|Número de publicación||US5088493 A|
|Tipo de publicación||Concesión|
|Número de solicitud||US 07/161,206|
|Fecha de publicación||18 Feb 1992|
|Fecha de presentación||16 Feb 1988|
|Fecha de prioridad||7 Ago 1984|
|También publicado como||CA1239225A1, DE3528369A1|
|Número de publicación||07161206, 161206, US 5088493 A, US 5088493A, US-A-5088493, US5088493 A, US5088493A|
|Inventores||Ivo Giannini, Marco Ferrari, Amilcare C. de Resmini, Paolo Fasella|
|Cesionario original||Sclavo, S.P.A.|
|Exportar cita||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Citas de patentes (12), Otras citas (2), Citada por (253), Clasificaciones (16), Eventos legales (3)|
|Enlaces externos: USPTO, Cesión de USPTO, Espacenet|
δODapp (λ)=(C2 λ-2C3 λA)(a1 λδV+a2 λδO+a3 λδR)+Aγ(C2o λ-AC3o λ)δS,
δODapp (λ)=(C2 λ-2C3 λA)(a1 λδV+a2 λδO+a3 λδR)+Aγ(C2o λ-AC3o λ)δS,
This application is a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 06/756,394, filed July 17, 1985, now abandoned.
Significant developments in medical diagnostics have been brought about in recent years by the introduction of non-invasive methodics. Among these, near-infrared (I.R.) spectroscopy and instruments have been utilized to characterize biological tissues in vivo.
I. R. spectrophotometry rests upon the relative transparency of biological materials to photons in the near I. R. (700-900 nm). In situ photon transmission through organs is sufficient to permit monitoring of absorptive changes in the tissues. In this spectral region, only some chromophores of great functional significance absorb light: the heme of hemoglobin whereby changes in local hematic volume and equilibrium between oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) and hemoglobin (Hb) can be assessed, and the visible copper of cytochromeoxidase (cyt a,a3), i.e. the terminal enzyme in the mitochondrial respiratory chain which catalyzes 95% of the cell oxygen (O2) input.
Since the mitrochondrial respiratory chain is the main gateway to utilizing the free energy obtained in the various metabolisms, in vivo evaluation of the redox state of cyt a,a3 may be of great assistance in assessing the functional state of cells in various physiopathological situations (E. Dora, J. Neurochem. 42, 101-108, 1984; M. Erecinska, D. Wilson, J. Memb. Biology 70, 1-14, 1982; E. F. Jobsis, Adv. Neurol. 26,299, 1979).
Fairly accurate methods are known of measuring the level of oxygenation in the hemoglobin circulating through the vascular system of surface tissues (Takatani et al., Ann. Biomed. Eng. 8,1 1980). In general, however, such prior methods fail to provide quantitative results with internal organs owing to the difficulty encountered in evaluating the effects of light diffusion.
Jobsis, of Duke University, recently proposed to use this type of spectroscopy to characterize cell metabolism in vivo (U.S. Pat. No. 4,281,645), and in particular, to assess the oxygenation level of cerebral tissues by measuring the I.R. absorption of cytomchrome-c-oxidase (F. F. Jobsis, Science, 198,1264, 1977).
The spectrophotometer proposed by Jobsis comprises: (A) some light sources which emit sequentially radiation within the range of 700 to 1,300 nm; (B) a fiber optic which transmits the light to an organ to be monitored; (C) an optical fiber which picks up the emerging radiation from the monitored organ; and (D) a system for converting the radiation to a readily analyzed signal.
However, the spectrophotometer proposed by Jobsis provides unacceptable quantitative results because it takes into no account the effects of light diffusion, which are quite significant and may vary over time; further, and more specifically, light diffusion makes the optical path non-rectilinear and Beer-Lambert law does not apply.
Thus, the instrument is unable to correct the observed data due to scattering effects.
Now, we have developed a spectrophotometer, forming the subject matter of this patent application, which can provide a quantitative and simultaneous assessment of the absorption due to cytochrome-c-oxidase and the two forms (oxygenated and non-oxygenated) of hemoglobin which are present in tissues in vivo, while taking into account the effects of light diffusion and of any variations thereof over time.
A better understanding of the invention may be had by reference to the detailed description which follows, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 is a block diagram representing the fundamental parts of the apparatus object of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a detailed circuit diagram of the powering of the flash light source;
FIG. 3 is showing the positions of the light detectors;
FIG. 4 is a detailed circuit diagram of the amplifiers system and of the sampling system of the signals for the computer;
FIG. 5 is a block diagram of the computer system used to collect the signals and of its interface with the light detectors through an analogic/digital converter;
FIG. 6 and 7 are showing some typical curves of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, oxydation of the cytochrome-c-oxydase and of blood volume measured by means of the invention's apparatus in the encephalic region at different respiratory activities in comparison with oxygen level measured by a skin electrode;
FIG. 8 is a pictorial view of the optical fibers disposition for a simultaneous monitoring of different regions of a same body section.
The most important applications of this type of instrumentation may regard the monitoring of the circulatory and metabolic conditions of the encephala of immature babies, patients who have undergone neurosurgery interventions, interventions of vascular surgery to the carotids, and in general patients under total anesthesia or being subjected to intensive therapy; further applaications may involve monitoring of the peripheral vascular system and cases of chronic or acute respiratory insufficiency.
Accordingly, a first object of this patent application concerns a multiple wavelength pulsed light spectrophotometer for non-invasive monitoring, as illustrated by FIG. 1 herein, which comprises the following parts:
1. a light source emitting radiation in the near I. R., consisting of a lamp powered by A.C.-timed pulses;
2. a means of conducting the light to an organ to be monitored;
3. a means of conducting the light from the monitored organ;
4. a detector of at least four radiations with significant wavelengths for the parameters to be measured, from all those which have been supplied from the source and propagated through the organ;
5. an amplifier for converting the radiation pulse signal to a readily analyzed continuous signal and correcting for variations due to flucturations of the source; and
6. an acquisition system including a microprocessor adapted to permity instantaneous computation of the values of the detected physiological parameters taking into account the light diffusion effects.
A particular embodiment of this invention will be now described by way of non-limitative example.
A circuit diagram is shown in FIG. 2 of the circuitry for energizing a xenon flash lamp (Type EGeGFx200 or the like).
Power for the light flash is supplied by a capacitor Co charged to a voltage level Vo. The capacitor is discharged through the lamp on receiving a trigger pulse.
The triggering pulse is provided by a controlled diode D via a transformer T (Model FY604 by EGeG) driven by a clock CL in synchronization with the mains. Each time that a pulse reaches the lamp, the shaper F will block the successive clock pulses for a set time period which may be varied at will.
During the tests carried out thus far, this time period was 125 ms and/or 250 ms.
The reference character M denotes a photodiode for monitoring the light from the lamp, and P denotes the output preamplifier. The light from the lamp is directed to a fiber optic FO by a glass lens system L.
A viable variation of the foregoing scheme utilizes instead a high brilliance lamp which is DC powered through a conventional power supply (the lamp being a 75-200 W xenon lamp of the Osram XBO Type); a chopper is placed in front of the fiber optic which is rotated synchronously with the mains.
Of course, this choice of a light source involves a modified implementation of the electronic amplifying circuitry, the duration of the light pulses being here longer than that of a light flash.
The light is conducted to the organ to be monitored by a flexible optical fiber of transparent glass and/or plastic material having a diameter in the 2 to 10 mm range. The light emerging from the tissues is picked up by another optical fiber generally of the same size. The optical fibers are brought to rest on the tissue of the organ to be monitored such as to ensure a good contact, generally at a distance of a few centimeters from each other.
To this aim, for monitoring an organ of an individual, the device disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,321,930 and 4,380,240 may be used to advantage.
Due to the high diffusion effect prevailing, it is immaterial whether the two fibers are aligned or form an angle therebetween which may be of as much as 180°.
FIG. 3 illustrates the detector arrangement. The incoming light from the region being monitored and flowing through the optical fiber FO first branches out in two, and then illuminates the photocathodes of four photomultipliers PM1, PM2, PM3, PM4 after going through interference filters F1, F2, F3, F4 the front faces whereof also form an excellent mirror.
Lenses L1, L2, L3, L4 focus the light onto the photocathode. The light path is indicated in dash lines. The photomultipliers (R928 or R936 by Hammatsu), which are particularly responsive in the region of the near I.R., are supplied with a voltage HV which may be varied or programmed in the 500 to 1,100 V range through separate dividers.
From the photomultiplier anodes a signal is picked up on resistors of relative low value (<3KΩ) to maintain a good passband (>1 MHz), and the signal is amplified by preamplifiers PA1, PA2, PA3, PA4 powered by rechargeable batteries or by a separate power supply having a high immunity to noise, in order to avoid electromagnetic inductions from voltage discharges and coming over the mains. The batteries are recharged automatically. A different, simpler mount for the optics is to be obtained by using a four-legged fiber optic to illuminate the four photomultipliers separately. The interference filters employed have a mid-amplitude bandwidth ranging from 4 to 25 nm (preferably of 10 nm) centered in between 700 and 950 nm and preferably on 750,800,850 and 900 nm, respectively, (alternatively, on 750,820,850 and 900 nm, for example).
It would be possible to increase the number of the channels up to five or six, or even above, to thereby enhance the quantitative assessment of the scattering effects.
Shown in FIG. 4 is an embodiment of the amplifier system and sampling circuitry for acquisition to the computer.
The signals from each of the channels, i.e. that from the photodiode M of the light source and those from the preamplifiers PA1, PA2, PA3, PA4, are amplified by a system of fast amplifiers formed of two inverters H, the first of which also functions as a shaper to determine a fixed upgoing time (±2 μs) by means of the integrating capacitor provided on the feedback.
The two inverters are followed by a slower stage L and a sample-and-hold sampler SH. The control signal to the sampling circuit is supplied by a shaper F1 which, in turn, generates a trigger signal TR to control the computer acquisition sequence.
The individual channels are compared with the monitor in the differential stage D, so as to eliminate signal fluctuations due to the source oscillations. The signals C1, C2, C3, C4 thus obtained and the trigger signal TR are supplied to the acquisition system.
Shown diagramatically in FIG. 5 is a viable embodiment of the acquisition system for the instrument. A microprocessor A, 6502 from Apple II is employed with a commercial ISAAC I/O System I from Cyborg Co. capable of converting many analog signals sequentially and then passing them to the microprocessor.
The ISAAC system also allows analog signals to be passed to an external plotter PL to provide plots of the data obtained.
The microprocessor is connected to two disk drivers D1 and D2, a printer ST, and to the display TV. The storage capacity of the microprocessor employed is of 48 kilobytes. Also used is an additional 128 kibytres high-speed storage card which operates as a virtual disk. The same functions may be performed, of course, practically by any other microprocessor having comparable operating capabilities. The signal TR from the monitor (indicated at M in FIGS. 2 and 4) initiates the acquisition sequence. Once the data are transferred to the computer memories, it becomes possible to display, either on line or some time afterwards, the plots by calculating the values of the recorded physiological parameters, such as the hematic volume, hemoglobin oxygen saturation, and redox level of cytochrome-c-oxidase, through an algorithm which utilizes the instantaneous value of the signal at the four wavelengths.
The parameters of this calculation are obtained by an optimization process of the values calculated according to the theoretical model (D. V. Luebbers, Advances in Exp. Medicine and Biology, 37A, 45-54, 1973) and the experimental data.
In addition to the signals from the channels C1-C4, several other magnitudes from other instruments (E) are acquired.
Practically, the presence of scattering, the apparent optical density (OD app) at a given wavelength (λ) is represented by a monotonic function of absorbance (A) due to the presence of chromophores in the boiological tissue. This function can be approximated by the polynomial expression: ##EQU1## where C1λ, C2λ, C3λ, are dependent from scattering. The value of A is calculated by the addition of absorbances due to hemoglobin and cytochrome aa3 as measured in vitro. As a function of the parameters of interest, the heme value V, the hemoglobin oxygen saturation O, and the redox state of cyt aa3, R, it can be expressed:
A(λ)=a1λ V+a2λ O+a3λ R+a0λ
where a0λl , a1λ, a2λ, a3λ, are know with great precision from spectroscopic measurements in vitro, and
V=[Hb]+[Hb O2 ]
O=[Hb O2 ]-[Hb ].
Scattering amplitude is also a function of blood volume S, so that the coefficients C1λ, C2λ and C3λ can be expressed a function of S. By a comparison of calculated curves with experimental data it results:
C1 >≅0; C2λ =C20λ ×(1+γS); C3λ =C30λ (1+γS)
The values of C20λ, C30λ, γ are obtained by this comparison. The physiological parameters O,V,R are determined with a precision depending from errors affecting the values of the constants calculated by this procedure. Practically, the evaluation of O results to be sufficiently precise, while V and R are affected by a large error due to the necessity of subtracting large contributions of scattering effects, and because these effects widely fluctuate from subject to subject.
The precision is much better when the variations of optical density are considered with respect to an initial value obtained on the same subject.
In this case ##EQU2## Since in practice γ is small and δS is of the same order of magnitude of δV, in this case the corrections due to the scattering variations are small, and the values of O, V, and R can be evaluated with a relatively small error.
It will be appreciated that various data processing programs may be utilized with the microprocessor which allow some of the noise to be filtered out, spikes caused by instantaneous shifts in the plots due to changes in the fiber optics-to-tissue contact to be detected and corrected, and so forth.
The instrument just described affords the following advantages:
1. pulse operation makes the ambient light background virtually negligible;
2. the monitor enables correction for any fluctuations in the source intensity;
3. the light measurement transmitted on at least four wavelengths enables computation of the hemoglobin content of the tissues being observed, of its oxygenation level, and of the oxyreduction state of cytochrome-c-oxidase;
4. real time processing becomes feasible through a calculation process which enables correction at any time instant of the absorption values for the effect due to light diffusion;
5. the measurement stability is enhanced by the use of a separate power supply for the preamplifiers and by synchronization of the source with the mains;
6. the microprocessor permits the detection and correction of any instantaneous shifts in the plots due to variations in the contact between the fiber optics and tissue; and
7. it becomes possible to correlate the measurements taken by absorption in the near I.R. with those derived from other instruments.
By way of example FIGS. 6 and 7 are showing the recorded plots for the aforesaid parameters as measured in the encephalon together with a measurement of the oxygen pressure at skin level taken with a transcutaneous electrode (radiometer, Model TCM 2).
FIG. 6 shows a typical plot obtained during changes in the respiratory activity (hyperventilation-apnea). On the abscissa is the time in minutes.
On the ordinate, an mmHg scale relating to curve 1 is reproduced on the left.
Section A of the Figure corresponds to a condition of normal breathing, section B to a condition of hyperventilation, section C to a condition of apnea, and section D again to a condition of normal breathing.
The curve 2 is a measure of the hemoglobin saturation level, the curve 3 is a measure of the cytochrome-c-oxidase oxydation state, and the curve 4 is a measure of the hematic volume.
The oxygen level in the arterial blood of the arm has been recorded for reference by means of a transcutaneous electrode (Curve 1).
During the apnea, the hemoglobin saturation level at arterial level drops from 95% down to about 55%, the oxireductive state of cytochrome-c-oxidase drops by about 15% from an estimated level of about 80%, and the hematic volume increases to 12% from 10%.
It should be noted that the value of this parameter depends to some extent on the model assumed and the assumed values for the cerebral hematocrit, generally lower than the peripheral one (M.E. Phelps et al., J. Appl. Physical 35, 275-280, 1983).
FIG. 7 shows instead a typical plot obtained during inhalation of different gas mixtures (air, pure oxygen, hypoxic mixture).
On the abscissa is the time in minutes.
On the ordinate, there is reproduced an mmHg scale relating to the curve 1.
In section A of the Figure, the condition is that of air breathing, in section B of breathing a hypoxic mixture (O2 10%, N2 90%), and in section C the condition is that of breathing pure O2.
The curve 2 is a measure of the oxidative state of cytochrome-c-oxidase, the curve 3 is a measure of the hemoglobin saturation level, and the curve 4 is a measure of the hematic volume.
Here too, the level of O2 in the arterial blood of the arm has been recorded for reference by means of a transcutaneous electrode (Curve 1).
While breathing the hypoxic mixture, the oxidative state of cytochrome-c-oxidase does not vary appreciably, the saturation level of hemoglobin decreases from 90% to about 65%, and the hematic volume changes from 10% to about 11%.
Based on the general scheme outlined above, a more complex instrumentation may be provided to simultaneously monitor different regions of one and the same organ.
The arrangement of the optical fiber FO for such an instrument is shown in FIG. 8 by way of example. Shown schematically at FL is the source of light, which may be embodied as in the preceding example.
Multiple leg fibers are used, and in each region the transmitted light is measured at at least four wavelengths.
The several detectors may be replaced advantageously with a picture intensifier I (e.g. Thomson-CSF 9403) coupled with a cluster of solid state silicon detectors A.
The filter system F may be replaced with a single filter varying in the 750 to 900 nm.
The electric signals from the detectors E should then be processed by a system of amplifiers similar to the one discussed hereinabove.
A more complex instrument like the one disclosed herein would enable mapping of the metabolism and vascular state of cerebral cortex in keeping with the most up-to-date imaging methodics.
Also provided by this invention is a spectrophotometric method for measuring circulatory and local metabolism parameters in living organs by non-invasive monitoring, which utilizes the spectrophotometer described in the foregoing.
|Patente citada||Fecha de presentación||Fecha de publicación||Solicitante||Título|
|US3638640 *||1 Nov 1967||1 Feb 1972||Robert F Shaw||Oximeter and method for in vivo determination of oxygen saturation in blood using three or more different wavelengths|
|US4086915 *||24 May 1976||2 May 1978||Harvey I. Kofsky||Ear oximetry process and apparatus|
|US4222389 *||18 Oct 1977||16 Sep 1980||Institute Of Applied Biology Special Cancer Research Project||Objective determination of the rate of oxygen utilization in peripheral tissue|
|US4223680 *||5 Mar 1979||23 Sep 1980||Duke University, Inc.||Method and apparatus for monitoring metabolism in body organs in vivo|
|US4281645 *||28 Jun 1977||4 Ago 1981||Duke University, Inc.||Method and apparatus for monitoring metabolism in body organs|
|US4295470 *||29 Nov 1978||20 Oct 1981||Oximetrix, Inc.||Optical catheters and method for making same|
|US4321930 *||18 Sep 1980||30 Mar 1982||Duke University, Inc.||Apparatus for monitoring metabolism in body organs|
|US4380240 *||3 Ago 1981||19 Abr 1983||Duke University, Inc.||Apparatus for monitoring metabolism in body organs|
|US4427889 *||12 Ago 1980||24 Ene 1984||Carl Zeiss Stiftung||Method and apparatus for molecular spectroscopy, particularly for the determination of products of metabolism|
|US4449535 *||25 Mar 1982||22 May 1984||Compagnie Industrielle Des Lasers Cilas Alcatel||Apparatus for measuring in situ the state of oxidation-reduction of a living organ|
|US4510938 *||24 Ene 1983||16 Abr 1985||Duke University, Inc.||Body-mounted light source-detector apparatus|
|US4513751 *||11 Mar 1983||30 Abr 1985||Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.||Method for measuring oxygen metabolism in internal organ or tissue|
|1||*||Takatani et al., 30th ACEMB, Los Angeles, 5 9 Nov. 1977, p. 171.|
|2||Takatani et al., 30th ACEMB, Los Angeles, 5-9 Nov. 1977, p. 171.|
|Patente citante||Fecha de presentación||Fecha de publicación||Solicitante||Título|
|US5282466 *||3 Oct 1991||1 Feb 1994||Medtronic, Inc.||System for disabling oximeter in presence of ambient light|
|US5309912 *||8 Nov 1991||10 May 1994||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Department Of Health And Human Services||Multidimensional imaging using a single point detector for a phase encoded modulated optical carrier|
|US5339810 *||3 May 1993||23 Ago 1994||Marquette Electronics, Inc.||Pulse oximetry sensor|
|US5349951 *||19 Mar 1993||27 Sep 1994||Hitachi, Ltd.||Optical CT imaging device|
|US5435309 *||10 Ago 1993||25 Jul 1995||Thomas; Edward V.||Systematic wavelength selection for improved multivariate spectral analysis|
|US5441053 *||15 Sep 1992||15 Ago 1995||University Of Kentucky Research Foundation||Apparatus and method for multiple wavelength of tissue|
|US5447159 *||3 Feb 1993||5 Sep 1995||Massachusetts Institute Of Technology||Optical imaging for specimens having dispersive properties|
|US5586554 *||16 Feb 1994||24 Dic 1996||Hitachi, Ltd.||Optical system for measuring metabolism in a body|
|US5588428 *||28 Abr 1993||31 Dic 1996||The University Of Akron||Method and apparatus for non-invasive volume and texture analysis|
|US5673701 *||2 Dic 1994||7 Oct 1997||Non Invasive Technology, Inc.||Optical techniques for examination of biological tissue|
|US5746210 *||26 Feb 1993||5 May 1998||David A. Benaron||Device and method for detection, localization, and characterization of inhomogeneities in turbid media|
|US5762609 *||7 Jun 1995||9 Jun 1998||Sextant Medical Corporation||Device and method for analysis of surgical tissue interventions|
|US5769791 *||7 Jun 1995||23 Jun 1998||Sextant Medical Corporation||Tissue interrogating device and methods|
|US5772597 *||9 May 1995||30 Jun 1998||Sextant Medical Corporation||Surgical tool end effector|
|US5779631 *||7 Jun 1995||14 Jul 1998||Non-Invasive Technology, Inc.||Spectrophotometer for measuring the metabolic condition of a subject|
|US5782770 *||8 Sep 1997||21 Jul 1998||Science Applications International Corporation||Hyperspectral imaging methods and apparatus for non-invasive diagnosis of tissue for cancer|
|US5803909 *||6 Oct 1995||8 Sep 1998||Hitachi, Ltd.||Optical system for measuring metabolism in a body and imaging method|
|US5807261 *||7 Jun 1995||15 Sep 1998||Sextant Medical Corporation||Noninvasive system for characterizing tissue in vivo|
|US5820558 *||4 Dic 1995||13 Oct 1998||Non-Invasive Technology, Inc.||Optical techniques for examination of biological tissue|
|US5853370 *||13 Sep 1996||29 Dic 1998||Non-Invasive Technology, Inc.||Optical system and method for non-invasive imaging of biological tissue|
|US5873821 *||18 May 1992||23 Feb 1999||Non-Invasive Technology, Inc.||Lateralization spectrophotometer|
|US5941827 *||1 Abr 1997||24 Ago 1999||U.S. Philips Corporation||Localization of an object in a turbid medium using radiation of different wavelengths|
|US5954053 *||6 Jun 1995||21 Sep 1999||Non-Invasive Technology, Inc.||Detection of brain hematoma|
|US5987346 *||23 Dic 1996||16 Nov 1999||Benaron; David A.||Device and method for classification of tissue|
|US5987351 *||6 Oct 1997||16 Nov 1999||Non-Invasive Technology, Inc.||Optical coupler for in vivo examination of biological tissue|
|US6009340 *||16 Mar 1998||28 Dic 1999||Northrop Grumman Corporation||Multimode, multispectral imaging system|
|US6023637 *||4 Nov 1997||8 Feb 2000||Liu; Zhong Qi||Method and apparatus for thermal radiation imaging|
|US6058324 *||13 Oct 1998||2 May 2000||Non-Invasive Technology, Inc.||Examination and imaging of biological tissue|
|US6090050 *||16 Jul 1998||18 Jul 2000||Salix Medical, Inc.||Thermometric apparatus and method|
|US6128517 *||8 Sep 1998||3 Oct 2000||Hitachi, Ltd.||Optical system for measuring metabolism in a body and imaging method|
|US6192260 *||30 Abr 1992||20 Feb 2001||Non-Invasive Technology, Inc.||Methods and apparatus for examining tissue in vivo using the decay characteristics of scattered electromagnetic radiation|
|US6240309 *||15 Nov 1996||29 May 2001||Hitachi, Ltd.||Optical measurement instrument for living body|
|US6271920||18 Dic 1998||7 Ago 2001||Chromatics Color Sciences International, Inc.||Methods and apparatus for color calibration and verification|
|US6272367||15 Sep 1998||7 Ago 2001||Non-Invasive Technology, Inc.||Examination of a biological tissue using photon migration between a plurality of input and detection locations|
|US6282438||2 Dic 1998||28 Ago 2001||Hitachi, Ltd.||Optical system for measuring metabolism in a body and imaging method|
|US6397099||12 Mar 1999||28 May 2002||Non-Invasive Technology, Inc.||Non-invasive imaging of biological tissue|
|US6542772||2 May 2000||1 Abr 2003||Non-Invasive Technology, Inc.||Examination and imaging of biological tissue|
|US6549795||14 Jul 1998||15 Abr 2003||Non-Invasive Technology, Inc.||Spectrophotometer for tissue examination|
|US6564076||21 Nov 2000||13 May 2003||Non-Invasive Technology, Inc.||Time-resolved spectroscopic apparatus and method using streak camera|
|US6594518||23 Ene 1998||15 Jul 2003||David A. Benaron||Device and method for classification of tissue|
|US6615065||13 Oct 1999||2 Sep 2003||Somanetics Corporation||Multi-channel non-invasive tissue oximeter|
|US6618614||8 Sep 1998||9 Sep 2003||Non-Invasive Technology, Inc.||Optical examination device, system and method|
|US6640133||7 May 2001||28 Oct 2003||Hitachi, Ltd.||Optical measurement instrument for living body|
|US6785568 *||27 Jun 2002||31 Ago 2004||Non-Invasive Technology Inc.||Transcranial examination of the brain|
|US6816743||24 Ene 2001||9 Nov 2004||University Of Kentucky Research Foundation||Methods and apparatus for in vivo identification and characterization of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques|
|US6869430||30 Mar 2001||22 Mar 2005||Rita Medical Systems, Inc.||Tissue biopsy and treatment apparatus and method|
|US6943883||18 Jul 2002||13 Sep 2005||Radiometer Medical A/S||Apparatus, sample cuvette and method for optical measurements|
|US7010341||7 Ago 2001||7 Mar 2006||Noninvasive Technology, Inc.||Examination of subjects using photon migration with high directionality techniques|
|US7025765||30 Mar 2001||11 Abr 2006||Rita Medical Systems, Inc.||Tissue biopsy and treatment apparatus and method|
|US7047054||14 Sep 2001||16 May 2006||Cas Medical Systems, Inc.||Laser diode optical transducer assembly for non-invasive spectrophotometric blood oxygenation monitoring|
|US7072701||24 Jul 2003||4 Jul 2006||Cas Medical Systems, Inc.||Method for spectrophotometric blood oxygenation monitoring|
|US7139603||31 Mar 2003||21 Nov 2006||Non-Invasive Technology Inc||Optical techniques for examination of biological tissue|
|US7142906||22 Oct 2003||28 Nov 2006||Hitachi, Ltd.||Optical measurement instrument for living body|
|US7286870||9 Jul 2001||23 Oct 2007||Hitachi, Ltd.||Optical system for measuring metabolism in a body and imaging method|
|US7313427||20 Mar 2006||25 Dic 2007||Cas Medical Systems, Inc.||Laser diode optical transducer assembly for non-invasive spectrophotometric blood oxygenation|
|US7355688||8 Sep 2005||8 Abr 2008||Vioptix, Inc.||Optical probe for optical imaging system|
|US7376456 *||5 Ago 2003||20 May 2008||Infraredx, Inc.||Near-infrared spectroscopic analysis of blood vessel walls|
|US7440794||19 Ene 2005||21 Oct 2008||Hitachi, Ltd.||Optical system for measuring metabolism in a body and imaging method|
|US7477924||2 May 2006||13 Ene 2009||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Medical sensor and technique for using the same|
|US7483731||30 Sep 2005||27 Ene 2009||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Medical sensor and technique for using the same|
|US7486979||30 Sep 2005||3 Feb 2009||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Optically aligned pulse oximetry sensor and technique for using the same|
|US7486985 *||5 Ago 2002||3 Feb 2009||Infraredx, Inc.||Near-infrared spectroscopic analysis of blood vessel walls|
|US7499740||8 Ene 2007||3 Mar 2009||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Techniques for detecting heart pulses and reducing power consumption in sensors|
|US7522948||2 May 2006||21 Abr 2009||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Medical sensor and technique for using the same|
|US7525647||21 Dic 2007||28 Abr 2009||Vioptix, Inc.||Medical device probe with source and detector sensors|
|US7538865||2 Ene 2008||26 May 2009||Vioptix, Inc.||Source and detector sensor arrangement|
|US7555327||30 Sep 2005||30 Jun 2009||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Folding medical sensor and technique for using the same|
|US7574244||28 Jul 2006||11 Ago 2009||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Compliant diaphragm medical sensor and technique for using the same|
|US7574245||27 Sep 2006||11 Ago 2009||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Flexible medical sensor enclosure|
|US7590439||8 Ago 2005||15 Sep 2009||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Bi-stable medical sensor and technique for using the same|
|US7610082||5 Nov 2004||27 Oct 2009||Non-Invasive Technology, Inc.||Optical system and method for in-vivo transcranial examination of brain tissue of a subject|
|US7627365||8 Nov 2004||1 Dic 2009||Non-Invasive Technology Inc.||Detection, imaging and characterization of breast tumors|
|US7647084||28 Jul 2006||12 Ene 2010||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Medical sensor and technique for using the same|
|US7650177||1 Ago 2006||19 Ene 2010||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Medical sensor for reducing motion artifacts and technique for using the same|
|US7657294||8 Ago 2005||2 Feb 2010||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Compliant diaphragm medical sensor and technique for using the same|
|US7657295||8 Ago 2005||2 Feb 2010||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Medical sensor and technique for using the same|
|US7657296||28 Jul 2006||2 Feb 2010||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Unitary medical sensor assembly and technique for using the same|
|US7658652||28 Ene 2009||9 Feb 2010||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Device and method for reducing crosstalk|
|US7676253||30 Ago 2006||9 Mar 2010||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Medical sensor and technique for using the same|
|US7680522||29 Sep 2006||16 Mar 2010||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Method and apparatus for detecting misapplied sensors|
|US7684842||29 Sep 2006||23 Mar 2010||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||System and method for preventing sensor misuse|
|US7684843||28 Jul 2006||23 Mar 2010||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Medical sensor and technique for using the same|
|US7689259||10 Mar 2004||30 Mar 2010||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Pulse oximeter sensor with piece-wise function|
|US7693559||6 Abr 2010||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Medical sensor having a deformable region and technique for using the same|
|US7706646||7 Mar 2008||27 Abr 2010||Tomophase Corporation||Delivering light via optical waveguide and multi-view optical probe head|
|US7715904||19 Ene 2005||11 May 2010||Hitachi, Ltd.||Optical system for measuring metabolism in a body and imaging method|
|US7729736||30 Ago 2006||1 Jun 2010||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Medical sensor and technique for using the same|
|US7736382||24 Oct 2005||15 Jun 2010||Lockheed Martin Corporation||Apparatus for optical stimulation of nerves and other animal tissue|
|US7738937||28 Jul 2006||15 Jun 2010||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Medical sensor and technique for using the same|
|US7774047||10 Mar 2006||10 Ago 2010||Hitachi, Ltd.||Optical measurement instrument for living body|
|US7794266||13 Sep 2007||14 Sep 2010||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Device and method for reducing crosstalk|
|US7796247||22 May 2009||14 Sep 2010||Vioptix Inc.||Tissue oximeter with source and detector sensors|
|US7796403||28 Sep 2006||14 Sep 2010||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Means for mechanical registration and mechanical-electrical coupling of a faraday shield to a photodetector and an electrical circuit|
|US7831298||11 May 2007||9 Nov 2010||Tomophase Corporation||Mapping physiological functions of tissues in lungs and other organs|
|US7865223||14 Mar 2005||4 Ene 2011||Peter Bernreuter||In vivo blood spectrometry|
|US7869849||26 Sep 2006||11 Ene 2011||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Opaque, electrically nonconductive region on a medical sensor|
|US7869850||29 Sep 2005||11 Ene 2011||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Medical sensor for reducing motion artifacts and technique for using the same|
|US7880884||30 Jun 2008||1 Feb 2011||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||System and method for coating and shielding electronic sensor components|
|US7881762||30 Sep 2005||1 Feb 2011||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Clip-style medical sensor and technique for using the same|
|US7883536||22 Ene 2008||8 Feb 2011||Lockheed Martin Corporation||Hybrid optical-electrical probes|
|US7887345||30 Jun 2008||15 Feb 2011||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Single use connector for pulse oximetry sensors|
|US7890153||28 Sep 2006||15 Feb 2011||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||System and method for mitigating interference in pulse oximetry|
|US7894869||9 Mar 2007||22 Feb 2011||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Multiple configuration medical sensor and technique for using the same|
|US7899510||29 Sep 2005||1 Mar 2011||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Medical sensor and technique for using the same|
|US7904130||29 Sep 2005||8 Mar 2011||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Medical sensor and technique for using the same|
|US7904139||13 Ago 2005||8 Mar 2011||Non-Invasive Technology Inc.||Optical examination of biological tissue using non-contact irradiation and detection|
|US7970458||17 Oct 2005||28 Jun 2011||Tomophase Corporation||Integrated disease diagnosis and treatment system|
|US7983741||7 Jun 2008||19 Jul 2011||Non-Invasive Technology Inc.||Examination and imaging of brain cognitive functions|
|US7988688||28 Sep 2006||2 Ago 2011||Lockheed Martin Corporation||Miniature apparatus and method for optical stimulation of nerves and other animal tissue|
|US7999938||29 Sep 2009||16 Ago 2011||Tomophase Corporation||Measurements of optical inhomogeneity and other properties in substances using propagation modes of light|
|US8012189||9 Ene 2008||6 Sep 2011||Lockheed Martin Corporation||Method and vestibular implant using optical stimulation of nerves|
|US8041162||26 Abr 2010||18 Oct 2011||Tomophase Corporation||Delivering light via optical waveguide and multi-view optical probe head|
|US8050744 *||19 Ene 2005||1 Nov 2011||Hitachi, Ltd.||Optical system for measuring metabolism in a body and imaging method|
|US8055321||20 Jul 2007||8 Nov 2011||Peter Bernreuter||Tissue oximetry apparatus and method|
|US8060171||1 Ago 2006||15 Nov 2011||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Medical sensor for reducing motion artifacts and technique for using the same|
|US8060187||20 May 2008||15 Nov 2011||Infraredx, Inc.||Near-infrared spectroscopic analysis of blood vessel walls|
|US8068891||29 Sep 2006||29 Nov 2011||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Symmetric LED array for pulse oximetry|
|US8070508||24 Dic 2008||6 Dic 2011||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Method and apparatus for aligning and securing a cable strain relief|
|US8071935||30 Jun 2008||6 Dic 2011||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Optical detector with an overmolded faraday shield|
|US8073518||2 May 2006||6 Dic 2011||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Clip-style medical sensor and technique for using the same|
|US8078246||30 Sep 2005||13 Dic 2011||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Pulse oximeter sensor with piece-wise function|
|US8078250||16 Mar 2006||13 Dic 2011||Cas Medical Systems, Inc.||Method for spectrophotometric blood oxygenation monitoring|
|US8092379||29 Sep 2005||10 Ene 2012||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Method and system for determining when to reposition a physiological sensor|
|US8092993||18 Dic 2008||10 Ene 2012||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Hydrogel thin film for use as a biosensor|
|US8112375||27 Mar 2009||7 Feb 2012||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Wavelength selection and outlier detection in reduced rank linear models|
|US8126527||3 Ago 2006||28 Feb 2012||University Of Washington Through Its Center For Commercialization||Method and system for determining the contribution of hemoglobin and myoglobin to in vivo optical spectra|
|US8133176||30 Sep 2005||13 Mar 2012||Tyco Healthcare Group Lp||Method and circuit for indicating quality and accuracy of physiological measurements|
|US8145288||22 Ago 2006||27 Mar 2012||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Medical sensor for reducing signal artifacts and technique for using the same|
|US8160696||5 Oct 2009||17 Abr 2012||Lockheed Martin Corporation||Nerve stimulator and method using simultaneous electrical and optical signals|
|US8175667||29 Sep 2006||8 May 2012||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Symmetric LED array for pulse oximetry|
|US8175671||22 Sep 2006||8 May 2012||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Medical sensor for reducing signal artifacts and technique for using the same|
|US8190224||22 Sep 2006||29 May 2012||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Medical sensor for reducing signal artifacts and technique for using the same|
|US8190225||22 Sep 2006||29 May 2012||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Medical sensor for reducing signal artifacts and technique for using the same|
|US8195264||22 Sep 2006||5 Jun 2012||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Medical sensor for reducing signal artifacts and technique for using the same|
|US8199007||29 Dic 2008||12 Jun 2012||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Flex circuit snap track for a biometric sensor|
|US8219170||20 Sep 2006||10 Jul 2012||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||System and method for practicing spectrophotometry using light emitting nanostructure devices|
|US8221319||25 Mar 2009||17 Jul 2012||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Medical device for assessing intravascular blood volume and technique for using the same|
|US8224412||12 Ene 2010||17 Jul 2012||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Pulse oximeter sensor with piece-wise function|
|US8233954||30 Sep 2005||31 Jul 2012||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Mucosal sensor for the assessment of tissue and blood constituents and technique for using the same|
|US8260391||14 Jul 2010||4 Sep 2012||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Medical sensor for reducing motion artifacts and technique for using the same|
|US8265724||9 Mar 2007||11 Sep 2012||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Cancellation of light shunting|
|US8290558||23 Nov 2009||16 Oct 2012||Vioptix, Inc.||Tissue oximeter intraoperative sensor|
|US8311601||30 Jun 2009||13 Nov 2012||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Reflectance and/or transmissive pulse oximeter|
|US8311602||24 Jun 2009||13 Nov 2012||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Compliant diaphragm medical sensor and technique for using the same|
|US8315685||25 Jun 2009||20 Nov 2012||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc||Flexible medical sensor enclosure|
|US8317848||3 Sep 2011||27 Nov 2012||Lockheed Martin Corporation||Vestibular implant and method for optical stimulation of nerves|
|US8346328||21 Dic 2007||1 Ene 2013||Covidien Lp||Medical sensor and technique for using the same|
|US8352004||21 Dic 2007||8 Ene 2013||Covidien Lp||Medical sensor and technique for using the same|
|US8352009||5 Ene 2009||8 Ene 2013||Covidien Lp||Medical sensor and technique for using the same|
|US8352010||26 May 2009||8 Ene 2013||Covidien Lp||Folding medical sensor and technique for using the same|
|US8357187||7 Feb 2011||22 Ene 2013||Lockheed Martin Corporation||Hybrid optical-electrical probes for stimulation of nerve or other animal tissue|
|US8364220||25 Sep 2008||29 Ene 2013||Covidien Lp||Medical sensor and technique for using the same|
|US8366613||24 Dic 2008||5 Feb 2013||Covidien Lp||LED drive circuit for pulse oximetry and method for using same|
|US8386000||30 Sep 2008||26 Feb 2013||Covidien Lp||System and method for photon density wave pulse oximetry and pulse hemometry|
|US8386002||9 Ene 2009||26 Feb 2013||Covidien Lp||Optically aligned pulse oximetry sensor and technique for using the same|
|US8391941||17 Jul 2009||5 Mar 2013||Covidien Lp||System and method for memory switching for multiple configuration medical sensor|
|US8391943||31 Mar 2010||5 Mar 2013||Covidien Lp||Multi-wavelength photon density wave system using an optical switch|
|US8396527||22 Sep 2006||12 Mar 2013||Covidien Lp||Medical sensor for reducing signal artifacts and technique for using the same|
|US8417309||30 Sep 2008||9 Abr 2013||Covidien Lp||Medical sensor|
|US8417310||10 Ago 2009||9 Abr 2013||Covidien Lp||Digital switching in multi-site sensor|
|US8423112||30 Sep 2008||16 Abr 2013||Covidien Lp||Medical sensor and technique for using the same|
|US8428675||19 Ago 2009||23 Abr 2013||Covidien Lp||Nanofiber adhesives used in medical devices|
|US8433382||30 Jul 2009||30 Abr 2013||Covidien Lp||Transmission mode photon density wave system and method|
|US8433383||7 Jul 2006||30 Abr 2013||Covidien Lp||Stacked adhesive optical sensor|
|US8437822||27 Mar 2009||7 May 2013||Covidien Lp||System and method for estimating blood analyte concentration|
|US8437826||7 Nov 2011||7 May 2013||Covidien Lp||Clip-style medical sensor and technique for using the same|
|US8442608||24 Dic 2008||14 May 2013||Covidien Lp||System and method for estimating physiological parameters by deconvolving artifacts|
|US8452364||24 Dic 2008||28 May 2013||Covidien LLP||System and method for attaching a sensor to a patient's skin|
|US8452366||16 Mar 2009||28 May 2013||Covidien Lp||Medical monitoring device with flexible circuitry|
|US8452383||2 Mar 2009||28 May 2013||Tomophase Corporation||Temperature profile mapping and guided thermotherapy|
|US8467858||29 Abr 2010||18 Jun 2013||Tomophase Corporation||Image-guided thermotherapy based on selective tissue thermal treatment|
|US8475506||13 Ago 2008||2 Jul 2013||Lockheed Martin Corporation||VCSEL array stimulator apparatus and method for light stimulation of bodily tissues|
|US8483790||7 Mar 2007||9 Jul 2013||Covidien Lp||Non-adhesive oximeter sensor for sensitive skin|
|US8494604||21 Sep 2009||23 Jul 2013||Covidien Lp||Wavelength-division multiplexing in a multi-wavelength photon density wave system|
|US8498681 *||4 Oct 2005||30 Jul 2013||Tomophase Corporation||Cross-sectional mapping of spectral absorbance features|
|US8498699||26 Ene 2011||30 Jul 2013||Lockheed Martin Company||Method and nerve stimulator using simultaneous electrical and optical signals|
|US8505821||30 Jun 2009||13 Ago 2013||Covidien Lp||System and method for providing sensor quality assurance|
|US8506613||9 Jun 2011||13 Ago 2013||Lockheed Martin Corporation||Miniature method and apparatus for optical stimulation of nerves and other animal tissue|
|US8509869||15 May 2009||13 Ago 2013||Covidien Lp||Method and apparatus for detecting and analyzing variations in a physiologic parameter|
|US8527022||16 Oct 2012||3 Sep 2013||Vioptix, Inc.||Tissue oximeter intraoperative sensor|
|US8527023 *||28 Abr 2008||3 Sep 2013||Sentec Ag||Device and method for transcutaneous determination of blood gases|
|US8528185||21 Ago 2009||10 Sep 2013||Covidien Lp||Bi-stable medical sensor and technique for using the same|
|US8551150||7 Nov 2012||8 Oct 2013||Lockheed Martin Corporation||Method and system for optical stimulation of nerves|
|US8553223||31 Mar 2010||8 Oct 2013||Covidien Lp||Biodegradable fibers for sensing|
|US8577434||24 Dic 2008||5 Nov 2013||Covidien Lp||Coaxial LED light sources|
|US8577436||5 Mar 2012||5 Nov 2013||Covidien Lp||Medical sensor for reducing signal artifacts and technique for using the same|
|US8600469||7 Feb 2011||3 Dic 2013||Covidien Lp||Medical sensor and technique for using the same|
|US8632577||22 Ene 2013||21 Ene 2014||Lockheed Martin Corporation||Hybrid optical-electrical probes for stimulation of nerve or other animal tissue|
|US8634891||20 May 2009||21 Ene 2014||Covidien Lp||Method and system for self regulation of sensor component contact pressure|
|US8649838||22 Sep 2010||11 Feb 2014||Covidien Lp||Wavelength switching for pulse oximetry|
|US8649839||24 Jun 2010||11 Feb 2014||Covidien Lp||Motion compatible sensor for non-invasive optical blood analysis|
|US8652187||26 May 2011||18 Feb 2014||Lockheed Martin Corporation||Cuff apparatus and method for optical and/or electrical nerve stimulation of peripheral nerves|
|US8660626||4 Feb 2011||25 Feb 2014||Covidien Lp||System and method for mitigating interference in pulse oximetry|
|US8666209||18 Oct 2011||4 Mar 2014||Tomophase Corporation||Delivering light via optical waveguide and multi-view optical probe head|
|US8688186||18 Ene 2010||1 Abr 2014||Vioptix, Inc.||Retractor device with oximeter sensor and force sensor|
|US8709078||5 Ago 2011||29 Abr 2014||Lockheed Martin Corporation||Ocular implant with substantially constant retinal spacing for transmission of nerve-stimulation light|
|US8725226||13 Nov 2009||13 May 2014||Nonin Medical, Inc.||Optical sensor path selection|
|US8744570||25 Ene 2010||3 Jun 2014||Lockheed Martin Corporation||Optical stimulation of the brainstem and/or midbrain, including auditory areas|
|US8747447||21 Jul 2012||10 Jun 2014||Lockheed Martin Corporation||Cochlear implant and method enabling enhanced music perception|
|US8761866||18 Jul 2011||24 Jun 2014||Non-Invasive Technology Inc.||Examination and imaging of brain cognitive functions|
|US8788001||21 Sep 2009||22 Jul 2014||Covidien Lp||Time-division multiplexing in a multi-wavelength photon density wave system|
|US8788004||12 Dic 2011||22 Jul 2014||Cas Medical Systems, Inc.||Method for spectrophotometric blood oxygenation monitoring|
|US8792978||24 Sep 2010||29 Jul 2014||Lockheed Martin Corporation||Laser-based nerve stimulators for, E.G., hearing restoration in cochlear prostheses and method|
|US8798700||23 Jul 2008||5 Ago 2014||Vioptix, Inc.||Oximeter with marking feature|
|US8805465||30 Nov 2010||12 Ago 2014||Covidien Lp||Multiple sensor assemblies and cables in a single sensor body|
|US8818473||30 Nov 2010||26 Ago 2014||Covidien Lp||Organic light emitting diodes and photodetectors|
|US8834545||21 Jul 2012||16 Sep 2014||Lockheed Martin Corporation||Optical-stimulation cochlear implant with electrode(s) at the apical end for electrical stimulation of apical spiral ganglion cells of the cochlea|
|US8840654||21 Jul 2012||23 Sep 2014||Lockheed Martin Corporation||Cochlear implant using optical stimulation with encoded information designed to limit heating effects|
|US8864806||26 May 2011||21 Oct 2014||Lockheed Martin Corporation||Optical bundle apparatus and method for optical and/or electrical nerve stimulation of peripheral nerves|
|US8894697||21 Jul 2012||25 Nov 2014||Lockheed Martin Corporation||Optical pulse-width modulation used in an optical-stimulation cochlear implant|
|US8897850||29 Dic 2008||25 Nov 2014||Covidien Lp||Sensor with integrated living hinge and spring|
|US8914088||30 Sep 2008||16 Dic 2014||Covidien Lp||Medical sensor and technique for using the same|
|US8923942||15 Nov 2010||30 Dic 2014||Peter Bernreuter||In vivo blood spectrometry|
|US8929973||30 Nov 2007||6 Ene 2015||Lockheed Martin Corporation||Apparatus and method for characterizing optical sources used with human and animal tissues|
|US8938279||26 Ene 2009||20 Ene 2015||VioOptix, Inc.||Multidepth tissue oximeter|
|US8945197||15 Jun 2012||3 Feb 2015||Lockheed Martin Corporation||Sight-restoring visual prosthetic and method using infrared nerve-stimulation light|
|US8956396||15 Jun 2012||17 Feb 2015||Lockheed Martin Corporation||Eye-tracking visual prosthetic and method|
|US8964017||26 Ago 2010||24 Feb 2015||Tomophase, Inc.||Optical tissue imaging based on optical frequency domain imaging|
|US8965473||6 Oct 2011||24 Feb 2015||Covidien Lp||Medical sensor for reducing motion artifacts and technique for using the same|
|US8968376||26 May 2011||3 Mar 2015||Lockheed Martin Corporation||Nerve-penetrating apparatus and method for optical and/or electrical nerve stimulation of peripheral nerves|
|US8977332||31 Mar 2014||10 Mar 2015||Vioptix, Inc.||Retractor device with oximeter sensor and force sensor|
|US8985119||9 Jun 2010||24 Mar 2015||Lockheed Martin Corporation||Method and apparatus for optical stimulation of nerves and other animal tissue|
|US8996131||24 Ago 2011||31 Mar 2015||Lockheed Martin Corporation||Apparatus and method for managing chronic pain with infrared light sources and heat|
|US8998914||21 Jul 2012||7 Abr 2015||Lockheed Martin Corporation||Optimized stimulation rate of an optically stimulating cochlear implant|
|US9010634||30 Jun 2009||21 Abr 2015||Covidien Lp||System and method for linking patient data to a patient and providing sensor quality assurance|
|US9011508||21 Jul 2012||21 Abr 2015||Lockheed Martin Corporation||Broad wavelength profile to homogenize the absorption profile in optical stimulation of nerves|
|US9011509||21 Jul 2012||21 Abr 2015||Lockheed Martin Corporation||Individually optimized performance of optically stimulating cochlear implants|
|US9060720||3 Sep 2013||23 Jun 2015||Vioptix, Inc.||Tissue oximeter intraoperative sensor|
|US9061135||15 Sep 2011||23 Jun 2015||Lockheed Martin Corporation||Apparatus and method for managing chronic pain with infrared and low-level light sources|
|US20020016536 *||14 Sep 2001||7 Feb 2002||Cas Medical Systems, Inc.||Laser diode optical transducer assembly for non-invasive spectrophotometric blood oxygenation monitoring|
|US20020147400 *||7 Ago 2001||10 Oct 2002||Non-Invasive Technology, Inc., Delaware Corporation||Examination of subjects using photon migration with high directionality techniques|
|US20040064052 *||27 Sep 2003||1 Abr 2004||Britton Chance||Non-invasive imaging of biological tissue|
|US20040073101 *||31 Mar 2003||15 Abr 2004||Britton Chance||Optical techniques for examination of biological tissue|
|US20040077950 *||5 Ago 2003||22 Abr 2004||Marshik-Geurts Barbara J.||Near-infrared spectroscopic analysis of blood vessel walls|
|US20040127784 *||22 Oct 2003||1 Jul 2004||Yuichi Yamashita||Optical measurement instrument for living body|
|US20050038344 *||6 Jul 2004||17 Feb 2005||Britton Chance||Transabdominal examination, monitoring and imaging of tissue|
|US20050043596 *||9 Sep 2003||24 Feb 2005||Non-Invasive Technology, Inc., A Delaware Corporation||Optical examination device, system and method|
|US20050113656 *||30 Ago 2004||26 May 2005||Britton Chance||Hemoglobinometers and the like for measuring the metabolic condition of a subject|
|US20050131303 *||19 Ene 2005||16 Jun 2005||Atsushi Maki||Optical system for measuring metabolism in a body and imaging method|
|US20050148857 *||19 Ene 2005||7 Jul 2005||Hitachi, Ltd.||Optical system for measuring metabolism in a body and imaging method|
|US20050197583 *||8 Nov 2004||8 Sep 2005||Britton Chance||Detection, imaging and characterization of breast tumors|
|US20050228291 *||5 Nov 2004||13 Oct 2005||Britton Chance||Imaging and characterization of brain tissue|
|US20060030764 *||30 Sep 2005||9 Feb 2006||Mallinckrodt Inc.||Method and circuit for indicating quality and accuracy of physiological measurements|
|US20100130842 *||28 Abr 2008||27 May 2010||Josef Hayoz||Device and method for transcutaneous determination of blood gases|
|USRE44735||13 Oct 1999||28 Ene 2014||Covidien Lp||Multi-channel non-invasive tissue oximeter|
|USRE45607||13 Oct 1999||14 Jul 2015||Covidien Lp||Multi-channel non-invasive tissue oximeter|
|USRE45608 *||13 Oct 1999||14 Jul 2015||Covidien Lp||Multi-channel non-invasive tissue oximeter|
|USRE45609||13 Oct 1999||14 Jul 2015||Covidien Lp||Multi-channel non-invasive tissue oximeter|
|USRE45616 *||13 Oct 1999||21 Jul 2015||Covidien Lp||Multi-channel non-invasive tissue oximeter|
|CN101272735B||24 Ago 2006||12 Ene 2011||维奥普蒂克斯公司||Optical probe for optical imaging system|
|EP2044885A1||13 Oct 1999||8 Abr 2009||Somanetics Corporation||Multi-channel non-invasive tissue oximeter|
|WO2000021435A1 *||13 Oct 1999||20 Abr 2000||Bruce J Barrett||Multi-channel non-invasive tissue oximeter|
|WO2007030331A1 *||24 Ago 2006||15 Mar 2007||Vioptix Inc||Optical probe for optical imaging system|
|Clasificación de EE.UU.||600/323, 600/473|
|Clasificación internacional||G01N21/31, G01J1/44, G01J1/18, A61B5/00|
|Clasificación cooperativa||G01N2021/3129, G01N2201/0696, G01J2001/4453, A61B5/0059, G01N2201/08, G01N2201/126, G01J2001/182, G01N21/314|
|Clasificación europea||A61B5/00P, G01N21/31D|
|26 Sep 1995||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|18 Feb 1996||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|
|30 Abr 1996||FP||Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee|
Effective date: 19960221