|Número de publicación||USRE31591 E|
|Tipo de publicación||Concesión|
|Número de solicitud||US 06/325,706|
|Fecha de publicación||29 May 1984|
|Fecha de presentación||30 Nov 1981|
|Fecha de prioridad||27 Mar 1975|
|Número de publicación||06325706, 325706, US RE31591 E, US RE31591E, US-E-RE31591, USRE31591 E, USRE31591E|
|Inventores||George T. Drakeley|
|Cesionario original||The Boeing Company|
|Exportar cita||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Citas de patentes (22), Citada por (2), Clasificaciones (16)|
|Enlaces externos: USPTO, Cesión de USPTO, Espacenet|
.Iadd.This is a continuation of reissue application Serial No. 133,339, filed Mar. 24, 1980, now abandoned, which was a continuation of reissue application Ser. No. 967,212, filed Dec. 7, 1978, now abandoned, for reissue of U.S. Patent No. 3,997,134. .Iaddend.
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to thrust-reverser installations for airplane jet engines, and, in particular, to a downwardly and forwardly directed thrust-reversing jet.Iadd., .Iaddend..[.and.]. to control mechanism for such a jet .Iadd.and to a method of using the thrust-reversing jet during landing of an airplane. .Iaddend.
2. Prior Art
Various types of thrust-reversers for jet engines have been provided, but such reverse-thrust jets in the past have been directed to the side of the engine or the fuselage ordinarily, or, if the thrust-reversing jet has been directed downward, it has not been conveniently adapted to a jet engine buried in the tail of a fuselage.
It is an object of the present invention to provide a jet engine installation buried in the tail of an airplane fuselage having a sole downwardly and forwardly directed reverse-thrust duct into which a jet exhaust can be deflected easily and quickly.
A further object is to be able to close both ends of such a reverse-thrust duct when the jet engine is producing forward thrust and which will enable the reverse-thrust duct to be opened in a controlled manner when it is desired to produce a reverse-thrust .Iadd.such as during landing.Iaddend..
.Iadd.An additional object is to provide mechanism and a method for landing a conventional airplane having a steerable nose wheel to assure prompt and firm contact of the nose wheel against the ground. .Iaddend.
The foregoing objects can be accomplished by providing a control door in a rearward-discharge duct from a jet engine and a control door for the outer end of a reverse-thrust duct branching from the rearward-discharge duct .Iadd.at the aft of the airplane .Iaddend.and which reverse-thrust duct is directed only forward and downward .Iadd.so that, during landing, the exhaust jet from the engine can be directed downward and forward to produce a force tending to swing the nose of the airplane downward.Iaddend..
FIG. 1 is a side elevation .[.of the aft portion.]. of an airplane fuselage with parts broken away, and FIG. 2 is a similar view showing parts in different positions.
Installation of a jet engine buried in the tail of an airplane fuselage may be utilized in a trijet airplane in particular, but also can be used in .[.any type.]. .Iadd.other types .Iaddend.of airplane jet arrangement. It will be understood, therefore, that the particular buried jet engine arrangement shown in the drawings is representative and largely diagrammatic. In the tail portion 1 of the fuselage, the jet engine 2 is installed in a duct extending longitudinally of the fuselage beneath the vertical fin 3. Such vertical fin is conventional having a rudder installation 4 carried by its trailing edge and a horizontal stabilizer 5 mounted on the upper end of the vertical fin.
The longitudinal duct through the tail portion of the fuselage 1, in which the jet engine 2 is mounted, includes a forward air supply duct portion 6 and an aft rearward-discharge duct portion 7. A reverse-thrust duct 8 branches from the throat 9 of the rearward-discharge duct 7, and the lower portion of such reverse-thrust duct 8 is directed forwardly and downwardly at an angle within the range of 15° to 45°. The forward component of an exhaust jet discharged from the reverse-thrust duct 8 will apply a retarding force to the airplane fuselage 1, whereas the vertical component of such exhaust jet will produce an upward thrust on the tail portion of the fuselage.
When the airplane touches down in making a landing, it is usually flying at a high angle of attack so that the nose of the fuselage is elevated. If the airplane undercarriage includes a steerable nose wheel .Iadd.N.Iaddend., such nose wheel may not initially come into contact with the ground, yet such ground contact is very desirable in order to enable turning of the nose wheel to effect steering of the airplane. .[.The.]. .Iadd.In accordance with the present invention, .Iaddend.upward thrust .Iadd.is .Iaddend.produced on the tail of the airplane .Iadd.during landing .Iaddend.by the vertical component of the jet exhaust discharged from the reverse-thrust duct .[.will tend.]. .Iadd.which tends .Iaddend.to raise the tail and, correspondingly, to depress the nose of the fuselage about a fulcrum located in the vicinity of the main landing gear.Iadd.m.Iaddend.. Such upward thrust on the tail of the airplane .[.will, therefore, effect.]. .Iadd.effects .Iaddend.engagement of the nose wheel with the landing strip or .[.increase.]. .Iadd.increases .Iaddend.pressure of the nose wheel against the landing strip, so as to increase the steering effectiveness of the nose wheel.
The deflection of jet exhaust from the rearward-discharge duct 7 into the .Iadd.intake of .Iaddend.reverse-thrust duct 8 can be controlled by constricting means including a control door 10 to select the amount of reverse thrust exerted on the airplane. Preferably, such control door is of the hinged type having its rearward portion mounted on a pivot 11, the axis of which extends transversely of the airplane. The control door swings about such pivot between the position shown in FIG. 1, in which the door lies alongside the lower wall of the rearward-discharge duct and such duct is fully opened, and the upwardly and forwardly inclined position shown in FIG. 2 in which the control door 10 extends completely across the rearward-discharge duct to block it.
During cruising, the entire portion of the jet exhaust is directed by door 10 through rearward-discharge duct 7. When the airplane speed is to be reduced, the door 10 can be moved to the selected location between its extreme positions of FIGS. 1 and 2 to provide the desired amount of reverse-thrust by directing a portion of the jet exhaust through each of ducts 7 and 8. Upon landing, door 10 will normally be swung to the position of FIG. 2 to direct the entire portion of jet exhaust through reverse-thrust duct 8.
The pivot 11 is located at the rearward side of the junction between the rearward-discharge duct 7 and the reverse-thrust duct 8 so that the control door 10 in the position of FIG. 2 deflects the jet exhaust downward into the reverse-thrust duct. The .Iadd.intake .Iaddend.end of such reverse-thrust duct opening into the rearward-discharge duct is fully open when the control door is in the position shown in FIG. 2. A vent door 12 may also be provided to close the lower .Iadd.outlet .Iaddend.or exterior end of the reverse-thrust duct. Such vent door preferably is also of the hinged type being mounted on pivot 13 supporting the rearward portion of the vent door on the aft wall of the reverse-thrust duct 8. In closed position, the leading edge of the vent door is received behind a shoulder 14 forming a step in the forward wall of the reverse-thrust duct, as shown in FIG. 1. From such closed position, the vent door leading portion can swing downward so that the door extends forwardly and downwardly from the aft portion of the reverse-thrust duct .Iadd.as shown in FIG. 2.Iaddend..
It is preferred that the control door 10 and the vent door 12 be interconnected for simultaneous conjoint and proportionate movement. Swinging of the doors can be effected by rotation of a screw 15 effecting forward and aft movement of a toggle joint connecting the doors. Such screw can be rotated by an electric motor 16. Alternatively, the toggle joint can be actuated by a hydraulic jack.
When the control door 10 is in its position of FIG. 1 in which the rearward-discharge duct is fully opened, it is preferred that the forward edge of the door be received behind a shoulder 17 in the rearward-discharge duct so that the flow of jet exhaust gas from the power plant 2 will be as smooth as possible. Also, as illustrated in FIG. 1, it is preferred that the door 10 be curved so as to provide a throat in the rearward-discharge duct when such door is closing the reverse-thrust duct and to provide a scooping action to deflect the jet exhaust gas from the rearward-discharge duct into the reverse-thrust duct when the door is blocking the rearward-discharge duct, as shown in FIG. 2.
While provision of the vent door 12 is not essential, such door is desirable both to reduce drag by closing the opening of the reverse-thrust duct through the exterior of the fuselage 1 when all of the jet exhaust gases are flowing through the rearward-discharge duct 7 and to provide better control over the direction in which the jet exhaust gas is discharged from the reverse-thrust duct 8 when the control door 10 is in the position shown in FIG. 2.
While roller means could be used for swinging the doors 10 and 12 from the positions shown in FIG. 2 to the positions in FIG. 1, such doors could simply be spring-pressed toward the positions of FIG. 1. They could then be opened by release devices that would project their leading edges out from behind the shoulders 14 and 17, respectively, so that a blast of jet exhaust gas would swing the doors fully into their positions of FIG. 2 and hold them in such positions as long as the quantity of jet exhaust gas was sufficient to exceed the force exerted by the spring means. If the jet engine 2 were throttled down to reduce the discharge of jet exhaust gas sufficiently, the springs could return the doors to the positions of FIG. 1 and hold them in such positions until the forward edges of the doors were again pushed out from behind their shielding shoulders.
For the purpose of reducing the noise of the jet exhaust when the gas is being discharged through the rearward-discharge duct 7, such as during takeoff of the airplane.Iadd., .Iaddend.the portion of such exhaust duct rearwardly of control door 10 can be lined with suitable sound-absorbing material, such as perforated sandwich material. A horizontal sound deflector panel 18 of such material can line the bottom of the rearward discharge duct 7, and vertical sound shield panels 20 of such material can line opposite upright sides of such duct. The upper inner surface of such duct and the upper surface of control door 10 can also be covered with such material if desired. Moreover, the downward slope of the panel 18 will induce sound waves emitted from the rearward discharge duct 7 to be deflected downwardly which will further reduce the exhaust noise.
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|Patente citante||Fecha de presentación||Fecha de publicación||Solicitante||Título|
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|Clasificación de EE.UU.||244/110.00B, 239/265.29, 244/12.5, 244/50, 244/23.00D, 244/100.00R, 181/222|
|Clasificación internacional||B64D33/04, B64D27/20, B64C25/42|
|Clasificación cooperativa||B64D27/20, B64C25/423, B64D33/04|
|Clasificación europea||B64D27/20, B64D33/04, B64C25/42B|