US 6972942 B2
Improved termination features for multilayer electronic components are disclosed. Monolithic components are provided with plated terminations whereby the need for typical thick-film termination stripes is eliminated or greatly simplified. Such termination technology eliminates many typical termination problems and enables a higher number of terminations with finer pitch, which may be especially beneficial on smaller electronic components. The subject plated terminations are guided and anchored by exposed internal electrode tabs and additional anchor tab portions which may optionally extend to the cover layers of a multilayer component. Such anchor tabs may be positioned internally or externally relative to a chip structure to nucleate additional metallized plating material. External anchor tabs positioned on one or both of top and bottom surfaces of a monolithic structure can facilitate the formation of selective wrap-around plated terminations. The disclosed technology may be utilized with a plurality of monolithic multilayer components, including interdigitated capacitors, multilayer capacitor arrays, and integrated passive components. A variety of different plating techniques and termination materials may be employed in the formation of the subject self-determining plated terminations.
1. A multilayer electronic component, comprising:
a plurality of first ceramic layers, each ceramic layer being delimited laterally by edges,
a plurality of electrodes interleaved between said plurality of first ceramic layers, said interleaved combination of electrodes and first ceramic layers forming an internal assembly characterized by respective topmost and bottommost surfaces;
a plurality of tab portions extending from said plurality of electrodes and exposed at selected locations along at least one edge of the plurality of first ceramic layers, said plurality of tab portions being exposed at predetermined distances from one another;
a plurality of second ceramic layers delimited laterally by edges and respectively provided on selected of the topmost and bottommost surfaces of said internal assembly to form at least one cover layer for the multilayer electronic component, said internal assembly and said at least one cover layer forming a monolithic component assembly characterized by respective topmost and bottommost surfaces;
at least one layer of plated termination material connecting selected of said tab portions; and
a plurality of internal anchor tabs interspersed among and exposed along selected edges of selected of said first and second ceramic layers, wherein said internal anchor tabs are not provided in direct contact with any of said electrodes.
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10. A multilayer electronic component, comprising:
a plurality of first and second ceramic insulating substrates each having an upper and a lower surface, said plurality of insulating substrates being delimited laterally by edges;
a plurality of electrodes interleaved between said plurality of insulating substrates, said plurality of electrodes characterized by tab portions thereof exposed along at least one edge of said insulating substrates at predetermined distances from one another;
at least one portion of substantially metallic termination material connecting selected of said tab portions; and
a plurality of internal anchor tabs interspersed among and exposed along selected edges of selected of said first and second ceramic substrate, wherein said internal anchor tabs are not provided in direct contact with any of said electrodes.
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21. A multilayer electronic component, comprising:
a plurality of first and second ceramic dielectric layers, each dielectric layer being delimited laterally by edges;
a plurality of electrodes interleaved among said plurality of dielectric layers, the interleaved combination of electrodes and dielectric layers forming a component assembly characterized by respective topmost and bottommost surfaces and a plurality of side surfaces;
a plurality of electrode tab portions extending from said plurality of electrodes, exposed at selected locations along at least one side surface of the component assembly, and at predetermined distances from one another,
at least one relatively thin portion of termination material provided directly on one or more surfaces of the component assembly and electrically connecting selected of said electrode tab portions, and
a plurality of internal anchor tabs interspersed among and exposed along selected edges of selected of said first and second ceramic layers, wherein said internal anchor tabs are not provided in direct contact with any of said electrodes.
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This application is a divisional of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/632,514 filed Aug. 1, 2003, a continuation-in-part application which claims benefit of priority of U.S. application Ser. No. 10/409,023 filed Apr. 8, 2003, which claims benefit of previously filed U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/372,673 filed Apr. 15, 2002, all entitled “PLATED TERMINATIONS” and all having common ownership.
The present subject matter generally concerns improved termination features for multilayer electronic components, and more particularly relates to plated terminations for multilayer electronic components, such as capacitors, resistors, etc. or for integrated passive components. The subject termination design utilizes selective arrangements of internal and/or external electrode tabs to facilitate the formation of plated electrical connections. The external connections are preferably made whereby the provision of typical thick film termination stripes is eliminated or greatly simplified.
Many modern electronic components are packaged as monolithic devices, and may comprise a single component or multiple components within a single chip package. One specific example of such a monolithic device is a multilayer capacitor or capacitor array, and of particular interest with respect to the disclosed technology are multilayer capacitors with interdigitated internal electrode layers and corresponding electrode tabs. Examples of multilayer capacitors that include features of interdigitated capacitor (IDC) technology can be found in U.S. Pat. No. 5,880,925 (DuPré et al.) and U.S. Pat. No. 6,243,253 B1 (DuPré et al.). Other monolithic electronic components correspond to devices that integrate multiple passive components into a single chip structure. Such an integrated passive component may provide a selected combination of resistors, capacitors, inductors and/or other passive components that are formed in a multilayered configuration and packaged as a monolithic electronic device.
Selective terminations are often required to form electrical connections for various monolithic electronic components. Multiple terminations are needed to provide electrical connections to the different electronic components of an integrated monolithic device. Multiple terminations are also often used in conjunction with IDC's and other multilayer arrays in order to reduce undesirable inductance levels. One exemplary way that multiple terminations have been formed in multilayer components is by drilling vias through selected areas of a chip structure and filling the vias with conductive material such that an electrical connection is formed among selected electrode portions of the device.
Another way of forming external terminations for the subject devices is to apply a thick film stripe of silver or copper in a glass matrix to exposed portions of internal electrode layers, and subsequently plating additional layers of metal over the termination stripes such that a part is solderable to a substrate. An example of an electronic component with external electrodes formed by baked terminations and metal films plated thereon is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,021,921 (Sano et al.). The application of terminations is often hard to control and can become problematic with reduction in chip sizes. U.S. Pat. No. 6,232,144 B1 (McLoughlin) and U.S. Pat. No. 6,214,685 B1 (Clinton et al.) concern methods for forming terminations on selected regions of an electronic device.
The ever-shrinking size of electronic components makes it quite difficult to print termination stripes in a predetermined area with required precision. Thick film termination stripes are typically applied with a machine that grabs a chip and applies selective terminations with specially designed wheels. U.S. Pat. No. 5,944,897 (Braden), U.S. Pat. No. 5,863,331 (Braden et al.), U.S. Pat. No. 5,753,299 (Garcia et al.), and U.S. Pat. No. 5,226,382 (Braden) disclose mechanical features and steps related to the application of termination stripes to a chip structure. Reduced component size or an increased number of termination contacts for an electronic chip device may cause the resolution limits of typical termination machines to become maxed out.
Other problems that can arise when trying to apply selective terminations include shifting of the termination lands, mispositioning of terminations such that internal electrode tabs are exposed or missed entirely, and missing wrap-around termination portions. Yet further problems may be caused when too thin a coating of the paint-like termination material is applied or when one portion of termination coating smears into another causing shorted termination lands. These and other concerns surrounding the provision of electrical termination for monolithic devices create a need to provide cheap and effective termination features for electronic chip components.
In light of component miniaturization and concerns with providing terminations that do not short together, especially when positioning multiple components in proximity on a circuit board, U.S. Pat. No. 6,380,619 (Ahiko et al.) provides a chip type electronic component having external electrodes that are spaced at predetermined distances from side surfaces of a ceramic substrate. More particularly, electronic components having three-sided terminations as opposed to more conventional five-sided terminations are disclosed. Such components with three-sided terminations are more easily provided in an adjacent relationship with one another without shorting together distinct component terminations. Some embodiments disclosed in Ahiko et al. include electroplated films applied to the exposed portions of individual electrodes.
Yet another known option related to termination application involves aligning a plurality of individual substrate components to a shadow mask. Parts can be loaded into a particularly designed fixture, such as that disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,919,076 (Lutz et al.), and then sputtered through a mask element. This is typically a very expensive manufacturing process, and thus other effective yet more cost efficient termination provisions may be desirable.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,880,011 (Zablotny et al.), U.S. Pat. No. 5,770,476 (Stone), U.S. Pat. No. 6,141,846 (Miki), and U.S. Pat. No. 3,258,898 (Garibotti), respectively deal with aspects of the formation of terminations for various electronic components.
Additional background references that address methodology for forming multilayer ceramic devices include U.S. Pat. No. 4,811,164 (Ling et al.), U.S. Pat. No. 4,266,265 (Maher), U.S. Pat. No. 4,241,378 (Dorrian), and U.S. Pat. No. 3,988,498 (Maher).
While various aspects and alternative features are known in the field of electronic components and terminations therefor, no one design has emerged that generally addresses all of the issues as discussed herein. The disclosures of all the foregoing United States patents are hereby fully incorporated into this application by reference thereto.
The present subject matter recognizes and addresses various of the foregoing shortcomings, and others concerning certain aspects of electrical terminations and related technology. Thus, broadly speaking, a principal object of the presently disclosed technology is improved termination features for electronic components. More particularly, the disclosed termination features are plated and designed to eliminate or greatly simplify thick-film stripes that are typically printed along portions of a monolithic device for termination purposes.
Another principal object of the presently disclosed technology is to offer a way to guide the formation of plated terminations through the provision of internal electrode tabs and the optional placement of additional anchor tabs. Both internal electrode tabs and additional anchor tabs can facilitate the formation of secure and reliable external plating. Anchor tabs, which typically provide no internal electrical connections, may be provided for enhanced external termination connectivity, better mechanical integrity and deposition of plating materials.
Yet another principal object of the present subject matter is to provide termination features for electronic components whereby typical thick-film termination stripes are eliminated or simplified, and only plated terminations are needed to effect an external electrode connection. Plated materials in accordance with the disclosed technology may comprise metallic conductors, resistive materials, and/or semi-conductive materials.
A still further principal object of the subject termination technology is that termination features can be used in accordance with a variety of multilayer monolithic devices, including, for example, low inductance ceramic capacitors and capacitor arrays, multilayer ceramic capacitors and capacitor arrays, and integrated passive components. Integrated passive components may include a select combination of resistors, capacitors, varistors, inductors, baluns, couplers, and/or other passive components.
A resultant advantage of the disclosed subject matter is that termination features for electronic components can be effected without the need for application by termination machinery, thus providing an ability to yield external terminations with resolution levels that may otherwise be unattainable. Such improved termination resolution also enables the provision of more terminations within a given component area and terminations with a much finer pitch.
A general object of the present technology is to provide termination features that enable an effective solder base with reduced susceptibility to solder leaching and also lowered insulation resistance. Configuration of exposed electrode portions and anchor tab portions is designed such that selected adjacent exposed tab portions are decorated with plated termination material without undesired bridging among distinct termination locations.
Yet another object of the present subject matter is that the disclosed technology can be utilized in accordance with a myriad of different termination configurations, including varied numbers and placement of external terminations. Plated terminations can be formed in accordance with a variety of different plating techniques as disclosed herein at locations that are self-determined by the provision of exposed conductive elements on the periphery of an electronic component.
A still further object of the subject plated termination technology is to facilitate the production of cheaper and more effective electronic components in an expedient and reliable manner.
Additional objects and advantages of the invention are set forth in, or will be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art from, the detailed description herein. Also, it should be further appreciated by those of ordinary skill in the art that modifications and variations to the specifically illustrated, referenced, and discussed features hereof may be practiced in various embodiments and uses of the disclosed technology without departing from the spirit and scope thereof, by virtue of present reference thereto. Such variations may include, but are not limited to, substitution of equivalent means and features, or materials for those shown, referenced, or discussed, and the functional, operational, or positional reversal of various parts, features, or the like.
Still further, it is to be understood that different embodiments, as well as different presently preferred embodiments, of this invention may include various combinations or configurations of presently disclosed features or elements, or their equivalents (including combinations of features or configurations thereof not expressly shown in the figures or stated in the detailed description).
A first exemplary embodiment of the present subject matter relates to a multilayer electronic component with electrolessly plated terminations. Such a multilayer electronic component may preferably include a plurality of insulating substrates with a plurality of electrodes interleaved among the substrates. Each respective electrode preferably has at least one tab portion extending therefrom that is exposed along selected edges of the plurality of insulating substrates. Selected of the exposed electrode tab portions are preferably stacked within a predetermined distance of one another such that a plurality of electrolessly plated terminations may be formed along the periphery of the electronic component. In some exemplary embodiments, the electrodes and respective tab portions may be provided in an interdigitated configuration with the electrode tab portions extending to, for example but not limited to, one, two, or four sides of the multilayer electronic component. In other exemplary embodiments, the electrodes may be provided in generally T-shaped and/or J-shaped configurations.
Another related embodiment of the disclosed technology concerns an electronic component such as the aforementioned first exemplary embodiment, further including additional anchor tabs. In such an exemplary embodiment, anchor tabs may also be interspersed among the plurality of substrate layers and exposed at predetermined locations such that the formation of plated terminations is guided by the location of the exposed electrode tab portions and the exposed anchor tabs. With the provision of a sufficient stack of exposed tabs as well as an exposed tab on at least one of the top and bottom surfaces of the body of dielectric material aligned with the stack of exposed tabs, the formation of a plated termination that extends along an entire exposed side and that wraps around one or both of the top and bottom surfaces of the electronic component is possible and usually, but not always, desirable. Resultant J-shaped or U-shaped terminations provide lands for facilitated mounting of the electronic component to a printed circuit board or other mounting location. Alternatively, exposed tabs that extend along an entire side without wrapping around to top and/or bottom surfaces may be formed by providing anchor tabs into respective corner radius portions of the device, thus facilitating a land-less termination that still enables good solder wetting to a printed circuit board or other mounting surface.
In some exemplary embodiments of the present subject matter, terminations comprise one or more layers of plated termination material, on top of which are provided additional termination layers. One example of such a multilayer termination corresponds to an initial plated layer of copper followed by successive layers of nickel and tin, which may also be plated in accordance with presently disclosed methodologies.
Another exemplary embodiment of the present invention corresponds to a multilayer electronic component including respective pluralities of first and second ceramic layers, a plurality of electrodes, and at least one layer of plated termination material. The electrodes are selectively interleaved with the plurality of first ceramic layers to form an internal assembly, and the second ceramic layers are provided on opposing outer surfaces of the internal assembly to form cover layers for the electronic component. Electrically isolated anchor tabs may be optionally embedded among the first and/or second ceramic layers to further nucleate and guide the formation of the plated termination material.
Yet another exemplary embodiment of the present subject matter relates to an interdigitated capacitor comprising a plurality of interleaved electrode and dielectric layers and characterized by respective topmost and bottommost layers. The topmost and bottommost layers of the multilayer interdigitated capacitor preferably comprise dielectric cover layers with a thickness greater than that of the other dielectric layers in the stacked configuration. Each respective electrode layer includes a plurality of electrode tabs that extends to selected sides of the interdigitated capacitor. The electrode tabs are preferably exposed in stacked portions at selected locations along the sides of a capacitor. Anchor tabs are preferably embedded within the top and bottom cover layers and optionally within the active layers such that an exposed stack of tabs extends along a portion of an entire side of the multilayer device. External terminations may then be plated along the stack of exposed tabs and may even wrap around to one or both of the topmost and bottommost layers if anchor tabs are positioned thereon and generally aligned with the stack of exposed internal tabs. Exposed tabs that extend along an entire side without wrapping around to the topmost and/or bottommost layers may include anchor tabs into respective corner radius portions of the top and bottom cover layers of the device, thus facilitating a land-less termination that still enables good solder wetting to a printed circuit board or other mounting surface.
The present subject matter equally concerns methodology associated with forming multilayer electronic components in accordance with the disclosed technology. One exemplary embodiment of such methodology includes the steps of providing a plurality of electronic components, providing an electroless bath solution, and immersing the electronic components in the electroless bath solution for a predetermined amount of time. The electronic components respectively include a plurality of ceramic substrate layers selectively interleaved with a plurality of internal electrodes. Selected portions of the internal electrodes are exposed at locations along the periphery of each electronic component such that immersion in the electroless bath solution enables a termination material to be deposited on the plurality of electronic components to form bridged terminations for the respective components.
An additional exemplary step in accordance with the present subject matter may include a step of cleaning selected surfaces of the electronic components, such as via chemical polishing, before immersing the components in the electroless bath solution. A still further exemplary step corresponds to a step of applying an activation material to the exposed electrode portions, such as by immersion in metallic salts, photo-patterned organometallic precursors, screen-printed or ink-jetted Palladium deposition, and/or electrophoretic metallic deposition. Yet another exemplary step corresponds to a heating or annealing step to strengthen adhesion of the plated termination material to the electronic component.
Additional embodiments of the present subject matter, not necessarily expressed in this summarized section, may include and incorporate various combinations of aspects of features or parts referenced in the summarized objectives above, and/or features or parts as otherwise discussed in this application.
Those of ordinary skill in the art will better appreciate the features and aspects of such embodiments, and others, upon review of the remainder of the specification.
A full and enabling description of the present subject matter, including the best mode thereof, directed to one of ordinary skill in the art, is set forth in the specification, which makes reference to the appended figures, in which:
Repeat use of reference characters throughout the present specification and appended drawings is intended to represent same or analogous features or elements of the invention.
As referenced in the Brief Summary of the Invention section, the present subject matter is directed towards improved termination features for monolithic electronic components.
The subject termination scheme utilizes exposed electrode portions of structures such as monolithic capacitor arrays, multilayer capacitors including those with interdigitated electrode configurations, integrated passive components, and other electronic chip structures. Additional anchor tabs may be embedded within such monolithic components to provide stacked pluralities of exposed internal conductive portions to which plated terminations may be formed and securely positioned along the periphery of a device.
By providing additional anchor tabs on selected top and/or bottom surfaces of a chip device, wrap-around plated terminations may be formed that extend along the side of a chip to one or more of the top and bottom layers. Such wrap-around terminations may be desirable in certain applications to facilitate soldering of the chip to a printed circuit board or other suitable substrate. Exposed tabs that extend along an entire side without wrapping around to the top and/or bottom layers may be formed by providing anchor tabs into respective corner radius portions of the top and bottom cover layers of the device, thus facilitating a land-less termination that still enables good solder wetting to a printed circuit board or other mounting surface.
The subject plating technology and anchor tab features may be utilized in accordance with a plurality of different monolithic components.
Still further exemplary embodiments of the present subject matter relate to the multilayer capacitor configurations illustrated in
It should be noted that each of the exemplary embodiments as presented herein should not insinuate limitations of the disclosed technology. Features illustrated or described as part of one embodiment can be used in combination with another embodiment to yield further embodiments. Additionally, certain features may be interchanged with similar devices or features not mentioned yet which perform the same, similar or equivalent function.
Reference will now be made in detail to the presently preferred embodiments of the disclosed technology. Referring to the drawings,
The exemplary electrode layer configuration of
An interdigitated capacitor typically consists of a plurality of electrode layers, such as those shown in
Exemplary IDC embodiment 16 may alternatively be viewed as a multilayer configuration of alternating electrode layers and dielectric layers in portion 20 of the device. IDC 16 is typically further characterized by a topmost dielectric layer 22 and bottommost dielectric layer 24 that may be built up to be generally thicker than other dielectric layer portions of IDC configuration 16. Such dielectric layers 22 and 24 act as cover layers to protect the device and provide sufficient bulk to withstand the stress of glass/metal frit that may be fired to a capacitor body. Known capacitor embodiments have utilized the multilayer arrangement of
A multilayer IDC component 16 such as that of
For example, consider the exemplary internal electrode layer configuration illustrated in the exploded view of FIG. 3A. Alternating electrode layers 26 and 28 are provided with electrode tab portions 30 extending toward a single selected direction. Electrode tabs 30 for each set of alternating electrode layers are preferably arranged in a stacked configuration such that, for instance, tabs 30 from electrode layers 26 are aligned in two respective columns. A similar alignment situation preferably holds for tabs 30 of electrode layers 28. A multilayer capacitor or other passive component that utilizes the exemplary internal electrode configuration of
Yet another exemplary internal electrode layer configuration provides for electrode tabs that are exposed on four sides of a multilayer interdigitated component. Such internal electrode layers may be similar to the configuration depicted in
A still further exemplary electrode layer configuration and corresponding multilayer capacitor embodiment is depicted in
Referring again to
A thick-film stripe in accordance with such type of termination also typically requires printed application by a termination machine and printing wheel or other suitable component to transfer a metal-loaded paste. Such printing hardware may have resolution limits that make it hard to apply thick-film stripes, especially to smaller chips. A typical existing size for an IDC 16 or other electronic component is about one hundred and twenty mils (thousandths of an inch) by sixty mils along the two opposing sets of sides with a thickness from top to bottom layers of about thirty mils. When more than four terminations need to be applied to a part this size or terminations are desired for a part with smaller dimensions, the resolution levels of specialized termination machinery often becomes a limitation in applying effective termination stripes.
The present subject matter offers a termination scheme that eliminates or greatly simplifies the provision of such typical thick-film termination stripes. By eliminating the less-controlled thick film stripe, the need for typical termination printing hardware is obviated. Termination features in accordance with the disclosed technology focus more on the plated layer of nickel, tin, copper, etc. that is typically formed over a thick-film termination stripe.
With plated terminations in accordance with the presently disclosed technology, it should be appreciated that it is possible to form terminations that are the same width along a component's periphery as that of the exposed internal electrodes. In prior art termination schemes, where thick-film termination stripes are applied, the terminations are typically wider than the exposed electrode portions to account for potential misregistration of exposed tabs. Exposed electrode portions in such prior art embodiments must typically be narrow enough to not only ensure complete coverage thereof by the terminations, but also to ensure that adjacent terminations do not short together. In accordance with aspects of the presently disclosed plated terminations, maximizing the width of internal electrode tabs yields electronic components with advantageously lower equivalent series inductance (ESL).
Consider the exemplary capacitor array configuration 44 presented in FIG. 7A. Capacitor array 44 is characterized by a plurality of internal electrodes and corresponding electrode tabs 46 embedded in a body of dielectric material 48. As opposed to the electrode layers of exemplary IDC configuration 16, the electrode tabs 46 of capacitor array 44 typically correspond to separate internal electrodes. By subjecting capacitor array 44 or other electronic component with similarly exposed electrode tabs to an electroless plating solution, for example nickel or copper ionic solution, the formation of plated terminations 50, such as is shown in
Plated terminations 50 are thus guided by the positioning of the exposed electrode tabs 46. This phenomena is hereafter referred to as “self-determining” since the formation of plated terminations 50 is determined by the configuration of exposed metallization at selected peripheral locations on multilayer component, or capacitor array, 44. The exposed internal electrode tabs 46 also help anchor terminations 50 to the periphery of capacitor array 44′, which corresponds to a multilayer capacitor embodiment such as 44 of
The plated terminations 50 of
For instance, consider the exploded configuration of exemplary internal metallization illustrated in FIG. 2A. Alternating electrode layers 52 and 54 are provided in a similar configuration to the electrode layers of
With reference to
For some component applications, it may be preferred that terminations not only extend along the entire width of a component, but also wrap around to the top and bottom layers. In this case, external anchor tabs 70 may be positioned on top and bottom layers of multilayer IDC 60 such that plated terminations can form along the sides and on portions of the top and bottom layers, forming extended solder lands. For example, the provision of embedded internal anchor tabs 58 and 68 and external anchor tabs 70 along with existing exposed electrode tabs 56 in IDC 60, such as depicted in
There are several different techniques that can potentially be used to form plated terminations, such as terminations 72 on multilayer component embodiment 74 of FIG. 8A. As previously addressed, a first method corresponds to electroplating or electrochemical deposition, wherein an electronic component with exposed conductive portions is exposed to a plating solution such as electrolytic nickel or electrolytic tin characterized by an electrical bias. The component itself is then biased to a polarity opposite that of the plating solution, and conductive elements in the plating solution are attracted to the exposed metallization of the component. Such a plating technique with no polar biasing is referred to as electroless plating, and can be employed in conjunction with electroless plating solutions such as nickel or copper ionic solution.
In accordance with electroless plating techniques, also referred to in some applications as immersion plating, preliminary steps may sometimes be utilized before immersing an electronic component in a given electroless plating solution. After an electronic component is formed with exposed metallic electrode and/or anchor tab portions, a chemical polishing step may be effected to aid exposure of the metallic portions. For example, when electrode and/or anchor tab portions are made of Nickel, chemical polishing can help to chemically remove any buildup of Nickel Oxide (NiO) on the periphery of the yet unterminated component.
A still further example of a preliminary step that may be utilized in accordance with presently disclosed electroless plating techniques is a step to activate the exposed metallic portions of the device to facilitate depositing of the electrolessly plated materials. Activation can be achieved by immersion of the electronic component in Palladium salts, photo patterned Palladium organometallic precursors (via mask or laser), screen printed or ink-jet deposited Palladium compounds or electrophoretic Palladium deposition. It should be appreciated that Palladium-based activation is presently disclosed merely as an example of activation solutions that often work well with activation for exposed electrode and/or tab portions formed of Nickel or Nickel-based alloys. In other embodiments, alternative activation solutions may be utilized. In still further embodiments, a Palladium (Pd) dopant may be introduced into the Nickel ink that forms the capacitor electrodes to eliminate the Pd activation step for electroless Cu deposition. It should be further appreciated that some of the above activation methods, such as organometallic precursors, also lend themselves to co-deposition of glass formers for increased adhesion to the generally ceramic body of an electronic component.
“In accordance with electrochemical deposition and electroless plating techniques, a component such as IDC 74 of
Another technique that may be utilized in accordance with the formation of the subject plated terminations involves magnetic attraction of plating material. For instance, nickel particles suspended in a bath solution can be attracted to similarly conductive exposed electrode tabs and anchor tabs of a multilayer component by taking advantage of the magnetic properties of nickel. Other materials with similar magnetic properties may be employed in the formation of plated terminations.
A still further technique regarding the application of plated termination material to exposed electrode tabs and anchor tabs of a multilayer component involves the principles of electrophoretics or electrostatics. In accordance with such exemplary technology, a bath solution contains electrostatically charged particles. An IDC or other multilayer component with exposed conductive portions may then be biased with an opposite charge and subjected to the bath solution such that the charged particles are deposited at select locations on the component. This technique is particularly useful in the application of glass and other semiconductive or nonconductive materials. Once such materials are deposited, it is possible to thereafter convert the deposited materials to conductive materials by intermediate application of sufficient heat to the component.
A related advantage of most of the methods disclosed herein for forming plated terminations is that multiple electronic components can be terminated in a bulk process, such as a barrel plating or fluidized bed termination processes. Such aspect facilitates more convenient and expedient component termination since device manufacture no longer requires the selective application of terminations via precisely configured termination machines.
It should also be appreciated that as these electronic parts get ever smaller, the practical matter of being able to physically hold them while applying the thick film termination to each end becomes less practicable.
Further, this thin film approach provides less dimensional variability, permitting easier automatic handling.
One particular methodology for forming plated terminations in accordance with the disclosed technology relates to a combination of the above-referenced plating application techniques. A multilayer component may first be submersed in an electroless plating solution, such as copper ionic solution, to deposit an initial layer of copper over exposed tab portions, and provide a larger contact area. The plating technique may then be switched to an electrochemical plating system which allows for a faster buildup of copper on the selected portions of such component.
In accordance with the different available techniques for plating material to exposed metallization of a multilayer component in accordance with the present technology, different types of materials may be used to create the plated terminations and form electrical connections to internal features of an electrical component. For instance, metallic conductors such as nickel, copper, tin, etc. may be utilized as well as suitable resistive conductors or semi-conductive materials, and/or combinations of selected of these different types of materials.
A particular example of plated terminations in accordance with the present subject matter wherein plated terminations comprise a plurality of different materials is discussed with reference to FIG. 8B.
A first step in the formation of the terminations illustrated in
A still further plating alternative corresponds to forming a layer of metallic plating, and then electroplating a resistive alloy over such metallic plating. Plating layers can be provided alone or in combination to provide a variety of different plated termination configurations. A fundamental of such plated terminations is that the self-determining plating is configured by the design and positioning of exposed conductive portions along the periphery of a component. It should be appreciated that the aforementioned plated terminations having multiple layers are not limited to utilization with the embodiments illustrated in
Such particular orientation of internal electrode portions and anchor tabs may be provided in a variety of different configurations to facilitate the formation of plated terminations in accordance with the present subject matter. For instance, consider the exemplary internal conductive configuration of
Yet another exemplary multilayer component in accordance with aspects of the present subject matter is represented as component 90 in FIG. 4B. Internal electrode layers are provided with electrode tabs that extend to four sides of component 90. Additional internal anchor tabs 94 may be interleaved with exposed electrode tabs 92. Still further internal anchor tabs 96 may be embedded within cover layers of component 90 to provide for expanded plated terminations. The provision of external anchor tabs 98 could facilitate the formation of wrap-around plated terminations to top and/or bottom sides of the component. Such external anchor tabs 98 may be printed directly into the ceramic plate or tape forming the topmost substrate layer to form an “embedded” layer that is completely flush with the topmost substrate layer. By embedding such portions of the electronic component, terminations may be less susceptible to partial breakage or inadvertent removal and a more aesthetically designed overall component may also be effected.
Examples of different peripheral termination shapes, such as effected by selective arrangement of external anchor tabs, are now presented with reference to
Referring now to
The absence of conductive portions on the top surface is sometimes desirable, for example, when the surface may come in contact with a heat shield or RF shield, which could cause a short circuit.
Referring now to
With regard to
A still further application of the presently disclosed technology relates to more general multilayer component configurations, such as depicted in
Yet another example of a multilayer electronic component with which the presently disclosed technology may be utilized is depicted in
A slight variation to the “J-shaped” electrodes illustrated in
Another example embodying aspects of the disclosed technology is presented with respect to
An integrated passive component 110, such as that represented by
It should be appreciated that the monolithic component embodiments presented in
It should be appreciated that internal anchor tabs and external anchor tabs may selectively be used for different termination preferences to provide different sizes of side terminations or wrap-around terminations. IDC embodiments displayed and described herein that feature both internal and external anchor tabs may, for instance, only utilize internal anchor tab features when wrap-around terminations are not preferred for a particular application. Different combinations of both internal and external anchor tabs with existing exposed electrode tabs on a variety of different multilayer components can yield numerous potential termination schemes for a device.
While the present subject matter has been described in detail with respect to specific embodiments thereof, it will be appreciated that those skilled in the art, upon attaining an understanding of the foregoing may readily adapt the present technology for alterations to, variations of, and equivalents to such embodiments. Accordingly, the scope of the present disclosure is by way of example rather than by way of limitation, and the subject disclosure does not preclude inclusion of such modifications, variations, and/or additions to the present subject matter as would be readily apparent to one of ordinary skill in the art.
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