|Número de publicación||US6603772 B1|
|Tipo de publicación||Concesión|
|Número de solicitud||US 09/282,539|
|Fecha de publicación||5 Ago 2003|
|Fecha de presentación||31 Mar 1999|
|Fecha de prioridad||31 Mar 1999|
|Número de publicación||09282539, 282539, US 6603772 B1, US 6603772B1, US-B1-6603772, US6603772 B1, US6603772B1|
|Inventores||Farshid Moussavi, Dhaval N. Shah|
|Cesionario original||Cisco Technology, Inc.|
|Exportar cita||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Citas de patentes (187), Otras citas (11), Citada por (36), Clasificaciones (20), Eventos legales (4)|
|Enlaces externos: USPTO, Cesión de USPTO, Espacenet|
This invention relates to U.S. Patent Application: application Ser. No 09/283,109, Express Mail Mailing No. EJ667757725US, filed this same day, in the name of Farshid Moussavi and Dhaval N. Shah, titled “Multicast Routing With Nearest Queue First Allocation and Dynamic and Static Vector Quantization,” assigned to the same assignee, The application is hereby incorporated by reference as if fully set forth herein.
It is respectfully suggested that it may be appropriate for the same examiner to examine both applications.
1. Field of the Invention
This invention relates to multicast routing.
2. Related Art
Communication on a computer network is accomplished by sending messages. Messages can include one or more data packets. Packets can be of fixed or variable lengths. Cells are packets having a fixed length.
Messages have a source and at least one destination address. A computer network includes devices that direct traffic towards the destination address. A switch is one such device.
Switches have multiple input interfaces and multiple output interfaces, which may be connected in a variety of ways. A cross bar switch is designed so that every input interface can be connected to every output interface.
There are two types of network traffic. In the first type a message has only one final destination address. This is known as unicast traffic. One use of unicast traffic is point to point communication between two computers. In the second type of traffic, called multicast, a message is sent to multiple destinations. One use of multicast transmissions is when a computer user wishes to send a message over the Internet to many individuals wishing to receive the message. A switch can have both unicast input interfaces as well as multicast input interfaces; often an interface handles both unicast as well as multicast traffic.
There are two main types of schemes for storing messages in the known art, which are input queuing and output queuing. (Combinations are also possible). In input queuing, a packet is queued before it enters the crossbar switch, and waits in line to arrive at the head of the input queue and be sent onward to its destination across the crossbar fabric. In output queuing, packets are forwarded onto the crossbar fabric from the input interface immediately, and queued up as they arrive at their destination output.
Output queuing hits limitations in memory speed faster than does input queuing because output queuing requires a memory at the output which is capable of momentarily receiving traffic from multiple inputs (in the worst case, all inputs), and sending out traffic at the output line rate. This means the memory in an output queued scheme must be faster than the memory in an input queued scheme by a factor equal to the number of interfaces.
In order to improve efficiency and thus the general performance in the case of high performance systems, it is preferable to use input queuing to accomodate the limited memory speeds available. The following description of the Head of Line Blocking problem assumes an input queued system.
A unicast message, having only one destination, only needs to be routed to one output interface of a switch. Messages may be simply queued in the order received until they can be transmitted through the selected output interface. A problem in the known art occurs when the message at the head of a first queue is to be sent to an output interface that is not available due to a message from another queue using the output interface. The first queue is blocked until the particular output interface is available; no messages from this queue can be sent until the first element in the queue, or “head element”, is cleared by being sent across the switch to the output interface. (The queue may be implemented with each element being a single packet or cell, or may be implemented with each element including all the packets or cells that make up a single message). If the output interface is busy for an extended period, several queues may become blocked. This is known as the Head-of-Line blocking (“HOL blocking”) problem.
A known technique for approaching the HOL blocking problem for unicast traffic is the use of virtual output queues (“VOQs”). VOQs are virtual (logical) queues maintained in software or hardware; each VOQ is associated with a physical interface. There is a one-to-one correspondence between the VOQs and possible input/output combinations. The number of VOQs needed scales arithmetically as M×N, where M and N are the number of output interfaces and input interfaces, respectively. For a crossbar switch with 16 unicast input interfaces and 16 output interfaces, commonly called a “16×16” switch, 256 VOQs are need. If a particular output interface is tied up, a virtual queue associated with some other output interface can still send messages to that other output interface.
It should be noted that although the term used is “virtual output queue”, the method is actually an input queued method, as the queues are maintained for each input interface.
The VOQ method has the drawback that it only applies to unicast routing. VOQs cannot be applied to multicast routing because for multicast the number of VOQs needed to accommodate all possible input/output combinations is prohibitively large, growing exponentially as 2M×N, where M is the number of output interfaces and N is the number of multicast input interfaces. For a switch with 2 input interfaces and 16 output interfaces, a total of 2×216 (approximately 130,000) virtual queues would be required to implement VOQs. Very large numbers of VOQs use valuable resources such as memory and chip real estate, and likely cannot fit on a single chip using current technology.
Multicast transmissions are increasingly common and HOL blocking is an ongoing and unaddressed problem for multicast routing. Accordingly, it would be advantageous to be able to route multicast messages with reduced HOL blocking, in a manner such that there is overall improved performance of the network.
This advantage is achieved in an embodiment of the invention in which multiple virtual output queues, for convenience in this application called “multicast virtual output queues” (“MVOQs”), are maintained for a multicast interface, the number of queues being an intermediate number between 1 and 2M, such as 8 for a switch having 16 output interfaces (M=16). These MVOQs are an input queued system. Implementation of an allocation policy in conjunction with queues can also increase performance.
The invention includes a method and apparatus for routing multicast traffic with better performance and reduced Head of Line blocking. This is achieved by means of the use of multiple virtual output queues for each input interface that handles multicast traffic, called “multicast virtual output queues” (MVOQs). Schemes for allocation of queues including random allocation, round robin, and Shortest Queue First (SQF) allocation can further improve performance. In an alternative embodiment, global MVOQs that can be used as queues by multiple input interfaces, can be used instead of MVOQs associated with a specific input interface.
FIG. 1 is a diagram of a crossbar switch with 2 input interfaces and 4 output interfaces, with messages in a queue for each input interface.
FIG. 2 is a diagram of a flow table.
FIG. 3 is a process flow diagram of queuing a cell using MVOQs.
FIG. 4 is a process flow diagram for selecting the shortest queue.
FIG. 5 is a process flow diagram for sending a cell.
In the following description, a preferred embodiment of the invention is described with regard to preferred process steps and data structures. Embodiments of the invention can be implemented using general purpose processors or special purpose processors operating under program control, or other circuits, adapted to particular process steps and data structures described herein. Implementation of the process steps and data structures described herein would not require undue experimentation or further invention.
Inventions described herein can be used in combination or conjunction with inventions described in the following patent application:
application Ser. No. 09/283,109, Express Mail Mailing No. EJ667757725US, filed this same day, in the name of Farshid Moussavi and Dhaval N. Shah, titled “Multicast Routing With Nearest Queue First Allocation And Dynamic and Static Vector Quantization,” assigned to the same assignee, attorney docket number CIS-062. The application is hereby incorporated by reference as if fully set forth herein.
For clarity, the invention is described as used in a crossbar switch having one multicast input interface and 16 output interfaces, in a network using cell-based messages. It is to be understood that the invention may be applied to sizes other than 16-output interface crossbar and to switches other than cross bar switches. It is further to be understood that the invention may be applied to data transmissions other than cell-based transmission.
It is further to be understood that the invention may be applied to switches having both unicast as well as multicast input interfaces, or having input interfaces that handle both unicast as well as multicast traffic. The invention may be practiced in combination with VOQs, or unicast cells may simply be treated as multicast cells with a single bit set in the destination vector.
The preferred embodiment is described using 8 multicast virtual output queues. Other numbers of MVOQs can be used; however, for the preferred embodiment as described above and below, between 2 and 16 MVOQs provide the best performance advantages. Depending on the situation, such as the number of input and output interfaces, types of traffic, costs associating with implementing queues, other numbers of MVOQs may be preferred.
Cell-based means the data packets sent along the network have a fixed length.
A multicast message is directed to multiple destinations. The “multicast destination vector” or “destination vector” stores the output interfaces for a given message. M is the number of output interfaces in the switch and the vector can be implemented as an M-bit bitmask. Each destination address combination can be represented by an M-bit vector; setting a bit to 1 indicates the message is to be sent to the corresponding output interface. For instance, a switch having 4 output interfaces has 16 possible destination address combinations; a destination vector of [0,1,1,0] means that the message should be sent to output interfaces 1 and 2, but not to output interfaces 0 or 3, in a switch where the four output interfaces are numbered 0, 1, 2, and 3.
A broadcast message is a case of multicast message. The broadcast message may have a special destination address, or an address where all bits in the destination vector are set. A broadcast message is treated as though all bits in the destination vector are set.
A “multicast flow” is a stream of packets, with the same multicast destination vector. A flow is defined as a “new flow” if no packets with that flow's destination vector exist in any of the multicast virtual output queues at the time of its arrival.
Two flows are “non overlapping flows” if their destination vectors do not both have a bit set in any location of their destination bitmask. That is, the flows do not share any common output interface.
A message includes one or more data packets, which are preferably cells (fixed-length packets). A message can be one flow. If the transmission of a message is interrupted for a length of time, a message can give rise to multiple multicast flows, as defined above. However, at the time of handling by the switch, a flow that comprises a complete message is handled the same as a flow that is one of several flows comprising a message.
Packets, which are cells in the preferred embodiment, arrive at an input interface of a switch. The switch routes network traffic to the appropriate destination(s). FIG. 1 is a diagram 100 of a cross bar switch having two input interfaces 111, 112 and four output interfaces 151-154. Input queues 120, 130 contain messages for respective input interfaces 111, 112. For convenience, in FIG. 1 each message is depicted as a single entry in the queue although each cell in a message is processed and queued separately, as discussed below, and the cells of different messages may arrive at the input interleaved. The messages in input queues 120, 130 are destined for various combinations of output interfaces. Each message may include one or more packets. The destination output interfaces for each message in the input queues 120, 130 are indicated by the sets of numbers shown in the schematic depiction of the entries in the queues 121-123, 131-134.
Each arriving cell is processed separately. If the cell is part of an existing flow, the MVOQ already allocated to the existing flow is selected as the MVOQ for this cell. If the cell is not part of an existing flow, the MVOQ for this cell is selected according to Shortest Queue First in the preferred embodiment.
The cell is queued in the selected MVOQ. Items in the MVOQs are scheduled and sent across the switch by a scheduler as in known in the art of switches. Once the cell has been sent to all destinations that are requested in its destination vector, the cell is dequeued from the MVOQ.
For a switch with 16 outputs, there are preferably eight MVOQs. Greatest relative improvement is seen for approximately 2-16 MVOQs for such a switch. Diminishing returns on better performance occur when going to more than about 16 MVOQs for a 16 output switch.
The cells in a multicast flow are preferably assigned to the same output queue. If an incoming cell is part of an existing flow, the cell is assigned to the same MVOQ as the other cells in the existing flow. The detailed steps and data structures are discussed in the section on queuing a flow.
Assigning the cells in one multicast flow to different output queues would increase the chance that the head elements of two queues will be the same, resulting in HOL blocking, and is therefore undesirable in most circumstances. In addition, assigning a flow to one queue assures that the cells in the flow retain their ordering; that is, the cells will not arrive at the destination out of order, as might happen if flows were split between different queues.
The decision to which of the queues (8 MVOQs in the preferred embodiment) to allocate a flow can improve performance of the network. In the preferred embodiment, assignment of new flows is done by shortest queue first (SQF) allocation. However, allocation can also by done by random assignment, round robin, or other policies. These policies are subsequently described. The detailed steps and data structures are discussed in the section on queuing a flow.
One allocation policy is allocation of queues by random assignment of flows to queues. This is a simple and computationally fast method. On average, random assignment results in good performance.
Another allocation policy is allocation of queues by round-robin assignment of flows to queues. That is, the output queues are picked in sequential, cyclical order. If there are M output queues, flow 1 is assigned to queue 1 and flow 2 is assigned to queue 2, and so on. Flow M+1 is assigned to queue 1, and flow M+2 is assigned to queue 2, and so on. Performance of the system using the round robin allocation policy will vary depending on the general character of the incoming traffic, and depending on the specific traffic that comes in.
Shortest Queue First
The preferred allocation policy is to allocate queues by assigning flows to the shortest queue first. We call this the “SQF” allocation policy. A queue may become very long because a flow assigned to it was very long, or it may become very long due to head of line blocking. SQF has the advantage of providing automatic feedback to the system, because flows are automatically directed away from long queues: by choosing the shortest queue, queues where there is HOL blocking are on average avoided. The detailed steps for selecting the shortest queue are discussed in the section on queuing a flow.
Other Allocation Policies
Other allocation policies, including combinations of allocation policies also may be used. A combination of random allocation with SQF, for instance by allocating every other flow by SQF, combines the random allocation policy feature of small computation time with the SQF feature of automatic feedback. Another example combination would be a weighted average of SQF allocation and Nearest Queue First (“NQF”) allocation which is disclosed in the above referenced, co-pending, application, “Multicast Routing With Nearest Queue First Allocation and Dynamic and Static Vector Quantization.” It is to be noted that even without a particular allocation policy, the use of multicast virtual output queues increases throughput of a switch.
In the preferred embodiment, for each destination vector for which there is a cell in any queue, an entry showing the output queue to which the destination vector is assigned is kept, and a count of the number of cells having this destination vector is maintained. This information can be kept in a flow table. A diagram of an example flow table is shown in FIG. 2. In the preferred embodiment, the table is implemented in a Content Addressable Memory (CAM).
FIG. 3 is a process flow diagram 300 for queuing a cell. Each cell is handled separately. Upon receipt of a cell 310, an MVOQ is selected for the cell. To select an MVOQ, it is determined whether the cell is part of an existing multicast flow 320. This is done by checking the destination vector against the entries in the flow table.
If a matching entry is found, the cell is assigned to the same MVOQ as the entry and the counter in the flow table for that destination vector is incremented 322. Placing a cell in the same queue as earlier encountered cells with the same destination vector ensures that the ordering of cells on arrival at the destinations will be maintained.
If a matching entry for that destination vector is not found in the flow table, the cell is the first cell in a new flow as defined above. The MVOQ is selected by the allocation policy 320, preferably by the Shortest Queue First (SQF) policy 324. A process flow diagram 400 for determining the shortest queue is shown in FIG. 4. A pointer is initialized to point at the first entry in the table 410, and counters for counting output queue length for each output queue are set to be zero 410. The shortest queue is determined in the preferred embodiment by, for each entry in the flow table 420, 440, reading the output queue value and number of cells 420, incrementing the count for the output queue value read by the number of cells for this entry 430, and after all entries in the flow table have been read, choosing the MVOQ with the smallest count 450. A new entry in the flow table is created for this destination vector and this queue with the cell count for the entry equal to unity 326. However, other means for determining the shortest queue can be used, such as separately maintaining a total count for each output queue.
It is to be noted that for alternative embodiments where the communication is not cell-based, a measure of shortest queue other than number of cells can be used. One such measure is the total number of bytes in the queue.
Once the MVOQ is selected, in a preferred embodiment the cell is queued 330 by causing the tail element of the queue to point to the cell. The cell is set to have a null pointer in the node that is reserved to point to the next element. MVOQs are preferably maintained as linked lists with a node pointing to the next cell in the queue, with the last cell in the queue having a null pointer. There is a pointer to the head of each queue. A pointer to the tail of the queue is also maintained. In a preferred embodiment, these queues are implemented in hardware.
FIG. 5 is a process flow diagram 500 for sending a cell. To send a cell, first an MVOQ is selected 510.
Next, the head element of the queue is sent to the output interface and the pointer to the head of the queue is set to point to the next cell in the queue 520. This can be done by fanout splitting method or without fanout splitting. Both methods are known in the art of switches. In non-fanout splitting, the cell is simultaneously sent to all outputs, and can only be sent if all output interfaces are available. If done by fanout splitting, where the cell is sent to a subset of its destination output interfaces available at the moment, the cell may be retained to later be sent to those output interfaces to which it has not yet been sent; this is known in the art of switches.
Whether fanout or non-fanout splitting is preferable depends on the situations, as is known in the art of switches. When switch fabric capacity is constrained relative to output queue resources, non-fanout splitting is preferable. When output queue capacity is more valuable than switch resources, fanout splitting is preferred.
In the preferred embodiment, non-fanout splitting is used. However, after reading this application, those of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that the invention can be implemented for fanout splitting without undue experimentation or new invention. One way is to maintain a separate list containing the “current” destination vector of the head element for each MVOQ, with the “current” destination vector being the destination to which the cell has yet to be sent.
When the cell has been successfully sent to all appropriate output interfaces, the counter for the destination vector is decremented 530. If the count for this destination vector becomes zero, the entry for this destination vector is removed from the flow table.
In the preferred embodiment, a set of MVOQs is associated with a single physical input interface. In an alternative embodiment of the invention, the use of MVOQs can be extended across all the input interfaces. The effect of such a scheme would be that any MVOQ for the switch is accessible to any incoming flow. If there are 2 physical input interfaces and each has 8 MVOQs, there is a total of 16 MVOQs available to any incoming flow. As a practical implementation matter, the MVOQs would still be associated with a physical input interface: if the shortest queue is an MVOQ associated with a first input interface, then an incoming message at a second input interface would be transferred to the first input interface for queuing in the MVOQ.
Although preferred embodiments are disclosed herein, many variations are possible which remain within the concept, scope, and spirit of the invention, and these variations would become clear to those skilled in the art after perusal of this application.
|Patente citada||Fecha de presentación||Fecha de publicación||Solicitante||Título|
|US4131767||22 Feb 1978||26 Dic 1978||Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated||Echo cancellation in two-wire, two-way data transmission systems|
|US4161719||4 Oct 1977||17 Jul 1979||Ncr Corporation||System for controlling synchronization in a digital communication system|
|US4316284||11 Sep 1980||16 Feb 1982||Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated||Frame resynchronization circuit for digital receiver|
|US4397020||13 Oct 1981||2 Ago 1983||Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated||Error monitoring in digital transmission systems|
|US4419728||22 Jun 1981||6 Dic 1983||Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated||Channel interface circuit providing virtual channel number translation and direct memory access|
|US4424565||22 Jun 1981||3 Ene 1984||Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated||Channel interface circuit with high speed data message header field translation and direct memory access|
|US4437087||27 Ene 1982||13 Mar 1984||Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated||Adaptive differential PCM coding|
|US4438511||10 Nov 1980||20 Mar 1984||Telebit Corporation||Packetized ensemble modem|
|US4439763||3 Sep 1981||27 Mar 1984||Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated||Collision avoiding system and protocol for a multiple access digital communications system|
|US4445213||22 Ene 1982||24 Abr 1984||Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated||Communication line interface for controlling data information having differing transmission characteristics|
|US4446555||22 Feb 1982||1 May 1984||Michel Devault||Time division multiplex switching network for multiservice digital networks|
|US4456957||28 Sep 1981||26 Jun 1984||Ncr Corporation||Apparatus using a decision table for routing data among terminals and a host system|
|US4464658||5 Mar 1982||7 Ago 1984||At&T Laboratories||Multipoint data communication system with collision detection|
|US4499576||13 Ago 1982||12 Feb 1985||At&T Bell Laboratories||Multiplexed first-in, first-out queues|
|US4506358||25 Jun 1982||19 Mar 1985||At&T Bell Laboratories||Time stamping for a packet switching system|
|US4507760||13 Ago 1982||26 Mar 1985||At&T Bell Laboratories||First-in, first-out (FIFO) memory configuration for queue storage|
|US4532626||19 Jul 1982||30 Jul 1985||At&T Bell Laboratories||Collision avoiding system and protocol for a two path multiple access digital communications system|
|US4644532||10 Jun 1985||17 Feb 1987||International Business Machines Corporation||Automatic update of topology in a hybrid network|
|US4646287||7 Dic 1984||24 Feb 1987||At&T Bell Laboratories||Idle period signalling in a packet switching system|
|US4677423||6 Ene 1986||30 Jun 1987||American Telephone & Telegraph, At&T Bell Laboratories||ADPCM coder-decoder including partial band energy transition detection|
|US4679189||27 Nov 1985||7 Jul 1987||American Telephone And Telegraph Company||Alternate routing arrangement|
|US4679227||20 May 1985||7 Jul 1987||Telebit Corporation||Ensemble modem structure for imperfect transmission media|
|US4723267||17 Jun 1985||2 Feb 1988||Octocom Systems, Inc.||Telephone line interface and dialer circuitry for telecommunications equipment|
|US4731816||12 Ene 1987||15 Mar 1988||Telebit Corporation||Ensemble modem structure for imperfect transmission media|
|US4750136||10 Ene 1986||7 Jun 1988||American Telephone And Telegraph, At&T Information Systems Inc.||Communication system having automatic circuit board initialization capability|
|US4757495||5 Mar 1986||12 Jul 1988||Telebit Corporation||Speech and data multiplexor optimized for use over impaired and bandwidth restricted analog channels|
|US4763191||17 Mar 1986||9 Ago 1988||American Telephone And Telegraph Company, At&T Bell Laboratories||Dial-up telephone network equipment for requesting an identified selection|
|US4769810||31 Dic 1986||6 Sep 1988||American Telephone And Telegraph Company, At&T Bell Laboratories||Packet switching system arranged for congestion control through bandwidth management|
|US4769811||31 Dic 1986||6 Sep 1988||American Telephone And Telegraph Company, At&T Bell Laboratories||Packet switching system arranged for congestion control|
|US4771425||29 Oct 1984||13 Sep 1988||Stratacom, Inc.||Synchoronous packet voice/data communication system|
|US4819228||15 Oct 1987||4 Abr 1989||Stratacom Inc.||Synchronous packet voice/data communication system|
|US4827411||15 Jun 1987||2 May 1989||International Business Machines Corporation||Method of maintaining a topology database|
|US4833706||5 Ene 1988||23 May 1989||Telebit Corporation||Ensemble modem structure for imperfect transmission media|
|US4835737||21 Jul 1986||30 May 1989||American Telephone And Telegraph Company, At&T Bell Laboratories||Method and apparatus for controlled removal and insertion of circuit modules|
|US4879551||26 Abr 1985||7 Nov 1989||International Business Machines Corporation||Switching array with concurrent marking capability|
|US4893306||10 Nov 1987||9 Ene 1990||Bell Communications Research, Inc.||Method and apparatus for multiplexing circuit and packet traffic|
|US4903261||9 Mar 1988||20 Feb 1990||Stratacom, Inc.||Synchronous packet voice/data communication system|
|US4922486||31 Mar 1988||1 May 1990||American Telephone And Telegraph Company||User to network interface protocol for packet communications networks|
|US4933937||23 Nov 1987||12 Jun 1990||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Network adapter for connecting local area network to backbone network|
|US4960310||4 Ago 1989||2 Oct 1990||Optical Corporation Of America||Broad band nonreflective neutral density filter|
|US4962497||21 Sep 1989||9 Oct 1990||At&T Bell Laboratories||Building-block architecture of a multi-node circuit-and packet-switching system|
|US4962532||22 Dic 1988||9 Oct 1990||Ibm Corporation||Method for providing notification of classified electronic message delivery restriction|
|US4965772||15 Jun 1987||23 Oct 1990||International Business Machines Corporation||Method and apparatus for communication network alert message construction|
|US4970678||28 Jun 1988||13 Nov 1990||International Business Machines Corporation||System for providing context-sensitive on-line documentation in a data processor|
|US4979118||10 Mar 1989||18 Dic 1990||Gte Laboratories Incorporated||Predictive access-control and routing system for integrated services telecommunication networks|
|US4980897||12 Ago 1988||25 Dic 1990||Telebit Corporation||Multi-channel trellis encoder/decoder|
|US4991169||2 Ago 1988||5 Feb 1991||International Business Machines Corporation||Real-time digital signal processing relative to multiple digital communication channels|
|US5003595||29 Ago 1989||26 Mar 1991||At&T Bell Laboratories||Secure dial access to computer systems|
|US5014265||30 Nov 1989||7 May 1991||At&T Bell Laboratories||Method and apparatus for congestion control in a data network|
|US5020058||23 Ene 1989||28 May 1991||Stratacom, Inc.||Packet voice/data communication system having protocol independent repetitive packet suppression|
|US5033076||31 Ene 1990||16 Jul 1991||At&T Bell Laboratories||Enhanced privacy feature for telephone systems|
|US5054034||15 Jun 1989||1 Oct 1991||Telebit Corporation||Ensemble modem structure for imperfect transmission media|
|US5059925||28 Sep 1990||22 Oct 1991||Stratacom, Inc.||Method and apparatus for transparently switching clock sources|
|US5072449||15 Feb 1990||10 Dic 1991||Stratacom, Inc.||Packet framing using cyclic redundancy checking|
|US5088032||29 Ene 1988||11 Feb 1992||Cisco Systems, Inc.||Method and apparatus for routing communications among computer networks|
|US5095480||16 Jun 1989||10 Mar 1992||Fenner Peter R||Message routing system for shared communication media networks|
|US5115431||28 Sep 1990||19 May 1992||Stratacom, Inc.||Method and apparatus for packet communications signaling|
|US5128945||31 Oct 1991||7 Jul 1992||Stratacom, Inc.||Packet framing using cyclic redundancy checking|
|US5136580||16 May 1990||4 Ago 1992||Microcom Systems, Inc.||Apparatus and method for learning and filtering destination and source addresses in a local area network system|
|US5166930||17 Dic 1990||24 Nov 1992||At&T Bell Laboratories||Data channel scheduling discipline arrangement and method|
|US5199049||27 Abr 1990||30 Mar 1993||At&T Bell Laboratories||Circuit and method of digital carrier detection for burst mode communication systems|
|US5206886||16 Abr 1990||27 Abr 1993||Telebit Corporation||Method and apparatus for correcting for clock and carrier frequency offset, and phase jitter in mulicarrier modems|
|US5208811||1 Nov 1990||4 May 1993||Hitachi, Ltd.||Interconnection system and method for heterogeneous networks|
|US5212686||29 Sep 1989||18 May 1993||Plessey Overseas Limited||Asynchronous time division switching arrangement and a method of operating same|
|US5224099||17 May 1991||29 Jun 1993||Stratacom, Inc.||Circuitry and method for fair queuing and servicing cell traffic using hopcounts and traffic classes|
|US5226120||21 May 1990||6 Jul 1993||Synoptics Communications, Inc.||Apparatus and method of monitoring the status of a local area network|
|US5228062||27 May 1992||13 Jul 1993||Telebit Corporation||Method and apparatus for correcting for clock and carrier frequency offset, and phase jitter in multicarrier modems|
|US5229994||27 Sep 1991||20 Jul 1993||Alcatel Cit||Bridge for connecting an ieee 802.3 local area network to an asynchronous time-division multiplex telecommunication network|
|US5237564||5 Abr 1991||17 Ago 1993||France Telecom||Frame switching relay for asynchronous digital network|
|US5241682||18 Abr 1991||31 Ago 1993||International Business Machines Corporation||Border node having routing and functional capability in a first network and only local address capability in a second network|
|US5243342||22 Jul 1992||7 Sep 1993||Stratacom, Inc.||Integrated PCM level control and conversion using a lookup table|
|US5243596||18 Mar 1992||7 Sep 1993||Fischer & Porter Company||Network architecture suitable for multicasting and resource locking|
|US5247516||28 Mar 1991||21 Sep 1993||Sprint International Communications Corp.||Configurable composite data frame|
|US5249178||26 Jul 1991||28 Sep 1993||Nec Corporation||Routing system capable of effectively processing routing information|
|US5253251||8 Ene 1992||12 Oct 1993||Nec Corporation||Switching system with time-stamped packet distribution input stage and packet sequencing output stage|
|US5255291||14 Nov 1988||19 Oct 1993||Stratacom, Inc.||Microprocessor based packet isochronous clocking transmission system and method|
|US5260933||15 May 1992||9 Nov 1993||International Business Machines Corporation||Acknowledgement protocol for serial data network with out-of-order delivery|
|US5260978||30 Oct 1992||9 Nov 1993||Bell Communications Research, Inc.||Synchronous residual time stamp for timing recovery in a broadband network|
|US5268592||26 Feb 1991||7 Dic 1993||International Business Machines Corporation||Sequential connector|
|US5268900||5 Jul 1991||7 Dic 1993||Codex Corporation||Device and method for implementing queueing disciplines at high speeds|
|US5271004||27 Ago 1991||14 Dic 1993||Gpt Limited||Asynchronous transfer mode switching arrangement providing broadcast transmission|
|US5274631||11 Mar 1991||28 Dic 1993||Kalpana, Inc.||Computer network switching system|
|US5274635||18 Nov 1992||28 Dic 1993||Stratacom, Inc.||Method and apparatus for aligning a digital communication data stream across a cell network|
|US5274643||11 Dic 1992||28 Dic 1993||Stratacom, Inc.||Method for optimizing a network having virtual circuit routing over virtual paths|
|US5280470||3 Feb 1993||18 Ene 1994||At&T Bell Laboratories||Bandwidth and congestion management in accessing broadband ISDN networks|
|US5280480||21 Feb 1991||18 Ene 1994||International Business Machines Corporation||Source routing transparent bridge|
|US5280500||10 Oct 1991||18 Ene 1994||Crescendo Communications, Inc.||Method and apparatus for multilevel encoding for a local area network|
|US5283783||28 Ene 1993||1 Feb 1994||Synoptics Communications, Inc.||Apparatus and method of token ring beacon station removal for a communication network|
|US5287103||30 Dic 1991||15 Feb 1994||At&T Bell Laboratories||Method and apparatus for providing local area network clients with internetwork identification data|
|US5287453||18 Sep 1990||15 Feb 1994||Bull Hn Information Systems, Inc.||Fast remote file access facility for distributing file access requests in a closely coupled computer system|
|US5291482||24 Jul 1992||1 Mar 1994||At&T Bell Laboratories||High bandwidth packet switch|
|US5305311||20 May 1992||19 Abr 1994||Xerox Corporation||Copy network providing multicast capabilities in a broadband ISDN fast packet switch suitable for use in a local area network|
|US5307343||27 Nov 1990||26 Abr 1994||Italtel Societa Italiana Telecommunicazioni S.P.A.||Basic element for the connection network of a fast packet switching node|
|US5309437||29 Jun 1990||3 May 1994||Digital Equipment Corporation||Bridge-like internet protocol router|
|US5311509||6 Feb 1992||10 May 1994||International Business Machines Corporation||Configurable gigabits switch adapter|
|US5313454||1 Abr 1992||17 May 1994||Stratacom, Inc.||Congestion control for cell networks|
|US5313582||30 Abr 1991||17 May 1994||Standard Microsystems Corporation||Method and apparatus for buffering data within stations of a communication network|
|US5317562||7 May 1993||31 May 1994||Stratacom, Inc.||Method and apparatus for routing cell messages using delay|
|US5319644||21 Ago 1992||7 Jun 1994||Synoptics Communications, Inc.||Method and apparatus for identifying port/station relationships in a network|
|US5327421||6 Nov 1992||5 Jul 1994||At&T Bell Laboratories||Apparatus for interfacing between telecommunications call signals and broadband signals|
|US5331637||30 Jul 1993||19 Jul 1994||Bell Communications Research, Inc.||Multicast routing using core based trees|
|US5345445||6 Nov 1992||6 Sep 1994||At&T Bell Laboratories||Establishing telecommunications calls in a broadband network|
|US5345446||6 Nov 1992||6 Sep 1994||At&T Bell Laboratories||Establishing telecommunications call paths in broadband communication networks|
|US5359592||25 Jun 1993||25 Oct 1994||Stratacom, Inc.||Bandwidth and congestion control for queue channels in a cell switching communication controller|
|US5361250||3 Nov 1993||1 Nov 1994||Synoptics Communications, Inc.||Apparatus and method of token ring beacon station removal for a communication network|
|US5361256||27 May 1993||1 Nov 1994||International Business Machines Corporation||Inter-domain multicast routing|
|US5361259||19 Feb 1993||1 Nov 1994||American Telephone And Telegraph Company||Wide area network (WAN)-arrangement|
|US5365524||6 Nov 1992||15 Nov 1994||At&T Bell Laboratories||Establishing telecommunications call paths between clustered switching entities|
|US5367517||16 Dic 1992||22 Nov 1994||International Business Machines Corporation||Method and system of requesting resources in a packet-switched network with minimal latency|
|US5371852||14 Oct 1992||6 Dic 1994||International Business Machines Corporation||Method and apparatus for making a cluster of computers appear as a single host on a network|
|US5386567||14 Oct 1992||31 Ene 1995||International Business Machines Corp.||Hot removable and insertion of attachments on fully initialized computer systems|
|US5390170||29 Jun 1993||14 Feb 1995||Synoptics Communications, Inc.||Method and apparatus providing for bootstrapping of switches in an ATM network or the like|
|US5390175||20 Dic 1993||14 Feb 1995||At&T Corp||Inter-cell switching unit for narrow band ATM networks|
|US5394394||24 Jun 1993||28 Feb 1995||Bolt Beranek And Newman Inc.||Message header classifier|
|US5394402||10 Jun 1994||28 Feb 1995||Ascom Timeplex Trading Ag||Hub for segmented virtual local area network with shared media access|
|US5400325||29 Jun 1993||21 Mar 1995||Synoptics Communications, Inc.||Method and apparatus providing for hunt groups in an ATM network of the like|
|US5408469||22 Jul 1993||18 Abr 1995||Synoptics Communications, Inc.||Routing device utilizing an ATM switch as a multi-channel backplane in a communication network|
|US5416842||10 Jun 1994||16 May 1995||Sun Microsystems, Inc.||Method and apparatus for key-management scheme for use with internet protocols at site firewalls|
|US5422880||5 Abr 1993||6 Jun 1995||Stratacom, Inc.||Broadband switching fabric in a communication controller|
|US5422882||20 Dic 1993||6 Jun 1995||At&T Corp.||ATM networks for narrow band communications|
|US5423002||28 Feb 1994||6 Jun 1995||3Com Corporation||System for extending network resources to remote networks|
|US5426636||20 Dic 1993||20 Jun 1995||At&T Corp.||ATM distribution networks for narrow band communications|
|US5428607||20 Dic 1993||27 Jun 1995||At&T Corp.||Intra-switch communications in narrow band ATM networks|
|US5430715||15 Sep 1993||4 Jul 1995||Stratacom, Inc.||Flexible destination address mapping mechanism in a cell switching communication controller|
|US5430729||4 Abr 1994||4 Jul 1995||Motorola, Inc.||Method and apparatus for adaptive directed route randomization and distribution in a richly connected communication network|
|US5442457||11 Ene 1993||15 Ago 1995||Najafi; Hamid||Multi-line pooling facsimile apparatus|
|US5442630||25 May 1991||15 Ago 1995||Gagliardi; Ugo O.||ISDN interfacing of local area networks|
|US5452297||20 Dic 1993||19 Sep 1995||At&T Corp.||Access switches for large ATM networks|
|US5473599||22 Abr 1994||5 Dic 1995||Cisco Systems, Incorporated||Standby router protocol|
|US5473607||9 Ago 1993||5 Dic 1995||Grand Junction Networks, Inc.||Packet filtering for data networks|
|US5477541||13 Dic 1993||19 Dic 1995||White; Richard E.||Addressing technique for storing and referencing packet data|
|US5485455||28 Ene 1994||16 Ene 1996||Cabletron Systems, Inc.||Network having secure fast packet switching and guaranteed quality of service|
|US5490140||30 Sep 1994||6 Feb 1996||International Business Machines Corporation||System and method for providing ATM support for frame relay DTEs with a terminal adapter|
|US5490258||29 Sep 1992||6 Feb 1996||Fenner; Peter R.||Associative memory for very large key spaces|
|US5491687||28 Sep 1994||13 Feb 1996||International Business Machines Corporation||Method and system in a local area network switch for dynamically changing operating modes|
|US5491804||4 Ene 1991||13 Feb 1996||International Business Machines Corp.||Method and apparatus for automatic initialization of pluggable option cards|
|US5497368||15 Ago 1994||5 Mar 1996||Koninklijke Ptt Nederland N.V.||Routing method for a hierarchical communications network, and a hierarchical communications network having improved routing|
|US5504747||3 Mar 1993||2 Abr 1996||Apple Computer, Inc.||Economical payload stream routing in a multiple-ring network|
|US5509006||18 Abr 1994||16 Abr 1996||Cisco Systems Incorporated||Apparatus and method for switching packets using tree memory|
|US5519704||21 Abr 1994||21 May 1996||Cisco Systems, Inc.||Reliable transport protocol for internetwork routing|
|US5519858||10 Ene 1992||21 May 1996||Digital Equipment Corporation||Address recognition engine with look-up database for storing network information|
|US5526489||19 Mar 1993||11 Jun 1996||3Com Corporation||System for reverse address resolution for remote network device independent of its physical address|
|US5530963||16 Dic 1993||25 Jun 1996||International Business Machines Corporation||Method and system for maintaining routing between mobile workstations and selected network workstation using routing table within each router device in the network|
|US5535195||6 May 1994||9 Jul 1996||Motorola, Inc.||Method for efficient aggregation of link metrics|
|US5539734||21 Jul 1994||23 Jul 1996||Newbridge Networks Corporation||Method of maintaining PVC status packetized communication system|
|US5541911||12 Oct 1994||30 Jul 1996||3Com Corporation||Remote smart filtering communication management system|
|US5546370||29 Jul 1994||13 Ago 1996||Olympus Optical Co., Ltd.||Compact apparatus having bidirectional motion for loading/unloading an information recording medium|
|US5555244||30 Jun 1994||10 Sep 1996||Integrated Network Corporation||Scalable multimedia network|
|US5561669||26 Oct 1994||1 Oct 1996||Cisco Systems, Inc.||Computer network switching system with expandable number of ports|
|US5583862||28 Mar 1995||10 Dic 1996||Bay Networks, Inc.||Method and apparatus for routing for virtual networks|
|US5592470||21 Dic 1994||7 Ene 1997||At&T||Broadband wireless system and network architecture providing broadband/narrowband service with optimal static and dynamic bandwidth/channel allocation|
|US5598581||6 Ago 1993||28 Ene 1997||Cisco Sytems, Inc.||Variable latency cut through bridge for forwarding packets in response to user's manual adjustment of variable latency threshold point while the bridge is operating|
|US5600798||26 Oct 1993||4 Feb 1997||International Business Machines Corporation||System and method for controlling LAN data flow control through a frame relay network by end point station transmitting notification to LAN stations based on congestion notification from the frame relay network|
|US5604868||25 Jun 1991||18 Feb 1997||Fujitsu Limited||Communication system using establishing network route|
|US5617417||7 Sep 1994||1 Abr 1997||Stratacom, Inc.||Asynchronous transfer mode communication in inverse multiplexing over multiple communication links|
|US5617421||17 Jun 1994||1 Abr 1997||Cisco Systems, Inc.||Extended domain computer network using standard links|
|US5630125||23 May 1994||13 May 1997||Zellweger; Paul||Method and apparatus for information management using an open hierarchical data structure|
|US5631908||28 Mar 1995||20 May 1997||Digital Equipment Corporation||Method and apparatus for generating and implementing smooth schedules for forwarding data flows across cell-based switches|
|US5632021||25 Oct 1995||20 May 1997||Cisco Systems Inc.||Computer system with cascaded peripheral component interconnect (PCI) buses|
|US5634010||21 Oct 1994||27 May 1997||Modulus Technologies, Inc.||Managing and distributing data objects of different types between computers connected to a network|
|US5638359||14 Dic 1993||10 Jun 1997||Nokia Telecommunications Oy||Method for congestion management in a frame relay network and a node in a frame relay network|
|US5644718||10 Nov 1994||1 Jul 1997||At&T Corporation||Apparatus using circuit manager to associate a single circuit with each host application where the circuit is shared by a plurality of client applications|
|US5659684||3 Feb 1995||19 Ago 1997||Isdn Systems Corporation||Methods and apparatus for interconnecting personal computers (PCs) and local area networks (LANs) using packet protocols transmitted over a digital data service (DDS)|
|US5666353||21 Mar 1995||9 Sep 1997||Cisco Systems, Inc.||Frame based traffic policing for a digital switch|
|US5673265||29 Abr 1996||30 Sep 1997||Integrated Network Corporation||Scalable multimedia network|
|US5680116||22 Dic 1994||21 Oct 1997||Nec Corporation||Static routing system|
|US5687324||8 Nov 1995||11 Nov 1997||Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.||Method of and system for pre-fetching input cells in ATM switch|
|US5724351||7 Ago 1995||3 Mar 1998||Chao; Hung-Hsiang Jonathan||Scaleable multicast ATM switch|
|US5754547||26 Abr 1996||19 May 1998||Nec Corporation||Routing method and system using an internet protocol|
|US5802054||15 Ago 1996||1 Sep 1998||3Com Corporation||Atomic network switch with integrated circuit switch nodes|
|US5835710||5 Sep 1997||10 Nov 1998||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Network interconnection apparatus, network node apparatus, and packet transfer method for high speed, large capacity inter-network communication|
|US5854903||7 Nov 1995||29 Dic 1998||Lucent Technologies Inc.||Optimization method for routing and logical network design in multi-service networks|
|US5856981||15 May 1997||5 Ene 1999||Lucent Technologies Inc.||Reliable connection oriented networks|
|US5892924||31 Ene 1996||6 Abr 1999||Ipsilon Networks, Inc.||Method and apparatus for dynamically shifting between routing and switching packets in a transmission network|
|US5898686||13 Dic 1996||27 Abr 1999||Cabletron Systems, Inc.||Network bridge with multicast forwarding table|
|US5903559||20 Dic 1996||11 May 1999||Nec Usa, Inc.||Method for internet protocol switching over fast ATM cell transport|
|US5974501 *||19 Dic 1996||26 Oct 1999||Compaq Computer Corporation||Method and apparatus for detecting memory device types|
|US6049546 *||15 Oct 1996||11 Abr 2000||At&T Corporation||System and method for performing switching in multipoint-to-multipoint multicasting|
|US6115462 *||9 Ene 1998||5 Sep 2000||Gte Laboratories Incorporated||Method and apparatus for efficient call routing|
|US6216167 *||29 Jun 1998||10 Abr 2001||Nortel Networks Limited||Efficient path based forwarding and multicast forwarding|
|US6295285 *||17 Abr 1997||25 Sep 2001||Lucent Technologies Inc.||Global packet dynamic resource allocation for wireless networks|
|US6335939 *||28 Ago 1997||1 Ene 2002||Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.||Apparatus and method for selectively supplying data packets between media domains in a network repeater|
|US20010050916 *||10 Feb 1998||13 Dic 2001||Pattabhiraman Krishna||Method and apparatus for providing work-conserving properties in a non-blocking switch with limited speedup independent of switch size|
|USRE33900||31 Jul 1989||28 Abr 1992||At&T Bell Laboratories||Error monitoring in digital transmission systems|
|EP0384758A2||22 Feb 1990||29 Ago 1990||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Call admission control method and cell flow monitoring method in the same method|
|EP0431751B1||2 Nov 1990||1 Feb 1995||3Com Ireland||Repeaters for secure local area networks|
|EP0567217B1||12 Mar 1993||24 Oct 2001||3Com Corporation||System of extending network resources to remote networks|
|1||Allen, M., "Novell IPX Over Various WAN Media (IPXW AN)," Network Working Group, RFC 1551, Dec. 1993, pp. 1-22.|
|2||Becker, D., "3c589.c: A 3c589 EtherLink3 ethernet driver for linux," becker@CESDIS.gsfc.nasa.gov, May 3, 1994, pp. 1-13.|
|3||Chowdhury, et al., "Alternative Bandwidth Allocation Algorithms for Packet Video in ATM Networks," INFOCOM 1992, pp. 1061-1068.|
|4||Doeringer, W., "Routing on Longest-Matching Prefixes," IEEE/ACM Transactions in Networking, vol. 4, No. 1, Feb. 1996, pp. 86-97.|
|5||Esaki, et al., "Datagram Delivery in an ATM-Internet," 2334b IEICE Transactions on Communications, Mar. 1994, No. 3, Tokyo, Japan.|
|6||IBM Corporation, Method and Apparatus for the Statistical Multiplexing of Voice, Data and Image Signals, IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin, No. 6, Nov. 1992, pp. 409-411.|
|7||Pei, et al., "Putting Routing Tables in Silicon," IEEE Network Magazine, Jan. 1992, pp. 42-50.|
|8||Perkins, D., "Requirements for an Internet Standard Point-to-Point Protocol," Network Working Group, RFC 1547, Dec. 1993, pp. 1-19.|
|9||Simpson, W., "The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)," Network Working Group, RFC 1548, Dec. 1993, pp. 1-53.|
|10||Tsuchiya, P.F., "A Search Algorithm for Table Entries with Non-Contiguous Wildcarding," Abstract, Bellcore.|
|11||Zhang, et al., "Rate-Controlled Static-Priority Queueing," INFOCOM 1993, pp. 227-236.|
|Patente citante||Fecha de presentación||Fecha de publicación||Solicitante||Título|
|US6760331 *||31 Mar 1999||6 Jul 2004||Cisco Technology, Inc.||Multicast routing with nearest queue first allocation and dynamic and static vector quantization|
|US6983285||10 May 2002||3 Ene 2006||Sun Microsystems, Inc.||Apparatus and method for dynamically verifying information in a distributed system|
|US7061909 *||10 Sep 2001||13 Jun 2006||International Business Machines Corporation||System and method for controlling the multicast traffic of a data packet switch|
|US7089263||10 May 2002||8 Ago 2006||Sun Microsystems, Inc.||Apparatus and method for dynamically verifying information in a distributed system|
|US7489683 *||29 Sep 2004||10 Feb 2009||Intel Corporation||Integrated circuit capable of routing multicast data packets using device vectors|
|US7660887||19 Mar 2003||9 Feb 2010||Sun Microsystems, Inc.||Systems and methods for providing dynamic quality of service for a distributed system|
|US7684390||30 Dic 2004||23 Mar 2010||Intel Corporation||Integrated circuit capable of transmitting probe packets across a stack of switches|
|US7734747||25 Sep 2003||8 Jun 2010||Oracle America, Inc.||Dynamic lookup service in a distributed system|
|US7756969||30 Ene 2004||13 Jul 2010||Oracle America, Inc.||Dynamic provisioning of identification services in a distributed system|
|US7792874||7 Jun 2005||7 Sep 2010||Oracle America, Inc.||Dynamic provisioning for filtering and consolidating events|
|US8103760||30 Ago 2005||24 Ene 2012||Oracle America, Inc.||Dynamic provisioning of service components in a distributed system|
|US8199764||25 Ago 2003||12 Jun 2012||Cisco Technology, Inc.||Scalable approach to large scale queuing through dynamic resource allocation|
|US8547843||20 Ene 2006||1 Oct 2013||Saisei Networks Pte Ltd||System, method, and computer program product for controlling output port utilization|
|US8713089||8 Abr 2003||29 Abr 2014||Oracle America, Inc.||Dynamic lookup service in a distributed system|
|US8817808||27 Jun 2012||26 Ago 2014||Apple Inc.||MIMO based network coding network|
|US8958329||20 Nov 2012||17 Feb 2015||Cisco Technology, Inc.||Fabric load balancing|
|US9059915||31 Ago 2012||16 Jun 2015||Cisco Technology, Inc.||Multicast replication skip|
|US9183066||6 May 2002||10 Nov 2015||Oracle America Inc.||Downloadable smart proxies for performing processing associated with a remote procedure call in a distributed system|
|US9467307 *||28 Ago 2008||11 Oct 2016||Microsemi Storage Solutions (Us), Inc.||Method of tracking arrival order of packets into plural queues|
|US9628406||13 Mar 2013||18 Abr 2017||Cisco Technology, Inc.||Intra switch transport protocol|
|US20020046228 *||17 Ago 2001||18 Abr 2002||Sun Microsystems, Inc.||Method and system for facilitating access to a lookup service|
|US20020075871 *||10 Sep 2001||20 Jun 2002||International Business Machines Corporation||System and method for controlling the multicast traffic of a data packet switch|
|US20020091874 *||3 Ago 2001||11 Jul 2002||Sun Microsystems, Inc.||Deferred reconstruction of objects and remote loading for event notification in a distributed system|
|US20020198895 *||10 May 2002||26 Dic 2002||Sun Microsystems, Inc.||Apparatus and method for dynamically verifying information in a distributed system|
|US20030023613 *||10 May 2002||30 Ene 2003||Sun Microsystems, Inc.||Apparatus and method for dynamically verifying information in a distributed system|
|US20050047338 *||25 Ago 2003||3 Mar 2005||Andiamo Systems, Inc., A Delaware Corporation||Scalable approach to large scale queuing through dynamic resource allocation|
|US20050102353 *||25 Sep 2003||12 May 2005||Sun Microsystems, Inc.||Dynamic lookup service in a distributed system|
|US20050190779 *||1 Mar 2004||1 Sep 2005||Cisco Technology, Inc., A California Corporation||Scalable approach to large scale queuing through dynamic resource allocation|
|US20060010234 *||30 Ago 2005||12 Ene 2006||Sun Microsystems Inc.||Dynamic provisioning of service components in a distributed system|
|US20060072571 *||29 Sep 2004||6 Abr 2006||Navada Muraleedhara H||Integrated circuit capable of routing multicast data packets using device vectors|
|US20060146723 *||30 Dic 2004||6 Jul 2006||Navada Muraleedhara H||Integrated circuit capable of transmitting probe packets across a stack of switches|
|US20070171825 *||20 Ene 2006||26 Jul 2007||Anagran, Inc.||System, method, and computer program product for IP flow routing|
|US20070171826 *||20 Ene 2006||26 Jul 2007||Anagran, Inc.||System, method, and computer program product for controlling output port utilization|
|US20080049701 *||24 Ago 2006||28 Feb 2008||Sbc Knowledge Ventures, L.P.||System and method for calculating a bandwidth requirement between two elements in a communications network|
|US20100054268 *||28 Ago 2008||4 Mar 2010||Integrated Device Technology, Inc.||Method of Tracking Arrival Order of Packets into Plural Queues|
|EP2858318A1 *||9 Sep 2014||8 Abr 2015||ICAP Services North America LLC||Method and apparatus for order entry in an electronic trading system|
|Clasificación de EE.UU.||370/432, 370/413|
|Clasificación internacional||H04L12/18, H04L12/56|
|Clasificación cooperativa||H04L49/3045, H04L49/203, H04L45/00, H04L49/3027, H04L49/201, H04L45/16, H04L47/6225, H04L47/50|
|Clasificación europea||H04L12/56K, H04L47/62D1, H04L45/16, H04L49/30C, H04L49/30E, H04L49/20A, H04L45/00, H04L49/20A1|
|21 May 1999||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: CISCO TECHNOLOGY, INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:SHAH, DHAVAL N.;MOUSSAVI, FARSHID;REEL/FRAME:009963/0513
Effective date: 19990330
|18 Dic 2006||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|7 Feb 2011||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8
|5 Feb 2015||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 12