US 444880 A
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(Specimens) W. B. ERSKINE.
NEUKTIE 0R SGARP AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME.
No. 444,880. Patented Jan. 20, 1891..
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UNrTED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
lVILLIAM l3. ERSKINE, OF NEWV YORK, N. Y., ASSIGNOR TO THE JOHN ERSKINE & COMPANY, OF SAME PLACE.
NECK TlE'. OR SCARF AND THE METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 444,880, dated January 20, 1891. Application filed July 12, 1890. Serial No. 358,530. (Specimens) citizen of the United States, residing in New York city, in the county and State of New -York, have invented a new and useful Improvement in Neck Ties or Scarfs and the Method of Making the Same, of which the following is a full, clear, and exact specification, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, which form a part hereof.
My invention relates to that class of neck ties or scarfs which are commonly designated as four-in-hand ties. It consists in an improved method of making such atie and in the improved form or construction of the tie itself.
The principal objects which my invention is designed to secure are, first, economy in the manufacture of the tie, resulting both from a more economical method. of weaving and finishing the tie and also from a saving of material; second, increased durability in the article itself; third, superior neatness and finish in the same, and, fourth, reversibility of the tie, enabling both sides of the tie to be used, the two sides being made, if desired, of different styles of fabric, or of different colors, or both.
Hitherto, so far as I am informed, four-inhand ties have. always been made from straight or fiat woven fabricsby cutting the material into the proper shape and then turning over the raw edges and sewing them at the same time that the liningis applied or by sewing two similarly-shaped pieces together at the edges, so as to make a reversible. tie. It is apparent that in this method of making such a tie a large amount of material is lost in the cutting, and considerable time and skill are consumed and required in cutting the material in the proper manner. The
' edges of the tie are formed by seams, which are apt to mar the general appearance and finish of the article, and which are also liable tion for the purpose of better illustration to the accompanying drawings.
In the drawings, Figure 1 is a plan view of a portion of the material or tubing from which the tie is made as it appears immediately after it has been woven and before the warpthreads at the neck portion have been cut out, as hereinafter explained. Fig. 2 is a similar View showing the tie after these warpthreads have been cut out and one end of the neck portion of the tie has been finished. Fig. 3 is a perspective View of a portion of the tie just after the warp-threads have been out out.
Similar letters refer to similar parts in the different figures.
The material for the tie is woven in long lengths on any suitable loom in the form of a continuous tube, having alternating portions of greater and smaller diameters. The diameter of the wider portions is regulated according to the width which is desired in the broad portion of the tie or in what might be called the tie portion proper. The diameter of the narrower portion is made suitable to form the portion of the tie which passes around the collar of the wearer, and which might be called the neck portion.
In the drawingao is the tie portion proper. b is the neck portion. These parts are made of suitable length, and are woven continuously in a single piece of tubing of long length, in which the tie portions proper and the neck portions alternate as follows: first, a tie portion proper a, then a neck portion 1), then a second tie portion a, then a neck portion I), and so on, until material enough fora large number of ties has been woven. In the tubing, as shown in Fig. 1, a second neck portion I) would follow after the second tie por tion a, and so on. After a long piece of the tubing is made in this way it is cut up into single tie lengths by cutting the wider portions a generally near the middle of those portions. In Fig. l I have illustrated my method of weaving this tubing. The weaving is done upon an ordinary shaft or Jacquard The loom is manipulated in the ordinary manner. The Jacquard cards are cut in such a way as to raise or lower some of the outer warp-threads cl up or down out of the path of the shuttle which feeds theweft or filling threads e to the loom during the times in which the neck portions of the tubing are being woven. The result of this is that at the neck portion these outer warp-threads cl are not caught in the filling-threads and are therefore not woven into the fabric or tubing, the tubing at the neck portions being consequently of smaller diameter. This manipulation of the outer warp-threads is in no way different from the ordinary manipulation of warp-threads in a Jacquard loom, either in the method of cutting the cards or of mounting them. I will therefore not describe herein the Jacquard mechanism or the loom mechanism by which my tubing is woven, it being sufficient to say simply that at the neck por tions the outer warp-threads are raised or lowered out of the way of the weft or filling threads. Of course the warp-threads can be thus raised or lowered on one side of the tubing only or on both sides. In the former case double the number of warp threads-say twentywould be raised or lowered on one side, whereas in the latter case an equal nu mber of warp-threadssay tenwould preferably be raised orlowered 011 each side, although a different number could be raised or lowered on the two sides, if desired.
In Fig. 1 I have shown my tubing as it appears after it has been woven, but before it has been cut. (I dare the warp-threads which have not been woven into the fabric. The tubing is cut into single tie lengths. Then the warp threads (Z cl, which have not been caught in the fabric, are out out with shears or any suitable means, leaving the tie with ragged open edges f at the corners where the wider and narrower portions of the tubing meet. These edges f are then turned into the tube by hand, as shown at g, Fig. 2, and sewed in that position. After the ends of the tie have been sewed or finished in the usual way and the tie pressed it is complete and ready for the market. In this class of woven goods the effect or design upon the face of the fabric is produced mainly by the warp-threads, but the weft or filling threads are sometimes brought to the surface to aid in producing such design or effect. It will be readily un derstood that the warp-threads which appear on the surface of the fabric on one side of the tubing may be of different quality or material or color, or all three maybe ditferent from those which appear on the surface of the fabric on the other side of the tubing, and that so far as the weft or filling threads are employed to produce the effect or design on the face ofv the goods those which appear on the surface of the fabric on one side of the tubing may also be of different quality or material or color, or all three, from those that appear on the surface of the fabric on the other side of the tubing. The result of this construction would be that the tie would be of different material or quality or color, or all three, 'on
its two sides, thus furnishing practically two ties in one.
If it is thought desirable, a lining may be inserted in my improved tie to give it additional weight or body.
My tie can be made of any suitable material and in fast colors, so that itvcan be washed and used as long as the material will wear.
In my improvement the production of the tubing costs very little, if any, more than the same amount of material would cost if woven in the old waythat is to say, in the form of straight orfiat fabric. There is but little cutting to be done, merely the cutting out of some of the warp-threads. This can be done quickly and easily and does not require skilled labor. No material is lost except a portion of the warp-threads. No part of the fillingthreads whatever is wasted. Very little sewing has to be done to complete the tie, and this is of a simple and easy description, requiring but little time and skill. As a result of these facts, my improvement cheapens the cost of the tie materially.
My tie is more durable, because it is made in a single piece. There are only a few short seams in it, whereas in theold form of tie there were quite a number of long seams, which were apt to rip out in parts after but little use. My tie can be washed, and thus used over and over again, whereas in the old form of tie it was practically impossible to wash the tie by reason, among other things,
of the long seams, as in washing and pressing the thread in the seams would become rotten or broken. My tie is also reversible. By reason also of there being but few seams in my tie it has a much better appearance and finish. The fabric appears to be, as in fact it is, unbroken at the edges and continuous. This gives to the tie a richer and finer appearance.
My tie is not only reversible, but it can be made of different materials, colors, and; designs or effects on its two sides. The utility of. this feature is apparent. In effect it gives the wearer two ties in one. A light tie and a dark tie might thus be combined in one.
What I claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is
1. An improved method of manufacturing a tie, which consists in weaving the material for the tie in a single piece in the form of a tube, making the tube of the desired diameter or width in the tie portion proper and of smaller diameter or width in the neck portion by raising or lowering the outer warp-threads at the neck portion out of the path of the filling-threads, and thus preventing such outer warp-threads from being woven with the fabric of the neck portion, then cutting out these outer warp-threads at the neck portion, and then folding in, sewing, and finishing the raw ends or edges of the tie portions, substantially as described.
2. An improved tie consisting of a single piece of fabric woven in the form of a tube, next to the neck portions folded in, sewed, having the desired diameter or width in the and finished, substantially as described. tie portion proper and having a smaller diameter or width in the neck portion by reason VILLIAM ERSKINE' of having" a smaller number of the warp- Witnesses:
threads Woven into the neck portion, andhav- CHARLES V. ERSKINE,
:ing' the raw ends or edges of the tie portions HENRY D. XVILLIAMS.