Búsqueda Imágenes Maps Play YouTube Noticias Gmail Drive Más »
Iniciar sesión
Usuarios de lectores de pantalla: deben hacer clic en este enlace para utilizar el modo de accesibilidad. Este modo tiene las mismas funciones esenciales pero funciona mejor con el lector.

Patentes

  1. Búsqueda avanzada de patentes
Número de publicaciónUS7230080 B2
Tipo de publicaciónConcesión
Número de solicitudUS 11/058,952
Fecha de publicación12 Jun 2007
Fecha de presentación16 Feb 2005
Fecha de prioridad16 Feb 2005
TarifaPagadas
También publicado comoUS7960510, US20060183133, US20090092960, US20120135400
Número de publicación058952, 11058952, US 7230080 B2, US 7230080B2, US-B2-7230080, US7230080 B2, US7230080B2
InventoresMikhail Vladimirovitch Matz, Naila Omar Khayyam Alieva, Karen Ann Konzen, Steven Field, Anya Salih
Cesionario originalUniversity Of Florida Research Foundation, Inc., University Of Sydney
Exportar citaBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
Enlaces externos: USPTO, Cesión de USPTO, Espacenet
Fluorescent and colored proteins, and polynucleotides that encode these proteins
US 7230080 B2
Resumen
The subject invention provides new fluorescent and/or colored proteins, and polynucleotide sequences that encode these proteins. The subject invention further provides materials and methods useful for expressing these detectable proteins in biological systems.
Imágenes(22)
Previous page
Next page
Reclamaciones(2)
1. An isolated protein comprising an amino sequence set forth as SEQ ID NO:35 and a variant of said sequence, wherein the amino acid sequence of the variant is at least 95% identical to SEQ ID NO:35 and wherein said variant has emission and excitation maxima that are within +10 nm of the emission and excitation maxima for SEQ ID NO:35.
2. The protein, according to claim 1, wherein said protein has an amino acid sequence set forth as SEQ ID NO:35.
Descripción
GOVERNMENT SUPPORT

The subject matter of this application has been supported in part by U.S. Government Support under NIH RO1 GM066243-01. Accordingly, the U.S. Government has certain rights in this invention.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to novel fluorescent and colored proteins, and their use. These materials and methods are particularly advantageous for labeling and detection technology. Specifically, exemplified are novel colored and/or fluorescent proteins, and mutants thereof, isolated from marine organisms. These new proteins offer a wider array of colors and biochemical features compared to existing wild-type green fluorescent protein (GFP) or its modified variants utilized in current labeling and detection technology.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Genetic markers are important for monitoring gene expression and tracking movement of proteins in cells. Markers have been extensively used for monitoring biological activity of genetic elements such as promoters, enhancers and terminators, and other aspects of gene regulation in numerous biological systems. Over the years numerous marker genes have been developed and utilized widely in molecular and genetic studies aimed at the identification, isolation and characterization of genetic regulatory elements and genes, and the development of gene transfer techniques.

In general, markers can be grouped into selectable markers and reporter markers. Selectable markers are typically enzymes with catalytic capability to convert chemical substrates usually harmful to host cells into non-toxic products, thus providing transformed host cells a conditionally selectable growth advantage under selective environment and allowing the recovery of stable transformants after transformation. A number of commonly used selectable markers include those that confer resistance characteristics to antibiotics (Gritz and Davies 1983; Bevan et al., 1983) and herbicides (De Block et al., 1987), and those with enzymatic activity to detoxify metabolic compounds that can adversely affect cell growth (Joersbo and Okkels 1996).

Reporter markers are compounds that provide biochemically assayable or identifiable activities. Reporter markers have been widely used in studies to reveal biological functions and modes of action of genetic elements such as promoters, enhancers, terminators, and regulatory proteins including signal peptides, transcription factors and related gene products. Over the years, several reporter markers have been developed for use in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems, including β-galactosidase (LacZ) (Stanley and Luzio 1984), β-glucuronidase (GUS) (Jefferson et al., 1987; U.S. Pat. No. 5,268,463), chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) (Gorman et al., 1982), green fluorescent protein (GFP) (Prasher et al., 1992; U.S. Pat. No. 5,491,084) and luciferase (Luc) (Ow et al., 1986).

Among reporter markers, GUS offers a sensitive and versatile reporting capability for gene expression in plants. β-glucuronidase or GUS, encoded by the uidA gene from Escherichia coli, catalyzes the conversion of several colorigenic and fluorogenic glucorogenic substrates such as p-nitrophenyl β-D-glucuronide and 4-methylumbelliferyl β-D-glucuronide into easily detectable products. GUS activity can be measured by highly sensitive colorimetric and fluorimetric methods (Jefferson et al., 1987). However, the GUS assay often requires total destruction of the sample tissues or exposure of sample tissues to phytotoxic chemical substrates. This prevents repeated use of the same sample tissue for continuous expression analysis and precludes the recovery of transformants from analyzed materials.

Recently, GFP isolated from the Pacific Northwest jellyfish (Aequorea victoria) has become an important reporter marker for non-destructive analysis of gene expression. GFP fluoresces in vivo by receiving light energy without the involvement of any chemical substrates. Thus, GFP is especially suitable for real time and continuous monitoring of temporal and spatial control of gene expression and protein activities without any physical damage to assay samples.

The gene for GFP has been cloned and used as a reporter gene, which can be expressed as a functional transgene in living organisms, marking the organisms with fluorescent color and thus allowing detection of those organisms. Accordingly, GFP has become a versatile fluorescent marker for monitoring a variety of physiological processes, visualizing protein localization and detecting the expression of transferred genes in various living systems, including bacteria, fungi, and mammalian tissues.

This in vivo labeling and detection technology was originally based on a single fluorescent protein: the green fluorescent protein from Aequorea victoria. Numerous modifications have been made to alter the spectral properties of GFP to provide for significant enhancement in fluorescence intensity (Prasher et al., 1992; Cubitt et al., 1995, Heim et al., 1994, 1995; Cormack et al., 1996; U.S. Pat. No. 5,804,387). In addition, GFP genes have been modified to contain more silent base mutations that correspond to codon-usage preferences in order to improve its expression efficacy, making it a reporter gene in both animal and plant systems (U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,874,304; 5,968,750; and 6,020,192).

In addition to GFP, there are now a number of other fluorescent proteins, substantially different from GFP, which are being developed into biotechnology tools. Most prominent of these proteins is the red fluorescent protein DsRed. See, for example, Labas, Y. A., N. G. Gurskaya, Y. G. Yanushevich, A. F. Fradkov, K. A. Lukyanov, S. A. Lukyanov and M. V. Matz. (2002) “Diversity and evolution of the green fluorescent protein family” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:4256–4261 and Matz, M. V., K. A. Lukyanov and S. A. Lukyanov (2002) “Family of the green fluorescent protein: journey to the end of the rainbow” Bioessays 24: 953–959.

Labeling technologies based on GFP and related proteins have become indispensable in such areas as basic biomedical research, cell and molecular biology, transgenic research and drug discovery. The number of PubMed records containing the phrase “green fluorescent protein” exceeds 5500 only within the last three years. Demand for labeling and detection based on the fluorescent protein technology is large and steady.

Currently, there are very few known natural pigments essentially encoded by a single gene, wherein both the substrate for pigment biosynthesis and the necessary catalytic moieties are provided within a single polypeptide chain. The limited availability of fluorescent marker proteins makes the current technology based on fluorescent proteins very expensive, rendering it unaffordable and inaccessible to many mid-size (or smaller) companies that are interested in using the technology. Therefore, there is a need for less expensive, readily available fluorescent and/or colored materials.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The subject invention provides new fluorescent and/or colored proteins, and polynucleotide sequences that encode these proteins. The subject invention further provides materials and methods useful for expressing these detectable proteins in biological systems.

In specific embodiments, the subject invention provides advantageous fluorescent proteins. The invention also includes proteins substantially similar to, or mutants or variants of, the exemplified proteins.

Another aspect of the subject invention pertains to polynucleotide sequences that encode the detectable proteins of the present invention. In one embodiment, the present invention provides polynucleotide constructs comprising cDNA encoding novel colored and/or fluorescent proteins and mutants thereof.

In one embodiment, the invention provides nucleotide sequences of the inserts in pGEM-T vector (Promega), the conceptual translations of these inserts, and special properties of purified protein products.

The proteins and polynucleotides of the present invention can be used as described herein as colored and/or fluorescent (detectable) labels in a variety of ways, including but not limited to, as reporter genes for monitoring gene expression in living organisms, as protein tags for tracing the location of proteins within living cells and organisms, as reporter molecules for engineering various protein-based biosensors, and as genetically encoded pigments for modifying color and/or fluorescence of living organisms or their parts.

In a specific embodiment, the proteins of the subject invention can be used in molecular fluorescent tagging whereby the coding region of a protein of interest is fused with the coding region for a fluorescent protein of the subject invention. The product of such a gene shows the functional characteristics of the protein of interest, but bears the fluorescent label allowing tracing its movements.

Advantageously, the present invention provides proteins and polynucleotides to improve on the current technology of labeling and detection by offering a wider choice of colors and biochemical features never before provided by GFP and its modified variants.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

FIG. 1 shows the design of bacterial expression constructs for the proteins of interests of the present invention.

FIG. 2 shows the excitation and emission spectrum of Montipora millepora, gbr1.

FIG. 3 shows the excitation and emission spectrum of Echinophyllia echinata, gbr3.

FIG. 4 shows the excitation and emission spectra of Mycedium elephantotus, gbr4.

FIG. 5 shows the excitation and emission spectra of Mycedium elephantotus, gbr5.

FIG. 6 shows the excitation and emission spectra of Echinophyllia echinata, gbr6.

FIG. 7 shows the excitation and emission spectra of Echinophyllia echinata, gbr7.

FIG. 8 shows the excitation and emission spectra of Echinophyllia echinata, gbr8.

FIG. 9 shows the excitation and emission spectra of Fungia scutaria, gbr9.

FIG. 10 shows the excitation and emission spectra of Galaxea fascicularis, gbr10.

FIG. 11 shows the excitation and emission spectra of Montipora efflorescens, gbr14.

FIG. 12 shows the excitation and emission spectra of Porites porites, gbr15.

FIG. 13 shows the excitation and emission spectra of Porites porites, gbr17.

FIG. 14 shows the excitation and emission spectra of Stylocoeniella sp., gbr18.

FIG. 15 shows the excitation and emission spectra of Montipora efflorescens, gbr24.

FIG. 16 shows the excitation and emission spectra of Fungia cf danai, gbr19.

FIG. 17 shows the excitation and emission spectra of Fungia cf danai, gbr20.

FIG. 18 shows the excitation and emission spectra of Galaxea fascicularis, gbr11.

FIG. 19 shows the excitation and emission spectra of Goniopora djiboutiensis, gbr21.

FIG. 20 shows the excitation and emission spectra of Montipora efflorescens, gbr22.

FIG. 21 shows the excitation and emission spectra of Stylocoeriella sp., gbr23.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEQUENCES

SEQ ID NO:1 is the 5′ heel of an upstream primer used according to the subject invention.

SEQ ID NO:2 is the 5′ heel of a downstream primer used according to the subject invention.

SEQ ID NO:3 is the open reading frame of the cDNA encoding the gbr1 protein of interest from Montipora millepora. Parts of the sequence that have been artificially added during the cloning process to facilitate gene expression in E. coli are identified in misc_feature.

SEQ ID NO:4 is the open reading frame of the cDNA encoding the gbr3 protein of interest from Echinophyllia echinata. Parts of the sequence that have been artificially added during the cloning process to facilitate gene expression in E. coli are identified in misc_feature.

SEQ ID NO:5 is the open reading frame of the cDNA encoding the gbr4 protein of interest from Mycedium elephantotus. Parts of the sequence that have been artificially added during the cloning process to facilitate gene expression in E. coli are identified in misc_feature.

SEQ ID NO:6 is the open reading frame of the cDNA encoding the gbr5 protein of interest from Mycedium elephantotus. Parts of the sequence that have been artificially added during the cloning process to facilitate gene expression in E. coli are identified in misc_feature.

SEQ ID NO:7 is the open reading frame of the cDNA encoding the gbr6 protein of interest from Echinophyllia echinata. Parts of the sequence that have been artificially added during the cloning process to facilitate gene expression in E. coli are identified in misc_feature. A sequence identified in another misc_feature is derived from the cloning vector pGEM-T; it is included since in this particular construct it becomes translated during protein expression.

SEQ ID NO:8 is the open reading frame of the cDNA encoding the gbr7 protein of interest from Echinophyllia echinata. Parts of the sequence that have been artificially added during the cloning process to facilitate gene expression in E. coli are identified in misc_feature.

SEQ ID NO:9 is the open reading frame of the cDNA encoding the gbr8 protein of interest from Echinophyllia echinata. Parts of the sequence that have been artificially added during the cloning process to facilitate gene expression in E. coli are identified in misc_feature.

SEQ ID NO:10 is the open reading frame of the cDNA encoding the gbr9 protein of interest from Fungia scutaria. Parts of the sequence that have been artificially added during the cloning process to facilitate gene expression in E. coli are identified in misc_feature.

SEQ ID NO:11 is the open reading frame of the cDNA encoding the gbr10 protein of interest from Galaxea fascicularis. Parts of the sequence that have been artificially added during the cloning process to facilitate gene expression in E. coli are identified in misc_feature.

SEQ ID NO:12 is the open reading frame of the cDNA encoding the gbr11 protein of interest from Galaxea fascicularis. Parts of the sequence that have been artificially added during the cloning process to facilitate gene expression in E. coli are identified in misc_feature.

SEQ ID NO:13 is the open reading frame of the cDNA encoding the gbr14 protein of interest from Montipora efflorescens. Parts of the sequence that have been artificially added during the cloning process to facilitate gene expression in E. coli are identified in misc_feature.

SEQ ID NO:14 is the open reading frame of the cDNA encoding the gbr15 protein of interest from Porites porites. Parts of the sequence that have been artificially added during the cloning process to facilitate gene expression in E. coli are identified in misc_feature.

SEQ ID NO:15 is the open reading frame of the cDNA encoding the gbr17 protein of interest from Porites porites. Parts of the sequence that have been artificially added during the cloning process to facilitate gene expression in E. coli are identified in misc_feature.

SEQ ID NO:16 is the open reading frame of the cDNA encoding the gbr18 protein of interest from Stylocoeniella sp. Parts of the sequence that have been artificially added during the cloning process to facilitate gene expression in E. coli are identified in misc_feature.

SEQ ID NO:17 is the open reading frame of the cDNA encoding the gbr19 protein of interest from Fungia cf danai. Parts of the sequence that have been artificially added during the cloning process to facilitate gene expression in E. coli are identified in misc_feature.

SEQ ID NO:18 is the open reading frame of the cDNA encoding the gbr20 protein of interest from Fungia cf danai. Parts of the sequence that have been artificially added during the cloning process to facilitate gene expression in E. coli are identified in misc_feature. SEQ ID NO:19 is the open reading frame of the cDNA encoding the gbr21 protein of interest from Goniopora djiboutiensis. Parts of the sequence that have been artificially added during the cloning process to facilitate gene expression in E. coli are identified in misc_feature.

SEQ ID NO:20 is the open reading frame of the cDNA encoding the gbr22 protein of interest from Montipora efflorescens. Parts of the sequence that have been artificially added during the cloning process to facilitate gene expression in E. coli are identified in misc_feature.

SEQ ID NO:21 is the open reading frame of the cDNA encoding the gbr23 protein of interest from Stylocoeniella sp. Parts of the sequence that have been artificially added during the cloning process to facilitate gene expression in E. coli are identified in misc_feature.

SEQ ID NO:22 is the open reading frame of the cDNA encoding the gbr24 protein of interest from Montipora efflorescens. Parts of the sequence that have been artificially added during the cloning process to facilitate gene expression in E. coli are identified in misc_feature.

SEQ ID NO:23 is the open reading frame of the cDNA encoding the gbr25 protein of interest from Montipora efflorescens. Parts of the sequence that have been artificially added during the cloning process to facilitate gene expression in E. coli are identified in misc_feature.

SEQ ID NO:24 is the amino acid sequence encoded by SEQ ID NO:3.

SEQ ID NO:25 is the amino acid sequence encoded by SEQ ID NO:4.

SEQ ID NO:26 is the amino acid sequence encoded by SEQ ID NO:5.

SEQ ID NO:27 is the amino acid sequence encoded by SEQ ID NO:6.

SEQ ID NO:28 is the amino acid sequence encoded by SEQ ID NO:7.

SEQ ID NO:29 is the amino acid sequence encoded by SEQ ID NO:8.

SEQ ID NO:30 is the amino acid sequence encoded by SEQ ID NO:9.

SEQ ID NO:31 is the amino acid sequence encoded by SEQ ID NO:10.

SEQ ID NO:32 is the amino acid sequence encoded by SEQ ID NO:11.

SEQ ID NO:33 is the amino acid sequence encoded by SEQ ID NO:12.

SEQ ID NO:34 is the amino acid sequence encoded by SEQ ID NO:13.

SEQ ID NO:35 is the amino acid sequence encoded by SEQ ID NO:14.

SEQ ID NO:36 is the amino acid sequence encoded by SEQ ID NO:15.

SEQ ID NO:37 is the amino acid sequence encoded by SEQ ID NO:16.

SEQ ID NO:38 is the amino acid sequence encoded by SEQ ID NO:17.

SEQ ID NO:39 is the amino acid sequence encoded by SEQ ID NO:18.

SEQ ID NO:40 is the amino acid sequence encoded by SEQ ID NO:19.

SEQ ID NO:41 is the amino acid sequence encoded by SEQ ID NO:20.

SEQ ID NO:42 is the amino acid sequence encoded by SEQ ID NO:21.

SEQ ID NO:43 is the amino acid sequence encoded by SEQ ID NO:22.

SEQ ID NO:44 is the amino acid sequence encoded by SEQ ID NO:23.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The present invention provides novel fluorescent and colored proteins isolated from marine organisms. In a particularly preferred embodiment, these proteins are fluorescent proteins. Specifically, exemplified herein are novel fluorescent proteins.

The subject invention further provides polynucleotide sequences encoding these proteins. These polynucleotide sequences include open reading frames encoding the specific exemplified detectable proteins, as well as expression constructs for expressing these proteins, for example, in bacterial hosts.

The proteins of the present invention can be readily, expressed by any one of the recombinant technology methods known to those skilled in the art having the benefit of the instant disclosure. The preferred method will vary depending upon many factors and considerations, including the host, and the cost and availability of materials and other economic considerations. The optimum production procedure for a given situation will be apparent to those skilled in the art having the benefit of the current disclosure.

The subject invention also concerns cells transformed with a polynucleotide of the present invention comprising a nucleotide sequences encoding a novel detectable protein. These cells may be prokaryotic or eukaryotic, plant or animal. In one embodiment, animals, such as fish, are transformed to provide them with a unique color or ability to fluoresce. Polynucleotides providing the markers of the present invention are stable in a diverse range of hosts, including prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, and the translation products are fully functional and capable of providing assayable characteristics.

In another embodiment, the present invention provides methods to synthesize colored and fluorescent proteins in a recombinant cell.

In a specific embodiment, the proteins of the subject invention can be used in molecular fluorescent tagging whereby the coding region of a protein of interest is fused with the coding region for a fluorescent protein of the subject invention. The product of such a gene shows the functional characteristics of the protein of interest, but bears the fluorescent label allowing tracing its movements. See, for example, Eichinger, L., S. S. Lee and M. Schleicher (1999) “Dictyostelium as model system for studies of the actin cytoskeleton by molecular genetics” Microsc Res Tech 47:124–134; Falk, M. M. and U. Lauf (2001) “High resolution, fluorescence deconvolution microscopy and tagging with the autofluorescent tracers CFP, GFP, and YFP to study the structural composition of gap junctions in living cells” Microsc Res Tech 52:251–262; Kallal, L. and J. L. Benovic (2000) “Using green fluorescent proteins to study G-protein-coupled receptor localization and trafficking” Trends Pharmacol Sci 21:175–180; and Laird, D. W., K. Jordan, T. Thomas, H. Qin, P. Fistouris and Q. Shao (2001) “Comparative analysis and application of fluorescent protein-tagged connexins” Microsc Res Tech 52:263–272.

In a further embodiment, the subject invention concerns polynucleotides comprising an in-frame fusion of nucleotide sequences encoding multiple genetic markers. In one embodiment, the polynucleotides encode the genetic markers GUS, and a detectable protein of the subject invention.

The subject invention helps to provide a more abundant and diverse collection of proteins, which can be used in place of a GFP protein, such that new proteins are readily available for commercial exploitation by small companies that cannot take advantage of the current technology for financial reasons.

Definitions

As used herein, the terms “nucleic acid” and “polynucleotide” refer to a deoxyribonucleotide, ribonucleotide, or a mixed deoxyribonucleotide and ribonucleotide polymer in either single- or double-stranded form, and unless otherwise limited, would encompass known analogs of natural nucleotides that can function in a similar manner as naturally-occurring nucleotides.

As used herein, “a vector” is a DNA sequence having the elements necessary for the transcription/translation of a gene. Such elements would include, for example, promoters. Various classes of promoters are well known in the art and can be obtained commercially or assembled from the sequences and methods, which are also well known in the art. A number of vectors are available for expression and/or cloning, and include, but are not limited to, pBR322, pUC series, M13 series, and pBLUESCRIPT vectors (Stratagene, La Jolla, Calif.).

As used herein, the term “expression construct” refers to a combination of nucleic acid sequences that provides for transcription of an operably linked nucleic acid sequence. As used herein, the term “operably linked” refers to a juxtaposition of the components described wherein the components are in a relationship that permits them to function in their intended manner. In general, operably linked components are in contiguous relation.

Detectable Proteins

The subject invention provides novel fluorescent and/or colored proteins. The novel colored and fluorescent proteins of the present invention can be detected using standard long-wave UV light sources or, preferably, optical designs appropriate for detecting agents with the excitation/emission characteristics of the proteins exemplified herein (see, for example, FIGS. 2–21). These proteins are referred to herein as “detectable proteins” or “marker proteins.” The interaction of two or more residues of the protein and external agents such as molecular oxygen give rise to the colored and/or fluorescent feature of the proteins.

Advantageously, the use of these proteins facilitate real-time detection in vivo, a substrate is not required, and the relatively small size make the proteins very advantageous.

Substitution of amino acids other than those specifically exemplified or naturally present in the genetic marker proteins of the invention are also contemplated within the scope of the present invention. Such substitutions will create “variant proteins” within the scope of the subject invention. Variants and fragments preferably have emission and excitation maxima within 10 nm of the values shown in FIGS. 2–21. For example, non-natural amino acids can be substituted for the amino acids of the marker proteins, so long as a marker protein having the substituted amino acids retains its ability to be detected through fluorescence and/or color. Examples of non-natural amino acids include, but are not limited to, ornithine, citrulline, hydroxyproline, homoserine, phenylglycine, taurine, iodotyrosine, 2,4-diaminobutyric acid, α-amino isobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, 2-amino butyric acid, γ-amino butyric acid, ε-amino hexanoic acid, 6-amino hexanoic acid, 2-amino isobutyric acid, 3-amino propionic acid, norleucine, norvaline, sarcosine, homocitrulline, cysteic acid, τ-butylglycine, τ-butylalanine, phenylglycine, cyclohexylalanine, β-alanine, fluoro-amino acids, designer amino acids such as β-methyl amino acids, C-methyl amino acids, N-methyl amino acids, and amino acid analogues in general. Non-natural amino acids also include amino acids having derivatized side groups. Furthermore, any of the amino acids in the protein can be of the D (dextrorotary) form or L (levorotary) form. Allelic variants of a protein sequence of a detectable protein used in the present invention are also encompassed within the scope of the invention.

Amino acids can be generally categorized in the following classes: non-polar, uncharged polar, basic, and acidic. Conservative substitutions whereby a marker protein having an amino acid of one class is replaced with another amino acid of the same class fall within the scope of the subject invention so long as a marker protein having the substitution still is detectable Table 1 below provides a listing of examples of amino acids belonging to each class.

TABLE 1
Class of Amino Acid Examples of Amino Acids
Nonpolar Ala, Val, Leu, Ile, Pro, Met, Phe, Trp
Uncharged Polar Gly, Ser, Thr, Cys, Tyr, Asn, Gln
Acidic Asp, Glu
Basic Lys, Arg, His

Polynucleotides

cDNA sequences encoding the proteins of the present invention are provided. Polynucleotides of the present invention can be composed of either RNA or DNA. Preferably, the polynucleotides are composed of DNA. The subject invention also encompasses those polynucleotides that are complementary in sequence to the polynucleotides disclosed herein.

Specifically exemplified are DNA sequences that encode novel fluorescent proteins. These DNA sequences are set forth in SEQ. ID NOS. 3–23.

Sequences of the subject invention may utilize codons preferred for expression by the selected host strains. These sequences may also have sites for cleavage by restriction enzymes, and/or initial, terminal, or intermediate DNA sequences which facilitate construction of readily expressed vectors.

Because of the degeneracy of the genetic code, a variety of different polynucleotide sequences can encode the detectable proteins of the present invention. In addition, it is well within the skill of a person trained in the art to create alternative polynucleotide sequences encoding the same, or essentially the same, detectable proteins of the subject invention. These variant or alternative polynucleotide sequences are within the scope of the subject invention. As used herein, references to “essentially the same” sequence refers to sequences which encode amino acid substitutions, deletions, additions, or insertions which do not eliminate the detectability of the polypeptide encoded by the polynucleotides of the present invention. Allelic variants of the nucleotide sequences encoding a genetic marker protein of the invention are also encompassed within the scope of the invention.

The subject invention also concerns variants of the polynucleotides of the present invention that encode detectable proteins. Variant sequences include those sequences wherein one or more nucleotides of the sequence have been substituted, deleted, and/or inserted. The nucleotides that can be substituted for natural nucleotides of DNA have a base moiety that can include, but is not limited to, inosine, 5-fluorouracil, 5-bromouracil, hypoxanthine, 1-methylguanine, 5-methylcytosine, and tritylated bases. The sugar moiety of the nucleotide in a sequence can also be modified and includes, but is not limited to, arabinose, xylulose, and hexose. In addition, the adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, and uracil bases of the nucleotides can be modified with acetyl, methyl, and/or thio groups. Sequences containing nucleotide substitutions, deletions, and/or insertions can be prepared and tested using standard techniques known in the art.

Polynucleotides and polypeptides of the subject invention can also be defined in terms of more particular identity and/or similarity ranges with those exemplified herein. The sequence identity will typically be greater than 60%, preferably greater than 75%, more preferably greater than 80%, even more preferably greater than 90%, and can be greater than 95%. The identity and/or similarity of a sequence can be 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, or 99% as compared to a sequence exemplified herein. Unless otherwise specified, as used herein percent sequence identity and/or similarity of two sequences can be determined using the algorithm of Karlin and Altschul (1990), modified as in Karlin and Altschul (1993). Such an algorithm is incorporated into the NBLAST and XBLAST programs of Altschul et al. (1990). BLAST searches can be performed with the NBLAST program, score=100, wordlength=12, to obtain sequences with the desired percent sequence identity. To obtain gapped alignments for comparison purposes, Gapped BLAST can be used as described in Altschul et al. (1997). When utilizing BLAST and Gapped BLAST programs, the default parameters of the respective programs (NBLAST and XBLAST) can be used.

The subject invention also contemplates those polynucleotide molecules having sequences that are sufficiently homologous with the polynucleotide sequences exemplified herein so as to permit hybridization with that sequence under standard stringent conditions and standard methods (Maniatis et al. 1982). As used herein, “stringent” conditions for hybridization refers to conditions wherein hybridization is typically carried out overnight at 20–25 C below the melting temperature (Tm) of the DNA hybrid in 6× SSPE, 5× Denhardt's solution, 0.1% SDS, 0.1 mg/ml denatured DNA. The melting temperature, Tm, is described by the following formula (Beltz et al., 1983):
Tm=81.5 C+16.6 Log [Na+]+0.41(% G+C)−0.61(% formamide)−600/length of duplex in base pairs.

Washes are typically carried out as follows:

(1) Twice at room temperature for 15 minutes in 1× SSPE, 0.1% SDS (low stringency wash).

(2) Once at Tm−20 C for 15 minutes in 0.2× SSPE, 0.1% SDS (moderate stringency wash).

The polynucleotide sequences include the DNA strand sequence that is transcribed into RNA and the strand sequence that is complementary to the DNA strand that is transcribed. The polynucleotide sequences also include both full-length sequences as well as shorter sequences derived from the full-length sequences. The polynucleotide sequence includes both the sense and antisense strands either as individual strands or in the duplex.

Recombinant Hosts

Polynucleotide molecules containing DNA sequences encoding the colored and/or fluorescent proteins of the present invention can be introduced into a variety of host cells including bacterial cells, yeast cells, fungal cells, plant cells and animal cells. Methods by which the exogenous genetic material can be introduced into such host cells are well known in the art.

In one embodiment, the invention provides a bacteria cell capable of expressing the novel colored and fluorescent proteins.

Plants, plant tissues, and plant cells bred to contain, or transformed with, a polynucleotide of the invention are also contemplated by the present invention. In one embodiment, the polynucleotide encodes a detectable polypeptide shown in SEQ ID NOS. 7–10, or a functional fragment or variant thereof. Plants within the scope of the present invention include monocotyledonous plants, such as rice, wheat, barley, oats, sorghum, maize, sugarcane, pineapple, onion, bananas, coconut, lilies, grasses, and millet; and dicotyledonous plants, such as peas, alfalfa, tomato, melon, chickpea, chicory, clover, kale, lentil, soybean, tobacco, potato, sweet potato, radish, cabbage, rape, apple trees, grape, cotton, sunflower, and lettuce; and conifers. Techniques for transforming plant cells with a gene are known in the art and include, for example, Agrobacterium infection, biolistic methods, electroporation, calcium chloride treatment, etc. Transformed cells can be selected, redifferentiated, and grown into plants using standard methods known in the art. The progeny of any transformed plant cells or plants are also included within the scope of the present invention.

The subject invention also concerns non-human transgenic animals which have incorporated into the host cell genome a polynucleotide of the invention. Methods for producing transgenic animals, including mice, rats, pigs, sheep, cows, fish, and the like are well known in the art.

The subject invention also concerns methods for isolating transformants expressing a transgene. In one embodiment, an expression construct of the present invention comprising a transgene of interest operably linked to a nucleotide sequence encoding a detectable marker of the present invention is used to transform a cell. Methods for transforming cells are well known in the art. Transformed cells expressing the transgene are selected by identifying those cells expressing a genetic marker of the invention.

Expression Constructs

An expression construct of the invention typically comprises a structural gene sequence (encoding a protein), an antisense sequence, or other polynucleotide sequences, or a site for insertion of such sequences, operably linked to a polynucleotide of the present invention encoding a marker. The structural gene can be a gene encoding a protein from a prokaryotic or eukaryotic organism, for example, a human, mammal, insect, plant, bacteria, or virus. Proteins that can be encoded by a gene sequence include, but are not limited to, enzymes, hormones, cytokines, interleukins, receptors, growth factors, immunoglobulins, transcription factors, and Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) crystal toxin proteins. Sequences encoding B.t. proteins which have codon usage for preferential expression in plants are described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,380,831; 5,567,862; 5,567,600; 6,013,523; and 6,015,891. An antisense sequence is a sequence wherein the RNA transcribed from the antisense sequence is at least partially complementary to RNA transcribed from a gene encoding a protein.

Expression constructs of the invention will also generally include regulatory elements that are functional in the intended host cell in which the expression construct is to be expressed. Thus, a person of ordinary skill in the art can select regulatory elements for use in, for example, bacterial host cells, yeast host cells, plant host cells, insect host cells, mammalian host cells, and human host cells. Regulatory elements include promoters, transcription termination sequences, translation termination sequences, enhancers, and polyadenylation elements.

An expression construct of the invention can comprise a promoter sequence operably linked to a polynucleotide sequence encoding a marker of the invention. Promoters can be incorporated into a polynucleotide using standard techniques known in the art. Multiple copies of promoters or multiple promoters can be used in an expression construct of the invention. In a preferred embodiment, a promoter can be positioned about the same distance from the transcription start site as it is from the transcription start site in its natural genetic environment. Some variation in this distance is permitted without substantial decrease in promoter activity. A transcription start site is typically included in the expression construct.

For expression in prokaryotic systems, an expression construct of the invention can comprise promoters such as, for example, alkaline phosphatase promoter, tryptophan (trp) promoter, lambda PL promoter, β-lactamase promoter, lactose promoter, phoA promoter, T3 promoter, T7 promoter, or tac promoter (de Boer et al., 1983).

If the expression construct is to be provided in a plant cell, plant viral promoters, such as, for example, the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S (including the enhanced CaMV 35S promoter (see, for example U.S. Pat. No. 5,106,739)) or 19S promoter can be used. Plant promoters such as prolifera promoter, Ap3 promoter, heat shock promoters, T-DNA 1′- or 2′-promoter of A. tumafaciens, polygalacturonase promoter, chalcone synthase A (CHS-A) promoter from petunia, tobacco PR-1a promoter, ubiquitin promoter, actin promoter, alcA gene promoter, pin2 promoter (Xu et al., 1993), maize WipI promoter, maize trpA gene promoter (U.S. Pat. No. 5,625,136), maize CDPK gene promoter, and RUBISCO SSU promoter (U.S. Pat. No. 5,034,322) can also be used. Seed-specific promoters such as the promoter from a β-phaseolin gene (of kidney bean) or a glycinin gene (of soybean), and others, can also be used. Constitutive promoters (such as the CaMV, ubiquitin, actin, or NOS promoter), tissue-specific promoters (such as the E8 promoter from tomato), developmentally-regulated promoters, and inducible promoters (such as those promoters than can be induced by heat, light, hormones, or chemicals) are contemplated for use with the polynucleotides of the invention.

For expression in animal cells, an expression construct of the invention can comprise suitable promoters that can drive transcription of the polynucleotide sequence. If the cells are mammalian cells, then promoters such as, for example, actin promoter, metallothionein promoter, NF-kappaB promoter, EGR promoter, SRE promoter, IL-2 promoter, NFAT promoter, osteocalcin promoter, SV40 early promoter and SV40 late promoter, Lck promoter, BMP5 promoter, TRP-1 promoter, murine mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat promoter, STAT promoter, or an immunoglobulin promoter can be used in the expression construct. The baculovirus polyhedrin promoter can be used with an expression construct of the invention for expression in insect cells. Promoters suitable for use with an expression construct of the invention in yeast cells include, but are not limited to, 3-phosphoglycerate kinase promoter, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter, metallothionein promoter, alcohol dehydrogenase-2 promoter, and hexokinase promoter.

Expression constructs of the invention may optionally contain a transcription termination sequence, a translation termination sequence, signal peptide sequence, and/or enhancer elements. Transcription termination regions can typically be obtained from the 3′ untranslated region of a eukaryotic or viral gene sequence. Transcription termination sequences can be positioned downstream of a coding sequence to provide for efficient termination. Signal peptides are a group of short amino terminal sequences that encode information responsible for the relocation of an operably linked mature polypeptide to a wide range of post-translational cellular destinations, ranging from a specific organelle compartment to sites of protein action and the extracellular environment. Targeting marker gene products to an intended cellular and/or extracellular destination through the use of operably linked signal peptide sequence is contemplated for use with the polypeptides of the invention. Enhancers are cis-acting elements that increase activity of a promoter and can also be included in the expression construct. Enhancer elements are known in the art, and include, but are not limited to, the CaMV 35S enhancer element, maize shrunken-1 enhancer element, cytomegalovirus (CMV) early promoter enhancer element, and the SV40 enhancer element.

DNA sequences which direct polyadenylation of the mRNA encoded by the structural gene can also be included in the expression construct. The expression constructs of the invention can also include a polynucleotide sequence that directs transposition of other genes, i.e., a transposon.

Applications

There are many ways in which the novel proteins of the subject invention can be used. In one embodiment, the proteins can be used to identify cells. In these methods the proteins can be used to express fluorescence in a cell. One use for this method is in pre-labeling isolated cells or a population of similar cells prior to exposing the cells to an environment in which different cell types are present. Detection of fluorescence in only the original cells allows the location of such cells to be determined and compared with the total population.

A second group of methods concerns the identification of cells that have been transformed with exogenous DNA of interest. Identifying cells transformed with exogenous DNA is required in many in vitro procedures as well as in in vivo applications such as gene therapy.

In one embodiment of the subject invention, a polynucleotide sequence encoding a protein of the subject invention is fused to a DNA sequence encoding a selected protein in order to directly label the encoded protein. Expressing such a fluorescent and/or colored protein in a cell results in the production of labeled proteins that can be readily detected. This is useful in confirming that a protein is being produced by a chosen host cell. It also allows the location of the selected protein to be determined.

Cells that have been transformed with exogenous DNA can also be identified without creating a fusion protein. Here, the method relies on the identification of cells that have received a plasmid or vector that comprises at least two transcriptional or translational units. A first unit encodes and directs expression of the desired protein, while the second unit encodes and directs expression of the detectable protein. Co-expression of the detectable protein from the second transcriptional or translational unit ensures that cells containing the vector are detected and differentiated from cells that do not contain the vector.

In methods to produce fluorescent molecular weight markers, a gene sequence is generally fused to one or more DNA sequences that encode proteins having defined amino acid sequences and the fusion proteins are expressed from an expression vector. Expression results in the production of fluorescent proteins of defined molecular weight or weights that may be used as markers (following calculation of the size of the complete amino acid sequence).

Amino acid replacements that produce different color forms permit simultaneous use of multiple reporter genes. Different colored proteins can be used to identify multiple cell populations in a mixed cell culture or to track multiple cell types, enabling differences in cell movement or migration to be visualized in real time without the need to add additional agents or fix or kill the cells.

Other options include tracking and determining the ultimate location of multiple proteins within a single cell, tissue or organism; differential promoter analysis in which gene expression from two different promoters is determined in the same cell, tissue or organism; and FACS sorting of mixed cell populations.

The techniques that can be used with spectrally separable proteins are exemplified by confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) using modular flow, dual excitation techniques.

In one embodiment, the subject invention concerns polynucleotides comprising an in-frame fusion of nucleotide sequences encoding multiple genetic markers. For example, a polynucleotide of the invention may comprise a first nucleotide sequence that is operably linked in-frame to a second nucleotide sequence. The polynucleotide encodes the amino acid sequences of the detectable protein and another genetic marker such that the genetic markers are in direct contact with one another, i.e., where the last amino acid of the fluorescent genetic marker is immediately contiguous with the first amino acid of the other genetic marker, or they can be separated by a peptide linker sequence, for example, as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,891,680 and Li et al., 2001, that do not substantially alter functional activity of the genetic markers.

The subject invention also concerns kits comprising in one or more containers and a polynucleotide and/or protein of the present invention.

Additional useful applications of the technology described herein include, but are not limited to, the following:

FRET—Fluorescence Resonant Energy Transfer: This technique allows observation and quantification of molecular interactions. It requires at least two fluorescent proteins of different colors. Currently the most widely used pair is CFP and YFP (mutated variants of GFP); the proteins of the subject invention may be substituted for either or both of them.

REFERENCES

  • 1. Hanson, M. R. and R. H. Kohler. 2001. GFP imaging: methodology and application to investigate cellular compartmentation in plants. J Exp Bot 52: 529–539.
  • 2. Pollok, B. A. and R. Heim. 1999. Using GFP in FRET-based applications. Trends Cell Biol 9: 57–60.
  • 3. Schuttrigkeit, T. A., U. Zachariae, T. von Feilitzsch, J. Wiehler, J. von Hummel, B. Steipe and M. E. Michel-Beyerle. 2001. Picosecond time-resolved FRET in the fluorescent protein from Discosoma Red (wt-DsRed). Chemphyschem 2: 325–328.
  • 4. Hillisch, A., M. Lorenz and S. Diekmann. 2001. Recent advances in FRET: distance determination in protein-DNA complexes. Curr Opin Struct Biol 11: 201–207.
    FRAP—Fluorescence Redistribution After Photobleaching: Tthis technique quantifies the dynamics of tagged molecules or the reporter molecules themselves. It involves in photobleaching (burning out) of all the fluorescent molecules within a small area by intense excitation light and monitoring the process of fluorescence recovery within this area (due to migration of tagged molecules from adjacent areas).
REFERENCES

  • 1. Reits, E. A. and J. J. Neefjes. 2001. From fixed to FRAP: measuring protein mobility and activity in living cells. Nat Cell Biol 3: E145–147.
  • 2. Houtsmuller, A. B. and W. Vermeulen. 2001. Macromolecular dynamics in living cell nuclei revealed by fluorescence redistribution after photobleaching. Histochem Cell Biol 115:13–21.
    “Fluorescent timer” applications: one of the proteins exemplified herein—scubRFP—due to its natural spectroscopic properties, can be used as a reporter that changes color with time. Such reporters make it possible to estimate the time elapsed since the reporter protein was synthesized by quantifying its color. In addition, since the maturation speed (the rate of conversion from green to red) in scubRFP can be increased by UV-A light, it is possible to adjust its timing scale: experiments that need timing in shorter intervals may use appropriate background UV illumination to speed up the green-to-red conversion.
REFERENCES

  • 1. Terskikh, A. V., A. Fradkov, A. Zaraiskiy, A. V. Kajava, M. Matz, S. Kim, I. Weissman and P. Siebert. 2000. “Fluorescent timer”: Protein that changes color over time. Molecular Biology of the Cell 11: 648.
  • 2. Verkhusha, V. V., H. Otsuna, T. Awasaki, H. Oda, S. Tsukita and K. Ito. 2001. An enhanced mutant of red fluorescent protein DsRed for double labeling and developmental timer of neural fiber bundle formation. Journal of Biological Chemistry 276: 29621–29624.
    “Light-inducible fluorescence”: since the red fluorescence of scubRFP can be induced by exposure to UV-A light, it is possible to use this protein as a light-inducible reporter. Such a reporter can be used for studying molecular dynamics, in a way that is analogous to FRAP (see above). A small area can be irradiated by the fluorescence-inducing light, after which the process of redistribution of active fluorescent molecules from the irradiated spot can be followed.
REFERENCES

  • 1. Ando, R., H. Hama, M. Yamamoto-Hino, H. Mizuno and A. Miyawaki. 2002. An optical marker based on the UV-induced green-to-red photoconversion of a fluorescent protein. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99: 12651–12656.
  • 2. Patterson, G. H. and J. Lippincott-Schwartz. 2002. A photoactivatable GFP for selective photolabeling of proteins and cells. Science 297: 1873–1877.
  • 3. Chudakov, D. M., V. V. Belousov, A. G. Zaraisky, V. V. Novoselov, D. B. Staroverov, D. B. Zorov, S. Lukyanov and K. A. Lukyanov. 2003. Kindling fluorescent proteins for precise in vivo photolabeling (vol 21, pg 191, 2003). Nature Biotechnology 21: 452—452.
    Coloring of biological objects for decorative and other non-scientific purposes. Examples: producing decorative fish for aquariums; coloring of fur, wool and milk by means of genetic modifications of appropriate animals; and coloring of decorative plants. Such uses can be implemented by a person skilled in the art having the benefit of the teachings of the current disclosure.

All patents, patent applications, provisional applications, and publications referred to or cited herein are incorporated by reference in their entirety, including all figures and tables, to the extent they are not inconsistent with the explicit teachings of this specification.

Following are examples which illustrate procedures for practicing the invention. These examples should not be construed as limiting. All percentages are by weight and all solvent mixture proportions are by volume unless otherwise noted.

EXAMPLE 1

Bacterial Expression Construct

As illustrated in FIG. 1, to prepare a bacterial expression construct, the ORF of the target detectable protein can be amplified by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using primers corresponding to the beginning and end of the protein's ORF. The upstream primer can carry a 5′-heel ttgattgattgaaggagaaatatcATG (SEQ ID NO:1), which encodes three termination codons in three frames (bold), followed by the ribosome binding site (underlined), 6 spacer bases and initiation ATG codon.

The downstream primer can encode a 6×His tag in place of the original termination codon (the heel sequence can be 5′-tta tta gtg atg gtg atg gtg atg (SEQ ID NO:2)), to facilitate protein purification by means of metal-affinity chromatography.

The products of amplification can be cloned into pGEM-T vector (Promega) using manufacturer-provided reagents and protocol. The expressing clones can be identified after overnight growth of the colonies by their fluorescent appearance.

EXAMPLE 2

Excitation and Emission Spectra of the Detectable Proteins

The excitation spectra were measured from the proteins purified after bacterial expression. The spectra are shown in FIGS. 2–21. Emission spectra (dotted lines) were measured using USB2000 uv-vis spectrometer (Ocean Optics), excitation spectra (solid lines)—using spectrofluorometer LS-50B (Perkin Elmer). The indicated positions of excitation and emission maxima are accurate within 5 nm.

EXAMPLE 3

Multiple Marker Constructs

There are several advantages associated with the use of fusion markers, including: 1) achievement of combined functionalities in a single transcription unit, 2) reduced usage of genetic elements, such as promoters and terminators, for expressing multiple marker genes, 3) reduced overall length of insertion sequences that may lead to increased transformation efficiency, and most importantly 4) elimination of molecular interactions between adjacent genetic elements. Such unwanted interactions are frequently encountered when multiple expression units associated with different marker genes are used simultaneously and often complicate the interpretation of expression results.

In an effort to improve marker functionality and versatility, several translational fusions between two genetic markers have been developed. Datla et al. (1991; U.S. Pat. No. 5,639,663) created a bifunctional fusion between GUS and neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII) to provide a biochemically assayable reporter activity and a conditionally selectable growth advantage for use in plant transformation. Another bifunctional fusion, between GUS and GFP, was also developed to provide both indicative and assayable reporter activities for monitoring transient and stable transgene expression in plant cells (Quaedvlieg et al., 1998). More recently, Li et al. (2001) constructed a bifunctional fusion between GFP and NPTII and successfully used this marker for continuous analysis of promoter activity and transgene expression in transgenic grape plants throughout the entire process of plant development.

Small portions of a protein that provide unique functions such as protein/DNA/substrate binding activity can be inserted into another heterologous protein to create a hybrid fusion with enhanced functionality and utility. In other cases, an entire gene or protein of interest has been fused in-frame to another heterologous gene or protein to form a double fusion to provide combined functionalities. Production of multiple proteins using fusion constructs composed of two genes from transgenic plants has been demonstrated previously (U.S. Pat. No. 6,455,759).

In one embodiment, the subject invention provides cells transformed with a polynucleotide of the present invention comprising an in-frame fusion of nucleotide sequences encoding multiple markers. Preferably, the polynucleotide sequence is provided in an expression construct of the invention. The transformed cell can be a prokaryotic cell, for example, a bacterial cell such as E. coli or B. subtilis, or the transformed cell can be a eukaryotic cell, for example, a plant or animal cell. Animal cells include human cells, mammalian cells, avian cells, fish cells and insect cells. Mammalian cells include, but are not limited to, COS, 3T3, and CHO cells.

Genetic markers that can be used in conjunction with the detectable proteins of the present invention are known in the art and include, for example, polynucleotides encoding proteins that confer a conditionally selective growth advantage, such as antibiotic resistance and herbicide-resistance; polynucleotides encoding proteins that confer a biochemically assayable reporter activity; and polynucleotides encoding proteins that confer an indicative reporter activity. Examples of polynucleotides encoding proteins providing antibiotic resistance include those that can provide for resistance to one or more of the following antibiotics: hygromycin, kanamycin, bleomycin, G418, streptomycin, paromomycin, and spectinomycin. Kanamycin resistance can be provided by neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII). Examples of polynucleotides encoding proteins providing herbicide resistance include those that can provide for resistance to phosphinothricin acetyltransferase or glyphosate. Examples of genetic markers that confer assayable or indicative reporters activity that can be used in the present invention include, but are not limited to, polynucleotides encoding β-glucuronidase (GUS), β-galactosidase, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), luciferase, nopaline synthase (NOS), and green fluorescence protein (GFP).

It should be understood that the examples and embodiments described herein are for illustrative purposes only and that various modifications or changes in light thereof will be suggested to persons skilled in the art and are to be included within the spirit and purview of this application.

Citas de patentes
Patente citada Fecha de presentación Fecha de publicación Solicitante Título
US52684638 Dic 19897 Dic 1993Jefferson Richard APlant promoter α-glucuronidase gene construct
US549108410 Sep 199313 Feb 1996The Trustees Of Columbia University In The City Of New YorkUses of green-fluorescent protein
US563966330 Mar 199217 Jun 1997National Research Council Of CanadaBifunctional genetic markers
US580438731 Ene 19978 Sep 1998The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior UniversityFACS-optimized mutants of the green fluorescent protein (GFP)
US587430418 Ene 199623 Feb 1999University Of Florida Research Foundation, Inc.Humanized green fluorescent protein genes and methods
US591944517 Jun 19976 Jul 1999Council Of Agriculture Executive YuanUse of green fluorescent protein to trace the infection of baculovirus in insects and to increase viral UV stability
US595871314 Mar 199728 Sep 1999Novo Nordisk A/SMethod of detecting biologically active substances by using green fluorescent protein
US59687386 Dic 199619 Oct 1999The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior UniversityTwo-reporter FACS analysis of mammalian cells using green fluorescent proteins
US59687509 Oct 199819 Oct 1999The University Of Florida Research Foundation Inc.Humanized green fluorescent protein genes and methods
US597679623 Dic 19962 Nov 1999Loma Linda UniversityConstruction and expression of renilla luciferase and green fluorescent protein fusion genes
US598557714 Oct 199816 Nov 1999The Trustees Of Columbia University In The City Of New YorkProtein conjugates containing multimers of green fluorescent protein
US602019216 Jul 19971 Feb 2000University Of FloridaHumanized green fluorescent protein genes and methods
US606647620 Nov 199623 May 2000The Regents Of The University Of CaliforniaModified green fluorescent proteins
US645575920 Ene 200024 Sep 2002Wisconsin Alumni Research FoundationExpression of multiple proteins in transgenic plants
Otras citas
Referencia
1Anderluh G. et al., "Cloning, Sequencing, and Expression of Equinatoxin II," Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 1996, 220:437-442.
2Ando, R. et al., "An Optical Marker Based on the UV-Induced Green-to-Red Photoconversion of a Fluorescent Protein," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2002), 99(20):12651-12656.
3Chudakov D. M. et al., "Kindling Fluorescent Proteins for Precise in vivo Photolableing," Nature Biotechnology, 2003, 21:191-194.
4Eichinger L. et al., "Dictyostelium as Model System for Studies of the Actin Cytoskeleton by Molecular Genetics," Microscopy Research and Technique, 1999, 47:124-134.
5Falk M. M. et al., "High Resolution, Fluorescent Deconvolution Microscopy and Tagging With the Autofluorescent Tracers CFP, GFP, and YFP to Study the Structural Composition of Gap Junctions in Living Cells," Microscopy Research and Technique, 2001, 52:251-262.
6Fradkov A. F. et al., "Novel Fluorescent Protein From Discosoma Coral and Its Mutants Possesses a Unique Far-Red Fluorescent," FEBS Letters, 2000, 479:127-130.
7Gurskaya N. G. et al., "Color Transitions in Coral's Fluorescent Proteins by Site-Directed Mutagenesis," BMC Biochemistry, 2001, 2:6.
8Gurskaya N. G. et al., "GFP-like Chromosomes as a Source of Far-Red Fluorescent Proteins," FEBS Letters,2001, 507:16-20.
9Hanson M. R. et al., "GFP Imaging: Methodology and Application to Investigate Cellular Compartmentation in plants," Journal of Experimental Botany, 2001, 52:529-539.
10Hillisch A. et al., "Recent Advances in FRET: Distance Determination in Protein-DNA Complexes," Current Opinion in Structural Biology, 2001, 11:201-207.
11Houtsmuller A. B. et al., "Macromolecular Dynamics in Living Cell Nuclei Revealed by Fluorescent Redistribution After Photobleaching," Histochem Cell Biol, 2001, 115:13-21.
12Kallal L. et al., "Using Grenn Fluorescent Proteins to Study G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Localization Trafficking," Trends Pharmacol Sci, 21:175-180, 2000.
13Labas Y. A. et al., "Diversity and Evolution of the Green Fluorescent Protein Family," Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2002, 99:4256-4261.
14Laird D. W. et al., "Comparative Analysis and Application of Fluorescent Protein-Tagged Connexins," Microscopy and Research Technique, 2001, 52:263-272.
15Lukyanov K. A. et al., "Natural Animal Coloration Can Be Determined by a Nonfluorescent Green Fluorescent Protein Homolog," J Biol Chemistry, 2000, 275(34):25879-25882.
16Macek, P. et al., "Intrinsic Tryptoohan Fluorescence of Equinatoxin II, a Pore-Forming Polypeptide From the Sea Anemone Actinia equina L, Monitors Its Interaction With Lipid Membranes," European Journal of Biochemistry (1995), 234:329-335.
17Martynov V. I. et al., "Alternative Cyclization in GFP-like Proteins Family," J Biol Chem, 2001, 276:21012-6.
18Matz M. V. et al, "Family of the Green Fluorescent Protein: Journey to the End of the Rainbow," Bioessays, 2002, 24:953-959.
19Matz M. V. et al., "Fluorescent Proteins From Nonbioluminescent Anthozoa Species," Nature Biotechnol, 1999, 17:969-973.
20Patterson G. H. et al., "A Photoactivatable GFP for Selective Photolabeling of Proteins and Cells," Science, 2002, 297:1873-1877.
21Pollok B. A. and Roger Heim, "Using GFP in FRET-based Applications," Cell Biology, 1999, 9:57-60.
22Reits E. et al., "From Fixed to FRAP: Measuring Protein Mobility and Activity in Living Cells," Nature Cell Biology, 2001, 3:E145-147.
23Terskikh A. et al., "Fluorescent Timer: Protein That Changes Color With Time," Science, 2000, 290:1585-8.
24Tsien R. Y., "Rosy Dawn for Fluorescent Proteins," Nat Biotech, 1999, 17:956-957.
25Tsien R. Y., "The Green Fluorescent Protein," Annu Rev Biochem, 1998, 67:509-544.
26Verkhusha V. V., et al., "An Enhanced Mutant of Red Fluorescent Protein DsRed for Developmental Timer of Neural Fiber Bundle Formation," Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2001, 276:29621-29624.
27Ward W. W. et al., "An Energy Transfer Protein in Coelenterate Bioluminescence," J Biol Chem, 1979, 254:781-788.
28Yanushevich Y. G. et al., "A Strategy for the Generation of Non-Aggregating Mutants of Anthozoa Fluorescent Proteins," FEBS Letters, 2002, 511:11-14.
29Yarbrough D. et al., "Refined Crystal Structure of DsRed, a Red Fluorescent Protein From Coral, at 2.0-A Resolution," Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2001, 98:462-7.
Clasificaciones
Clasificación de EE.UU.530/350, 435/320.1, 435/69.1, 435/252.3
Clasificación internacionalC12N9/12, C12N1/20, C12N15/00, C07K1/00
Clasificación cooperativaC07K14/43504
Clasificación europeaC07K14/435A
Eventos legales
FechaCódigoEventoDescripción
13 Dic 2010FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 4
8 Feb 2007ASAssignment
Owner name: UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:SALIH, ANYA;REEL/FRAME:018867/0914
Effective date: 20070207
10 Feb 2006ASAssignment
Owner name: UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA RESEARCH FOUNDATION, INC., F
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:MATZ, MIKHAIL V.;ALIEVA, NAILA OMAR K.;KONZEN, KAREN A.;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:017156/0649;SIGNING DATES FROM 20050624 TO 20050627