heating elements 12 are disposed near the cutting edge 11 on one side of blade 10. The input element 12 is formed with the interdigitated comb-like fingers c1 and c2 projecting from respective electrodes E and E' towards the opposite one. This interdigitation provides paths 7 for current flow across spaces 23 on the surface of the substrate 10. In FIG. 1a the input element 12 is spaced away from the cutting edge 11 while in FIG. 2 one electrode E of input element 12 is formed as a part of the cutting edge 11 and may be coextensive therewith.

In FIGS. 3 and 4 the electrode E' with its comblike fingers c2 is deposited on one side (right) of substrate 10 and the fingers c2 extend across cutting edge 11 to the opposite side. Likewise the electrode E is deposited on the opposite side (left) of the blade with portions of its fingers c1 extending across the cutting edge 11 to the side shown. The fingers c1 and c2 form a interdigitated pattern with each other. Current paths 17 are provided laterally along the cutting edge 11 across insulated spaces 23 while the blade 10 is in contact with moist tissue 14 (see FIG. 1b). The current paths 17 of input element 12 are all parallel-connected between the electrodes E and E'.

Contacts 18-18', leads 13, and cable connectors 20-20' may be formed of a material such as platinum, gold, tungsten or the like, which makes good contact with the input element 12 material and does not readily oxidize at elevated operating temperatures. The input element 12 may consist of tin oxide or possibly one of the noble metals mentioned above.

In each of these embodiments, the cable connectors 20-20' are coupled to a suitable high frequency voltage generator 8 (see FIG. 2), which may be a conventional, well-regulated power supply which is capable of delivering the total current required by all portions of input element 12 while maintaining the voltage between electrodes E-E' substantially constant as various portions conduct. With constant voltage applied to the electrodes, the moist regions draw correspondingly more current and dissipate more power than the dry regions, thereby tending to maintain the tissue in contact with input element 12 all along the cutting edge 11 at a sufficiently high temperature to effect cauterization and hemostasis. The operating temperature at the cutting edge 11 may be controlled by altering the output power and frequency of the high frequency voltage generator 8. Experimental conventional HF generators and power supplies have been used to test the principles of operation of the present invention. To assure substantially uniform operating temperature over the length of the cutting edge 11, the input element 12 should have substantially uniform resistance per unit area, lower than the resistance of the tissue exposed to the input element 12.

Metals for electrodes can be chosen from precious and semiprecious metals mentioned above, as well as stainless steels and others, depending on the intended use.

An important advantage of the use of closely spaced electrodes E-E' is that the low voltage essentially eliminates arcing typical for most high frequency electrosurgical devices presently known. At low voltages, without arcing, flow of electricity between opposite electrodes is possible only by contact with moist tissue 14 contacting high conductivity physiological fluids 16. With cauterizing, the incised tissue 15 surfaces become dry and the conductive connection between electrodes E-E' ceases because the voltage is not sufficient for arc formation. This feature has the advantages of avoiding tissue burns, self-limiting control of electric power, and constant voltage and power consumption control with respect to cutting rate or variation thereof in the area of the tissue to be incised at any instant in time.

In the preferred embodiment of FIG. 1 each blade 10 shown has a similar end section profile. For purposes of explanation, the arrangement of FIG. 1 will be detailed bearing in mind the other similar arrangements. The substrate or blade 10 may be manufactured from a hard glass, glass-ceramic or ceramic sufficiently fine grained or homogeneous and strong for making a good cutting edge. The thickness of the blade 10 decreases to about 0.15 millimeters near the cutting edge 11. Two strips of appropriately shaped metal foil, or metal coatings b1-b2 are applied to one or both sides of the blade 10 before the cutting edge 11 is formed. In this manner one assures that the electrodes E-E' are placed as close as possible to the cutting edge 11 which is formed by removal of some of the material of the heating element 12. For example Corning Code 1723 glass can be sealed to molybdenum foil by pressing in a vacuum at elevated temperature above the softening point of the glass. Other glasses and ceramics can be used with matched thermal expansion by sealing foils or by other metallizing processes. For very thin metal films (less than 1 millimeter) or films made from ductile metal such as aluminum, silver, platinum, gold, etc., matching thermal expansion is less critical.

For the blade 10 illustrated in FIG. 1 strips of 0.1 millimeter molybdenum metal cover the tapered portion 26 of the substrate 10 near the cutting edge 11. Such a coating of foil also provides for some reinforcement of the substrate 11 in the tapered portion 26. If thin electrically conductive films are used for the input element 12, the glass in the tapered region 26 could be formed thicker for providing more strength. Thin metal films of less than one millimeter are preferably made of tin oxide, platinum or gold or alloys thereof because of their good adherence to the substrate 10 and their electrochemical stability.

It has been mentioned that the operation is self-controlling if the voltage is kept at a certain value below the threshold for arcing. For the device shown in FIG. 1 the voltage may be in the range of about 80 to 20 volts as determined by the spacing between the electrodes E-E' near the cutting edge 11. Any decrease in the spacing of the electrodes E-E' will decrease the required voltage. Power dissipation will vary with the cutting rate and the contact area with the incised tissue at 15, and it is contemplated that the range of power dissipation is between about 5 and about 50 watts. High frequency power is used to minimize nerve stimulation and to avoid electrical polarization of the incision 15 including side reactions. The range of frequencies which has been found useful is between about 10 kilohertz and 10 megahertz. With such a wide frequency range a power supply having a varialbe frequency output can be used as a means of impedance matching the circuit of the power supply with the circuit of the surgical instrument 10 including the input element 12, and the electrical connections coupling power thereto. Generally the power supply setting should be chosen so as to maximize power at the lowest possible voltage for a given blade configuration. In this connection it is preferred that electrode spacing between fingers C1-C2 in FIGS. 1a-3 should be from about 0.1 to about 1 mm to reduce the possibility of arching at the power settings comtemplated.

The present invention is useful for other applications requiring a heated cutting edge, not withstanding the main thrust of the disclosure for a surgical instrument. For example the invention could be used to cut materials which are electrically conductive or rendered conductive by the presence of working fluids and the like, so that cutting and perhaps sealing could simultaneously occur.

While there have been described what are considered to be the preferred embodiments of the present invention it will be obvious to one skilled in the art that various changes and modifications may be made therein without departing from the invention and it is intended in the appended claims to cover all such changes and modifications which fall within the true spirit and scope of the invention.

Citas de patentes
Patente citada Fecha de presentación Fecha de publicación Solicitante Título
US3970088 *24 Abr 197520 Jul 1976Valleylab, Inc.Electrosurgical devices having sesquipolar electrode structures incorporated therein
US3987795 *28 Ago 197426 Oct 1976Valleylab, Inc.Electrosurgical devices having sesquipolar electrode structures incorporated therein
US4033351 *14 Sep 19765 Jul 1977Siemens AktiengesellschaftBipolar cutting electrode for high-frequency surgery
US4043342 *26 Feb 197623 Ago 1977Valleylab, Inc.Electrosurgical devices having sesquipolar electrode structures incorporated therein
US4161950 *1 Ago 197524 Jul 1979The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Department Of EnergyElectrosurgical knife
FR2303515A1 * Título no disponible
FR2303517A1 * Título no disponible
Citada por
Patente citante Fecha de presentación Fecha de publicación Solicitante Título
US4314559 *12 Dic 19799 Feb 1982Corning Glass WorksNonstick conductive coating
US4333467 *12 Dic 19798 Jun 1982Corning Glass WorksNonstick conductive coating
US4622966 *16 Jul 198418 Nov 1986Abbott LaboratoriesSurgical cutting device
US4651280 *11 Dic 198517 Mar 1987Chang Sien SElectrosurgical control system using tissue conductivity
US4850353 *8 Ago 198825 Jul 1989Everest Medical CorporationSilicon nitride electrosurgical blade
US5318564 *1 May 19927 Jun 1994Hemostatic Surgery CorporationBipolar surgical snare and methods of use
US5324289 *1 May 199228 Jun 1994Hemostatic Surgery CorporationHemostatic bi-polar electrosurgical cutting apparatus and methods of use
US5330471 *1 May 199219 Jul 1994Hemostatic Surgery CorporationBi-polar electrosurgical endoscopic instruments and methods of use
US5334198 *9 Oct 19922 Ago 1994Innovasive Devices, Inc.Surgical instrument
US5391166 *9 Oct 199221 Feb 1995Hemostatic Surgery CorporationBi-polar electrosurgical endoscopic instruments having a detachable working end
US5396900 *17 Ago 199314 Mar 1995Symbiosis CorporationEndoscopic end effectors constructed from a combination of conductive and non-conductive materials and useful for selective endoscopic cautery
US5472443 *17 Mar 19945 Dic 1995Hemostatic Surgery CorporationFor manipulating tissue during surgery to cause homeostasis
US5484436 *24 Jun 199416 Ene 1996Hemostatic Surgery CorporationBi-polar electrosurgical instruments and methods of making
US5496312 *7 Oct 19935 Mar 1996Valleylab Inc.Impedance and temperature generator control
US5540684 *28 Jul 199430 Jul 1996Hassler, Jr.; William L.For coagulating tissue during a surgical procedure
US5573534 *24 Abr 199512 Nov 1996United States Surgical CorporationBipolar electrosurgical instruments
US5618304 *18 Ene 19948 Abr 1997Innovasive Devices, Inc.Surgical instrument
US5633578 *15 Jul 199427 May 1997Hemostatic Surgery CorporationElectrosurgical generator adaptors
US5693045 *7 Jun 19952 Dic 1997Hemostatic Surgery CorporationElectrosurgical generator cable
US5713895 *30 Dic 19943 Feb 1998Valleylab IncPartially coated electrodes
US5733283 *5 Jun 199631 Mar 1998Malis; Jerry L.Flat loop bipolar electrode tips for electrosurgical instrument
US5766166 *21 Feb 199616 Jun 1998Enable Medical CorporationBipolar Electrosurgical scissors
US5766170 *3 Ene 199716 Jun 1998Hemostatic Surgery CorporationElectrosurgical endoscopic instruments and methods of use
US5769849 *23 May 199523 Jun 1998Hemostatic Surgery CorporationBi-polar electrosurgical endoscopic instruments
US5776128 *3 Ene 19977 Jul 1998Hemostatic Surgery CorporationHemostatic bi-polar electrosurgical cutting apparatus
US5797906 *28 Abr 199525 Ago 1998Valleylab IncRetrograde tissue splitter and method
US5810808 *3 Ene 199722 Sep 1998Hemostatic Surgery CorporationHemostatic bi-polar electrosurgical cutting apparatus and methods of use
US5848978 *14 Nov 199515 Dic 1998Genx International, Inc.Surgical biopsy device
US5855061 *26 Nov 19975 Ene 1999Valley Forge Scientific CorporationMethod of making flat loop bipolar electrode tips for electrosurgical instrument
US5895386 *20 Dic 199620 Abr 1999Electroscope, Inc.Bipolar coagulation apparatus and method for arthroscopy
US5954692 *9 Jul 199721 Sep 1999SymbiosisEndoscopic robotic surgical tools and methods
US5979700 *30 Dic 19979 Nov 1999Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.Clip lift for tissue dispensing system
US6032674 *31 Dic 19977 Mar 2000Arthrocare CorporationSystems and methods for myocardial revascularization
US6041679 *19 Sep 199428 Mar 2000Symbiosis CorporationEndoscopic end effectors constructed from a combination of conductive and non-conductive materials and useful for selective endoscopic cautery
US6045532 *7 Ago 19984 Abr 2000Arthrocare CorporationSystems and methods for electrosurgical treatment of tissue in the brain and spinal cord
US6047700 *22 May 199811 Abr 2000Arthrocare CorporationSystems and methods for electrosurgical removal of calcified deposits
US6053172 *22 May 199825 Abr 2000Arthrocare CorporationSystems and methods for electrosurgical sinus surgery
US6063079 *2 Abr 199816 May 2000Arthrocare CorporationMethods for electrosurgical treatment of turbinates
US6066134 *23 Oct 199823 May 2000Arthrocare CorporationMethod for electrosurgical cutting and ablation
US6070444 *31 Mar 19996 Jun 2000Sherwood Services AgMethod of mass manufacturing coated electrosurgical electrodes
US6086585 *18 Ago 199811 Jul 2000Arthrocare CorporationSystem and methods for electrosurgical treatment of sleep obstructive disorders
US6102046 *2 Jun 199815 Ago 2000Arthrocare CorporationSystems and methods for electrosurgical tissue revascularization
US6105581 *14 Nov 199722 Ago 2000Arthocare CorporationElectrosurgical systems and methods for treating the spine
US6109268 *15 Dic 199729 Ago 2000Arthrocare CorporationSystems and methods for electrosurgical endoscopic sinus surgery
US6113597 *14 Nov 19975 Sep 2000Arthrocare CorporationElectrosurgical systems and methods for urological and gynecological procedures
US6132427 *21 Sep 199817 Oct 2000Medicor CorporationElectrosurgical instruments
US6149620 *12 Feb 199921 Nov 2000Arthrocare CorporationSystem and methods for electrosurgical tissue treatment in the presence of electrically conductive fluid
US6149646 *2 Feb 199921 Nov 2000Linvatec CorporationMonopolar tissue ablator
US6159194 *2 Oct 199712 Dic 2000Arthrocare CorporationSystem and method for electrosurgical tissue contraction
US6159208 *15 Mar 199912 Dic 2000Arthocare CorporationSystem and methods for electrosurgical treatment of obstructive sleep disorders
US617983628 Oct 199830 Ene 2001Arthrocare CorporationPlanar ablation probe for electrosurgical cutting and ablation
US61798377 Mar 199530 Ene 2001Enable Medical CorporationBipolar electrosurgical scissors
US61834692 Ene 19986 Feb 2001Arthrocare CorporationElectrosurgical systems and methods for the removal of pacemaker leads
US619038121 Ene 199820 Feb 2001Arthrocare CorporationMethods for tissue resection, ablation and aspiration
US620354221 Abr 199920 Mar 2001Arthrocare CorporationMethod for electrosurgical treatment of submucosal tissue
US622459227 Jul 19981 May 2001Arthrocare CorporationSystems and methods for electrosurgical tissue treatment in conductive fluid
US623502010 Abr 199822 May 2001Arthrocare CorporationPower supply and methods for fluid delivery in electrosurgery
US623839111 Jun 199929 May 2001Arthrocare CorporationSystems for tissue resection, ablation and aspiration
US625460011 Jun 19993 Jul 2001Arthrocare CorporationSystems for tissue ablation and aspiration
US626465021 May 199924 Jul 2001Arthrocare CorporationMethods for electrosurgical treatment of intervertebral discs
US62646511 Jul 199924 Jul 2001Arthrocare CorporationMethod for electrosurgical spine surgery
US627711220 Feb 199821 Ago 2001Arthrocare CorporationMethods for electrosurgical spine surgery
US62839613 Jun 19994 Sep 2001Arthrocare CorporationApparatus for electrosurgical spine surgery
US629663517 May 19992 Oct 2001Symbiosis CorporationEndoscopic robotic surgical tools and methods
US629663621 Jul 19992 Oct 2001Arthrocare CorporationPower supply and methods for limiting power in electrosurgery
US63225496 Ene 200027 Nov 2001Arthocare CorporationSystems and methods for electrosurgical treatment of tissue in the brain and spinal cord
US635026423 Oct 200026 Feb 2002Enable Medical CorporationBipolar electrosurgical scissors
US635503227 Feb 199812 Mar 2002Arthrocare CorporationSystems and methods for selective electrosurgical treatment of body structures
US63639376 May 19982 Abr 2002Arthrocare CorporationSystem and methods for electrosurgical treatment of the digestive system
US637935118 Feb 200030 Abr 2002Arthrocare CorporationElectrosurgical method for the removal of pacemaker leads
US639102513 Mar 199821 May 2002Arthrocare CorporationElectrosurgical scalpel and methods for tissue cutting
US639102929 Sep 200021 May 2002Enable Medical CorporationBipolar electrosurgical scissors
US64097251 Feb 200025 Jun 2002Triad Surgical Technologies, Inc.Electrosurgical knife
US641650718 Ene 20009 Jul 2002Arthrocare CorporationMethod for treating articular cartilage defects
US641650815 Feb 20009 Jul 2002Arthrocare CorporationMethods for electrosurgical tissue treatment in conductive fluid
US643210326 Jun 200013 Ago 2002Arthrocare CorporationSystem for electrosurgical treatment of submucosal tissue
US644751127 Feb 199710 Sep 2002Symbiosis CorporationBipolar endoscopic surgical scissor blades and instrument incorporating the same
US646469519 Ene 200115 Oct 2002Arthrocare CorporationMethod for electrosurgical treatment of intervertebral discs
US646470129 Sep 200015 Oct 2002Enable Medical CorporationBipolar electrosurgical scissors
US646827019 Sep 200022 Oct 2002Arthocare CorporationSystem and method for electrosurgical treatment of intervertebral discs
US648220127 Jul 200019 Nov 2002Arthrocare CorporationSystems and methods for tissue resection, ablation and aspiration
US650017318 May 200131 Dic 2002Ronald A. UnderwoodMethods for electrosurgical spine surgery
US65442615 Feb 20018 Abr 2003Arthrocare CorporationSystems and methods for electrosurgical treatment of submucosal tissue
US655755920 Feb 19986 May 2003Arthrocare CorporationElectrosurgical systems and methods with temperature control
US657596816 May 200010 Jun 2003Arthrocare Corp.Electrosurgical system for treating the spine
US658242320 Abr 199824 Jun 2003Arthrocare CorporationElectrosurgical systems and methods for recanalization of occluded body lumens
US658923719 Ene 20018 Jul 2003Arthrocare Corp.Electrosurgical apparatus and methods for treating tissue
US658923913 Dic 20018 Jul 2003Ashok C. KhandkarElectrosurgical knife
US659599012 May 200022 Jul 2003Arthrocare CorporationSystems and methods for electrosurgical tissue revascularization
US662015520 Feb 199816 Sep 2003Arthrocare Corp.System and methods for electrosurgical tissue contraction within the spine
US662345423 Jul 199923 Sep 2003Arthrocare Corp.System and method for electrosurgical tissue contraction
US66321935 Ene 200014 Oct 2003Arthrocare CorporationSystems and methods for electrosurgical tissue treatment
US663222012 Nov 199914 Oct 2003Arthrocare Corp.Systems for electrosurgical tissue treatment in conductive fluid
US665910610 Ene 20009 Dic 2003Arthrocare CorporationSystem and methods for electrosurgical treatment of turbinates
US671281130 Sep 200230 Mar 2004Arthrocare CorporationMethods for electrosurgical spine surgery
US67266848 Nov 200027 Abr 2004Arthrocare CorporationMethods for electrosurgical spine surgery
US6740085 *13 Nov 200125 May 2004Olympus CorporationHeating treatment system
US674644717 Abr 20018 Jun 2004Arthrocare CorporationMethods for ablating tissue
US674721820 Sep 20028 Jun 2004Sherwood Services AgElectrosurgical haptic switch including snap dome and printed circuit stepped contact array
US674960430 Mar 200015 Jun 2004Arthrocare CorporationElectrosurgical instrument with axially-spaced electrodes
US676383618 Jun 200220 Jul 2004Arthrocare CorporationMethods for electrosurgical tendon vascularization
US67700719 Feb 20013 Ago 2004Arthrocare CorporationBladed electrosurgical probe
US67720123 May 20013 Ago 2004Arthrocare CorporationMethods for electrosurgical treatment of spinal tissue
US677340919 Sep 200110 Ago 2004Surgrx LlcSurgical system for applying ultrasonic energy to tissue
US677343122 Feb 200110 Ago 2004Arthrocare CorporationMethod for epidermal tissue ablation
US680284312 Sep 200212 Oct 2004Csaba TruckaiElectrosurgical working end with resistive gradient electrodes
US680513027 Abr 200119 Oct 2004Arthrocare CorporationMethods for electrosurgical tendon vascularization
US683299610 Ene 200121 Dic 2004Arthrocare CorporationElectrosurgical systems and methods for treating tissue
US683788418 Jun 20024 Ene 2005Arthrocare CorporationElectrosurgical apparatus having compound return electrode
US683788725 Ene 20024 Ene 2005Arthrocare CorporationArticulated electrosurgical probe and methods
US683788825 Feb 20024 Ene 2005Arthrocare CorporationElectrosurgical probe with movable return electrode and methods related thereto
US685514312 Dic 200015 Feb 2005Arthrocare CorporationElectrosurgical systems and methods for recanalization of occluded body lumens
US68966721 May 200024 May 2005Arthrocare CorporationMethods for electrosurgical incisions on external skin surfaces
US68966748 Nov 200024 May 2005Arthrocare CorporationElectrosurgical apparatus having digestion electrode and methods related thereto
US690549731 May 200314 Jun 2005Surgrx, Inc.Jaw structure for electrosurgical instrument
US691357930 Abr 20025 Jul 2005Surgrx, Inc.Electrosurgical working end and method for obtaining tissue samples for biopsy
US691580625 Ene 200112 Jul 2005Arthrocare CorporationMethod for harvesting graft vessel
US69208838 Nov 200226 Jul 2005Arthrocare CorporationMethods and apparatus for skin treatment
US69267169 Nov 20029 Ago 2005Surgrx Inc.Electrosurgical instrument
US692964024 Feb 200016 Ago 2005Arthrocare CorporationMethods for electrosurgical tissue contraction within the spine
US692964422 Oct 200116 Ago 2005Surgrx Inc.Electrosurgical jaw structure for controlled energy delivery
US694909621 Ene 200327 Sep 2005Arthrocare CorporationElectrosurgical ablation and aspiration apparatus having flow directing feature and methods related thereto
US696020416 Jul 20031 Nov 2005Arthrocare CorporationElectrosurgical method using laterally arranged active electrode
US697445320 Abr 200113 Dic 2005Arthrocare CorporationDual mode electrosurgical clamping probe and related methods
US69867684 Feb 200317 Ene 2006Sherwood Services AgElectrosurgical electrode shroud
US699163113 Feb 200331 Ene 2006Arthrocare CorporationElectrosurgical probe having circular electrode array for ablating joint tissue and systems related thereto
US70049417 Nov 200228 Feb 2006Arthrocare CorporationSystems and methods for electrosurigical treatment of obstructive sleep disorders
US701165710 Ene 200314 Mar 2006Surgrx, Inc.Jaw structure for electrosurgical instrument and method of use
US70333544 Dic 200325 Abr 2006Sherwood Services AgElectrosurgical electrode having a non-conductive porous ceramic coating
US704110222 May 20039 May 2006Surgrx, Inc.Electrosurgical working end with replaceable cartridges
US70449484 Dic 200316 May 2006Sherwood Services AgCircuit for controlling arc energy from an electrosurgical generator
US706006424 Jun 200513 Jun 2006Sherwood Services AgElectrosurgical electrode shroud
US706369725 Jul 200320 Jun 2006Symbiosis CorporationBipolar endoscopic surgical scissor blades and instrument incorporating the same
US70705963 Oct 20004 Jul 2006Arthrocare CorporationElectrosurgical apparatus having a curved distal section
US707059719 Ago 20034 Jul 2006Surgrx, Inc.Electrosurgical working end for controlled energy delivery
US708361919 Jul 20021 Ago 2006Surgrx, Inc.Electrosurgical instrument and method of use
US708705430 Sep 20038 Ago 2006Surgrx, Inc.Electrosurgical instrument and method of use
US70906722 Jul 200315 Ago 2006Arthrocare CorporationMethod for treating obstructive sleep disorder includes removing tissue from the base of tongue
US709421528 Mar 200322 Ago 2006Arthrocare CorporationSystems and methods for electrosurgical tissue contraction
US710498612 May 200312 Sep 2006Arthrocare CorporationIntervertebral disc replacement method
US710510310 Mar 200312 Sep 2006Becton, Dickinson And CompanySystem and method for the manufacture of surgical blades
US711220122 Ene 200326 Sep 2006Surgrx Inc.Electrosurgical instrument and method of use
US713186020 Nov 20037 Nov 2006Sherwood Services AgConnector systems for electrosurgical generator
US71319691 May 20007 Nov 2006Arthrocare CorpSystems and methods for electrosurgical treatment of obstructive sleep disorders
US71379801 May 200321 Nov 2006Sherwood Services AgMethod and system for controlling output of RF medical generator
US71568426 Oct 20042 Ene 2007Sherwood Services AgElectrosurgical pencil with improved controls
US715684420 Nov 20032 Ene 2007Sherwood Services AgElectrosurgical pencil with improved controls
US716914320 Oct 200530 Ene 2007Arthrocare CorporationMethods for electrosurgical tissue treatment in electrically conductive fluid
US716914617 Feb 200430 Ene 2007Surgrx, Inc.Electrosurgical probe and method of use
US717925520 Dic 200020 Feb 2007Arthrocare CorporationMethods for targeted electrosurgery on contained herniated discs
US7182762 *30 Dic 200327 Feb 2007Smith & Nephew, Inc.Electrosurgical device
US71862345 Feb 20026 Mar 2007Arthrocare CorporationElectrosurgical apparatus and methods for treatment and removal of tissue
US718625329 Abr 20056 Mar 2007Surgrx, Inc.Electrosurgical jaw structure for controlled energy delivery
US71892333 Sep 200413 Mar 2007Surgrx, Inc.Electrosurgical instrument
US719242820 Mar 200320 Mar 2007Arthrocare CorporationSystems for epidermal tissue ablation
US720175018 May 199910 Abr 2007Arthrocare CorporationSystem for treating articular cartilage defects
US721726824 Jun 200315 May 2007Arthrocare CorporationMethod for electrosurgical tissue treatment near a patient's heart
US723507217 Feb 200426 Jun 2007Sherwood Services AgMotion detector for controlling electrosurgical output
US724129313 Nov 200310 Jul 2007Arthrocare CorporationElectrode screen enhanced electrosurgical apparatus and methods for ablating tissue
US724129419 Nov 200310 Jul 2007Sherwood Services AgPistol grip electrosurgical pencil with manual aspirator/irrigator and methods of using the same
US72442575 Nov 200317 Jul 2007Sherwood Services AgElectrosurgical pencil having a single button variable control
US72556944 Dic 200314 Ago 2007Sherwood Services AgVariable output crest factor electrosurgical generator
US727065810 Mar 200318 Sep 2007Arthrocare CorporationSystems and methods for electrosurgery
US727065919 Sep 200518 Sep 2007Arthrocare CorporationMethods for electrosurgical treatment of spinal tissue
US72706615 Feb 200218 Sep 2007Arthocare CorporationElectrosurgical apparatus and methods for treatment and removal of tissue
US727606312 Sep 20032 Oct 2007Arthrocare CorporationInstrument for electrosurgical tissue treatment
US72971435 Feb 200420 Nov 2007Arthrocare CorporationTemperature indicating electrosurgical apparatus and methods
US729714511 Oct 200520 Nov 2007Arthrocare CorporationBipolar electrosurgical clamp for removing and modifying tissue
US730043521 Nov 200327 Nov 2007Sherwood Services AgAutomatic control system for an electrosurgical generator
US730355727 Dic 20044 Dic 2007Sherwood Services AgVessel sealing system
US730984918 Nov 200418 Dic 2007Surgrx, Inc.Polymer compositions exhibiting a PTC property and methods of fabrication
US73188233 Jul 200315 Ene 2008Arthrocare CorporationMethods for repairing damaged intervertebral discs
US73319562 Ago 200619 Feb 2008Arthrocare CorporationMethods and apparatus for treating back pain
US733195714 Feb 200319 Feb 2008Arthrocare CorporationElectrosurgical apparatus and methods for laparoscopy
US735444018 Nov 20048 Abr 2008Surgrx, Inc.Electrosurgical instrument and method of use
US735779813 May 200315 Abr 2008Arthrocare CorporationSystems and methods for electrosurgical prevention of disc herniations
US736457724 Jul 200329 Abr 2008Sherwood Services AgVessel sealing system
US738120912 Feb 20073 Jun 2008Surgrx, Inc.Electrosurgical instrument
US738762512 Mar 200417 Jun 2008Arthrocare CorporationMethods and apparatus for treating intervertebral discs
US738774217 Sep 200417 Jun 2008Becton, Dickinson And CompanySilicon blades for surgical and non-surgical use
US739335118 Jun 20021 Jul 2008Arthrocare CorporationApparatus and methods for treating cervical inter-vertebral discs
US739335423 Jul 20031 Jul 2008Sherwood Services AgElectrosurgical pencil with drag sensing capability
US739633627 Oct 20048 Jul 2008Sherwood Services AgSwitched resonant ultrasonic power amplifier system
US739648429 Abr 20058 Jul 2008Becton, Dickinson And CompanyMethods of fabricating complex blade geometries from silicon wafers and strengthening blade geometries
US741643723 Ago 200626 Ago 2008Sherwood Services AgConnector systems for electrosurgical generator
US74194883 Ene 20052 Sep 2008Arthrocare CorporationElectrosurgical probe with movable return electrode and methods related thereto
US74225856 Jul 19999 Sep 2008Arthrocare CorporationSystem for electrosurgical myocardial revascularization
US742926019 Dic 200630 Sep 2008Arthrocare CorporationSystems and methods for electrosurgical tissue contraction within the spine
US742926228 Feb 200130 Sep 2008Arthrocare CorporationApparatus and methods for electrosurgical ablation and resection of target tissue
US743524727 Jun 200214 Oct 2008Arthrocare CorporationSystems and methods for electrosurgical tissue treatment
US744219126 Sep 200128 Oct 2008Arthrocare CorporationSystems and methods for electrosurgical treatment of turbinates
US744561824 Ene 20074 Nov 2008Arthrocare CorporationMethods for tissue ablation using pulsed energy
US744902125 Abr 200511 Nov 2008Arthrocare CorporationSystems and methods for electrosurgical tissue contraction within the spine
US74680599 Feb 200723 Dic 2008Arthrocare CorporationSystem and method for epidermal tissue ablation
US749120025 Mar 200517 Feb 2009Arthrocare CorporationMethod for treating obstructive sleep disorder includes removing tissue from base of tongue
US750097428 Jun 200510 Mar 2009Covidien AgElectrode with rotatably deployable sheath
US75039175 Ago 200517 Mar 2009Covidien AgElectrosurgical pencil with improved controls
US750581216 Jul 199917 Mar 2009Arthrocare CorporationElectrosurgical system for treating restenosis of body lumens
US75072366 Abr 200724 Mar 2009Arthrocare CorporationSystem and method for electrosurgical cutting and ablation
US751389624 Ene 20067 Abr 2009Covidien AgDual synchro-resonant electrosurgical apparatus with bi-directional magnetic coupling
US75173498 Ago 200514 Abr 2009Vnus Medical Technologies, Inc.Electrosurgical instrument and method
US7527625 *4 Ago 20045 May 2009Olympus CorporationTransparent electrode for the radiofrequency ablation of tissue
US75722516 Dic 199911 Ago 2009Arthrocare CorporationSystems and methods for electrosurgical tissue treatment
US758224418 Abr 20061 Sep 2009Covidien AgElectrosurgical electrode shroud
US762190912 Jun 200824 Nov 2009Covidien AgElectrosurgical pencil with drag sensing capability
US762878616 May 20058 Dic 2009Covidien AgUniversal foot switch contact port
US76322676 Jul 200515 Dic 2009Arthrocare CorporationFuse-electrode electrosurgical apparatus
US763226918 Ene 200515 Dic 2009Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc.Electrosurgical instrument with replaceable cartridge
US763790719 Sep 200629 Dic 2009Covidien AgSystem and method for return electrode monitoring
US764849921 Mar 200619 Ene 2010Covidien AgSystem and method for generating radio frequency energy
US765149224 Abr 200626 Ene 2010Covidien AgArc based adaptive control system for an electrosurgical unit
US76514933 Mar 200626 Ene 2010Covidien AgSystem and method for controlling electrosurgical snares
US76911016 Ene 20066 Abr 2010Arthrocare CorporationElectrosurgical method and system for treating foot ulcer
US77042499 May 200527 Abr 2010Arthrocare CorporationApparatus and methods for electrosurgical ablation and resection of target tissue
US770873320 Oct 20044 May 2010Arthrocare CorporationElectrosurgical method and apparatus for removing tissue within a bone body
US771791219 Nov 200718 May 2010Arthrocare CorporationBipolar electrosurgical clamp for removing and modifying tissue
US772260130 Abr 200425 May 2010Covidien AgMethod and system for programming and controlling an electrosurgical generator system
US77317178 Ago 20068 Jun 2010Covidien AgSystem and method for controlling RF output during tissue sealing
US77492176 May 20036 Jul 2010Covidien AgMethod and system for optically detecting blood and controlling a generator during electrosurgery
US775853716 Abr 199920 Jul 2010Arthrocare CorporationSystems and methods for electrosurgical removal of the stratum corneum
US77669054 Feb 20053 Ago 2010Covidien AgMethod and system for continuity testing of medical electrodes
US778066223 Feb 200524 Ago 2010Covidien AgVessel sealing system using capacitive RF dielectric heating
US778548517 Sep 200431 Ago 2010Becton, Dickinson And CompanySystem and method for creating linear and non-linear trenches in silicon and other crystalline materials with a router
US779445610 Abr 200814 Sep 2010Arthrocare CorporationSystems and methods for electrosurgical intervertebral disc replacement
US779445728 Sep 200614 Sep 2010Covidien AgTransformer for RF voltage sensing
US781986317 Nov 200826 Oct 2010Arthrocare CorporationSystem and method for electrosurgical cutting and ablation
US78243989 Ene 20032 Nov 2010Arthrocare CorporationElectrosurgical systems and methods for removing and modifying tissue
US78244003 Mar 20062 Nov 2010Covidien AgCircuit for controlling arc energy from an electrosurgical generator
US782440515 Feb 20082 Nov 2010Arthrocare CorporationElectrosurgical apparatus and methods for laparoscopy
US782879425 Ago 20059 Nov 2010Covidien AgHandheld electrosurgical apparatus for controlling operating room equipment
US783448416 Jul 200716 Nov 2010Tyco Healthcare Group LpConnection cable and method for activating a voltage-controlled generator
US786256023 Mar 20074 Ene 2011Arthrocare CorporationAblation apparatus having reduced nerve stimulation and related methods
US787903324 Ene 20061 Feb 2011Covidien AgElectrosurgical pencil with advanced ES controls
US78790342 Mar 20061 Feb 2011Arthrocare CorporationInternally located return electrode electrosurgical apparatus, system and method
US789223024 Jun 200522 Feb 2011Arthrocare CorporationElectrosurgical device having planar vertical electrode and related methods
US790140027 Ene 20058 Mar 2011Covidien AgMethod and system for controlling output of RF medical generator
US79014032 Mar 20078 Mar 2011Arthrocare CorporationInternally located return electrode electrosurgical apparatus, system and method
US790643731 Jul 200615 Mar 2011Beaver-Visitec International (Us), Inc.System and method for the manufacture of surgical blades
US792732824 Ene 200719 Abr 2011Covidien AgSystem and method for closed loop monitoring of monopolar electrosurgical apparatus
US794703912 Dic 200524 May 2011Covidien AgLaparoscopic apparatus for performing electrosurgical procedures
US79511419 Ago 201031 May 2011Arthrocare CorporationSystems and methods for electrosurgical intervertebral disc replacement
US79553278 Ene 20077 Jun 2011Covidien AgMotion detector for controlling electrosurgical output
US795533114 Mar 20057 Jun 2011Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc.Electrosurgical instrument and method of use
US795963318 Dic 200614 Jun 2011Covidien AgElectrosurgical pencil with improved controls
US797232824 Ene 20075 Jul 2011Covidien AgSystem and method for tissue sealing
US797233216 Dic 20095 Jul 2011Covidien AgSystem and method for controlling electrosurgical snares
US79811137 Abr 200819 Jul 2011Surgrx, Inc.Electrosurgical instrument
US798868917 Sep 20072 Ago 2011Arthrocare CorporationElectrosurgical apparatus and methods for treatment and removal of tissue
US800749426 Abr 200730 Ago 2011Encision, Inc.Device and method to prevent surgical burns
US801215030 Abr 20046 Sep 2011Covidien AgMethod and system for programming and controlling an electrosurgical generator system
US801215316 Jul 20046 Sep 2011Arthrocare CorporationRotary electrosurgical apparatus and methods thereof
US801682421 Oct 200913 Sep 2011Covidien AgElectrosurgical pencil with drag sensing capability
US802566018 Nov 200927 Sep 2011Covidien AgUniversal foot switch contact port
US80340498 Ago 200611 Oct 2011Covidien AgSystem and method for measuring initial tissue impedance
US80755582 Jul 200513 Dic 2011Surgrx, Inc.Electrosurgical instrument and method
US808000818 Sep 200720 Dic 2011Covidien AgMethod and system for programming and controlling an electrosurgical generator system
US809696127 Jun 200817 Ene 2012Covidien AgSwitched resonant ultrasonic power amplifier system
US810090230 Ene 200924 Ene 2012Covidien AgElectrode with rotatably deployable sheath
US810495623 Oct 200331 Ene 2012Covidien AgThermocouple measurement circuit
US810532324 Oct 200631 Ene 2012Covidien AgMethod and system for controlling output of RF medical generator
US811305727 Jun 200814 Feb 2012Covidien AgSwitched resonant ultrasonic power amplifier system
US811407129 May 200714 Feb 2012Arthrocare CorporationHard tissue ablation system
US811407423 Oct 199814 Feb 2012Boston Scientific Miami CorporationBipolar endoscopic surgical scissor blades and instrument incorporating the same
US81286229 Jul 20076 Mar 2012Covidien AgElectrosurgical pencil having a single button variable control
US814748523 Feb 20093 Abr 2012Covidien AgSystem and method for tissue sealing
US816293727 Jun 200824 Abr 2012Tyco Healthcare Group LpHigh volume fluid seal for electrosurgical handpiece
US81872623 Jun 200929 May 2012Covidien AgDual synchro-resonant electrosurgical apparatus with bi-directional magnetic coupling
US81924244 Ene 20085 Jun 2012Arthrocare CorporationElectrosurgical system with suction control apparatus, system and method
US819242818 Mar 20095 Jun 2012Tyco Healthcare Group LpElectrosurgical instrument and method
US820227125 Feb 200919 Jun 2012Covidien AgDual synchro-resonant electrosurgical apparatus with bi-directional magnetic coupling
US82162207 Sep 200710 Jul 2012Tyco Healthcare Group LpSystem and method for transmission of combined data stream
US821622323 Feb 200910 Jul 2012Covidien AgSystem and method for tissue sealing
US822663910 Jun 200824 Jul 2012Tyco Healthcare Group LpSystem and method for output control of electrosurgical generator
US823161623 Ago 201031 Jul 2012Covidien AgTransformer for RF voltage sensing
US823162010 Feb 200931 Jul 2012Tyco Healthcare Group LpExtension cutting blade
US823598721 Nov 20087 Ago 2012Tyco Healthcare Group LpThermal penetration and arc length controllable electrosurgical pencil
US825198913 Jun 200728 Ago 2012Encision, Inc.Combined bipolar and monopolar electrosurgical instrument and method
US825735017 Jun 20094 Sep 2012Arthrocare CorporationMethod and system of an electrosurgical controller with wave-shaping
US828752828 Mar 200816 Oct 2012Covidien AgVessel sealing system
US82928879 Feb 201123 Oct 2012Arthrocare CorporationInternally located return electrode electrosurgical apparatus, system and method
US829288822 Abr 200223 Oct 2012Tyco Healthcare Group LpBipolar or ultrasonic surgical device
US82982235 Abr 201030 Oct 2012Covidien AgMethod and system for programming and controlling an electrosurgical generator system
US83035805 Abr 20106 Nov 2012Covidien AgMethod and system for programming and controlling an electrosurgical generator system
US831778625 Sep 200927 Nov 2012AthroCare CorporationSystem, method and apparatus for electrosurgical instrument with movable suction sheath
US832327925 Sep 20094 Dic 2012Arthocare CorporationSystem, method and apparatus for electrosurgical instrument with movable fluid delivery sheath
US835390518 Jun 201215 Ene 2013Covidien LpSystem and method for transmission of combined data stream
US835579912 Dic 200815 Ene 2013Arthrocare CorporationSystems and methods for limiting joint temperature
US83720679 Dic 200912 Feb 2013Arthrocare CorporationElectrosurgery irrigation primer systems and methods
US840919726 Abr 20062 Abr 2013Boston Scientific Miami CorporationMethods of cutting tissue using a medical instrument
US84094629 Feb 20112 Abr 2013Beaver-Visitec International (Us), Inc.System and method for the manufacture of surgical blades
US84446386 Ene 201221 May 2013Arthrocare CorporationHard tissue ablation system
US844954010 Feb 200928 May 2013Covidien AgElectrosurgical pencil with improved controls
US846028923 Ene 201211 Jun 2013Covidien AgElectrode with rotatably deployable sheath
US850656523 Ago 200713 Ago 2013Covidien LpElectrosurgical device with LED adapter
US851233221 Sep 200720 Ago 2013Covidien LpReal-time arc control in electrosurgical generators
US852385523 Ago 20103 Sep 2013Covidien AgCircuit for controlling arc energy from an electrosurgical generator
US852389012 Sep 20123 Sep 2013Covidien LpBipolar or ultrasonic surgical device
US855689014 Dic 200915 Oct 2013Covidien AgArc based adaptive control system for an electrosurgical unit
US856840515 Oct 201029 Oct 2013Arthrocare CorporationElectrosurgical wand and related method and system
US85741879 Mar 20095 Nov 2013Arthrocare CorporationSystem and method of an electrosurgical controller with output RF energy control
US859150923 Jun 200826 Nov 2013Covidien LpElectrosurgical pencil including improved controls
US859729227 Feb 20093 Dic 2013Covidien LpElectrosurgical pencil including improved controls
US863253623 Jun 200821 Ene 2014Covidien LpElectrosurgical pencil including improved controls
US86366855 May 200928 Ene 2014Arthrocare CorporationElectrosurgical method and system for treating foot ulcer
US863673326 Feb 200928 Ene 2014Covidien LpElectrosurgical pencil including improved controls
US865212528 Sep 200918 Feb 2014Covidien LpElectrosurgical generator user interface
US86631525 May 20094 Mar 2014Arthrocare CorporationElectrosurgical method and system for treating foot ulcer
US86631535 May 20094 Mar 2014Arthrocare CorporationElectrosurgical method and system for treating foot ulcer
US86631545 May 20094 Mar 2014Arthrocare CorporationElectrosurgical method and system for treating foot ulcer
US866321424 Ene 20074 Mar 2014Covidien AgMethod and system for controlling an output of a radio-frequency medical generator having an impedance based control algorithm
US86632161 Oct 20074 Mar 2014Paul O. DavisonInstrument for electrosurgical tissue treatment
US866321823 Jun 20084 Mar 2014Covidien LpElectrosurgical pencil including improved controls
US866321923 Jun 20084 Mar 2014Covidien LpElectrosurgical pencil including improved controls
US866868817 Jul 201211 Mar 2014Covidien AgSoft tissue RF transection and resection device
US868501623 Feb 20091 Abr 2014Covidien AgSystem and method for tissue sealing
US868501815 Oct 20101 Abr 2014Arthrocare CorporationElectrosurgical wand and related method and system
US869665930 Abr 201015 Abr 2014Arthrocare CorporationElectrosurgical system and method having enhanced temperature measurement
US873443821 Oct 200527 May 2014Covidien AgCircuit and method for reducing stored energy in an electrosurgical generator
US87473996 Abr 201010 Jun 2014Arthrocare CorporationMethod and system of reduction of low frequency muscle stimulation during electrosurgical procedures
US874740013 Ago 200810 Jun 2014Arthrocare CorporationSystems and methods for screen electrode securement
US874740120 Ene 201110 Jun 2014Arthrocare CorporationSystems and methods for turbinate reduction
US875333410 May 200617 Jun 2014Covidien AgSystem and method for reducing leakage current in an electrosurgical generator
US875833613 Oct 200924 Jun 2014Encision, Inc.System and method for monitoring electrosurgical systems
US8776382 *2 Oct 200815 Jul 2014Ihi CorporationCutting instrument
US877794110 May 200715 Jul 2014Covidien LpAdjustable impedance electrosurgical electrodes
US880170520 Abr 201012 Ago 2014Arthrocare CorporationElectrosurgical method and apparatus for removing tissue within a bone body
US20110232108 *2 Oct 200829 Sep 2011Ihi CorporationCutting instrument
USRE401569 Oct 200318 Mar 2008Arthrocare CorporationMethods for repairing damaged intervertebral discs
USRE403888 May 200317 Jun 2008Covidien AgElectrosurgical generator with adaptive power control
EP0640317A1 *21 Jul 19941 Mar 1995Ethicon Inc.Electrosurgical hemostatic device
WO1985000280A1 *29 Jun 198431 Ene 1985Peter StaszElectro cautery surgical blade
WO1992022256A1 *5 Jun 199223 Dic 1992Philip E EggersElectrosurgical apparatus and method employing constant voltage
WO1998027879A1 *19 Dic 19972 Jul 1998Electroscope IncBipolar coagulation apparatus and method for arthroscopy
Clasificaciones
Clasificación de EE.UU.606/50, 606/48
Clasificación internacionalA61B18/14
Clasificación cooperativaA61B2018/1422, A61B2018/00148, A61B2018/00107, A61B2018/1412, A61B2018/126, A61B18/14
Clasificación europeaA61B18/14