|Número de publicación||WO2011106833 A1|
|Tipo de publicación||Solicitud|
|Número de solicitud||PCT/AU2011/000230|
|Fecha de publicación||9 Sep 2011|
|Fecha de presentación||2 Mar 2011|
|Fecha de prioridad||2 Mar 2010|
|Número de publicación||PCT/2011/230, PCT/AU/11/000230, PCT/AU/11/00230, PCT/AU/2011/000230, PCT/AU/2011/00230, PCT/AU11/000230, PCT/AU11/00230, PCT/AU11000230, PCT/AU1100230, PCT/AU2011/000230, PCT/AU2011/00230, PCT/AU2011000230, PCT/AU201100230, WO 2011/106833 A1, WO 2011106833 A1, WO 2011106833A1, WO-A1-2011106833, WO2011/106833A1, WO2011106833 A1, WO2011106833A1|
|Inventores||Scott Andrew Evans|
|Solicitante||Zego Pty Limited|
|Exportar cita||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Citas de patentes (5), Clasificaciones (7), Eventos legales (5)|
|Enlaces externos: Patentscope, Espacenet|
METHOD AND PANEL STRUCTURE FOR CONSTRUCTING A BUILDING
Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to a method and panel structure for constructing a building structure.
Description of the Background Art
The reference in this specification to any prior publication (or information derived from it), or to any matter which is known, is not, and should not be taken as an acknowledgment or admission or any form of suggestion that the prior publication (or information derived from it) or known matter forms part of the common general knowledge in the field of endeavour to which this specification relates. Presently, formwork is used in buildings or the like, as moulds, where concrete or other building materials are poured into the moulds in order to create the building structure. However, it has become apparent that wall formwork presently available is usually expensive, and time consuming within construction, as it is often constructed on site and is on the project critical path.
Thus, the present invention seeks to substantially overcome, or at least ameliorate, one or more disadvantages of existing arrangements, or to provide an alternative to existing arrangements. Summary of the Present Invention
In one broad aspect there is provided a panel structure for constructing a building structure, wherein the panel structure includes:
a first panel; and
a second panel, the second panel being spaced apart from the first panel and operatively connected to the first panel, wherein the space between the first panel and the second panel is configured to at least partially receive a building material. In one form, the building structure forms a part of a concrete wall, the building material being concrete, which is configured to be poured into the space between the first panel and the second panel.
In another form, the first panel includes an insulation panel.
In one embodiment, the insulation panel includes a first insulation panel portion joined to a second insulation panel portion.
In another embodiment, the first insulation panel portion and the second insulation panel portion each include an edge having male and female connecting portions, the male and female connecting portions being configured to interlock the first and second insulation panel portions together.
In an optional form, the insulation panel is made from polystyrene.
In another optional form, the first panel includes:
a plurality of first dovetail profiled protrusions and recesses provided on a first face thereof for retaining the first panel together with the building material once the building material has solidified; and
a plurality of second dovetail profiled recesses provided on a second face thereof for retaining assisting with render being retained once the second panel is rendered. In an optional embodiment, the first panel and second panel are connected by a plurality of interconnecting members.
In another optional embodiment, the first panel includes a plurality of channels which tight fittingly receive and retain a first portion of at least some of the interconnecting members, and wherein a second portion of at least some of the interconnecting members is coupled to the second panel. Optionally, the first portion and the second portion of each interconnecting member are separated by one or more arms. In one form, each arm includes one or more grooves, each groove being configured for supporting a reinforcement bar thereon.
In another form, the first portion of each interconnecting member includes a pair of first plates and the second portion of each interconnecting member includes a pair of second plates, wherein the pair of first and second plates are connected via a pair of arms.
In one embodiment, the pair of first plates are interconnected via a first cross-member, and the pair of second plates are interconnected via a second cross-member. 1 In another embodiment, each pair of first plates slidingly engages with one of the plurality of channels of the first panel, wherein each of the first plates includes a tapered protruding portion which protrudes therefrom for frictionally engaging with the first panel.
In an optional form, each channel has a shaped cross-sectional profile.
In another optional form, the second panel includes a plurality of slots along opposing edges thereof, wherein each second panel is configured to receive and engage a portion of the interconnecting members. In an optional embodiment, the second panel is a plastic panel.
In another optional embodiment, the second panel can be adhesively attached to each of the interconnecting members.
Optionally, the second panel is a fibre cement panel. In another broad aspect there is provided a method of constructing a building structure, the method including:
slidingly engaging a plurality of interconnecting members with a respective plurality of channels of a first panel;
coupling a second panel to the plurality of interconnects to form a panel structure, wherein the first panel is spaced from the second panel; and;
providing a building material in the space between the first panel and the second panel of the panel structure to construct the building structure. In one form, the method includes providing concrete in the space between the first panel and the second panel, wherein the building structure forms a part of a concrete wall.
In another form, the method includes standing a plurality of the panel structures in an upstanding orientation, wherein neighbouring panel structures are joined together using a panel structure coupling.
In one embodiment, the method includes coupling the panel structures to a plurality of frames prior to providing the building material in the space. In another embodiment, each interconnect includes one or more arms which extend between the respective first and second panel, wherein the method includes locating one or more reinforcement bars along horizontally aligned interconnects,. herein each groove of each arm locates and supports the respective reinforcement bar. In an optional form, the method includes adhesively attaching the interconnecting members to the second panel.
In another optional form, the second panel includes a plurality of slots each configured to receive and engage a portion of one of the interconnecting members, wherein the method includes slidingly engaging each interconnecting member with one of the slots of the second panel to define the panel structure. Optionally, once the building material has solidified, the method includes:
snapping a portion of each interconnecting member engaging each second panel of the panel structure; and
removing the second panel from the building structure for reuse.
Other embodiments of the above mentioned broad aspects will be realised throughout the description of the example embodiments. Brief Description of the Figures
An example of the present invention will now be described with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which: -
Figure 1 shows a perspective view of an example of an interconnecting member;
Figure 2 is a plan view of an example of a first panel;
Figure 3 is a magnified view of a portion of the first panel of Figure 2; Figure 4 is a front perspective view of a plurality of interconnecting members of Figure 1 slidingly engaging with the first panel of Figures 2 and 3 ;
Figure 5 is a perspective view of a portion of the plurality of interconnecting members engaged with the first panel of Figure 4;
Figure 6 is a perspective view of the first panel and an engaged interconnecting member of Figure 5 being adhered to an example of a second panel
Figure 7 is a perspective view of an example of a panel structure; Figure 8 is a magnified view of a portion of the apparatus of Figure 7 showing the.plurality of interconnecting members engaged by respective channels of the first panel;
Figure 9 is a perspective view of a plurality of panel structures stacked and located in an upstanding orientation via coupling to a wall brace scaffolding system for constructing a building structure;
Figure 10 is a top perspective view illustrating a first panel structure having a coupling for receiving and engaging an overlapping portion of the second panel of a neighbouring panel structure;
Figure 11 is a semi-transparent perspective view of the plurality of panel structures supporting a plurality of reinforcement bars upon arms of the interconnecting members; - Figure 12 is a semi-transparent perspective view of concrete being poured within the space defined between the first and second panels of the panel structures;
Figure 13 is a semi-transparent perspective view of concrete continuing to be poured within the spaced between the first and second panels, wherein the level of the concrete contained within the panel structures has increased relative to Figure 12;
Figure 14 is a perspective view of an example of the building structure created using the panel structure; Figure 15 is a front view of an alternative example of a second panel which can be used to from the panel structure;
Figure 16 is a front view of a panel structure using the second panel of Figure 15; and Figure 17 is a front view of the plates of the interconnecting members of the panel structure being removed with a splade. Example Modes For Carrying Out The Invention
An example of an panel structure 100 for constructing a building structure, is shown in Figure 7.
In this particular example, the panel structure 100 includes a first panel 110, and a second panel 120, where the second panel 120 is spaced apart from the first panel 110 and operatively connected to the first panel 110. Notably, the space 105 between the first panel 110 and the second panel 120 is configured to at least partially receive a building material 1220 as shown in Figure 12 and 13.
The building structure can form a part of a concrete wall 1400, where the building material 1220 can be concrete, which is configured to be poured, via a hose 1210 or the like, into the space 105 between the first panel 110 and the second panel 120.
The first panel 110 can include one or more insulation panels portions 112A and 112B. In particular, a first insulation panel portion 112A is configured to be joined to a second insulation panel portion 112B to form the first panel 110, as shown in Figures 5 and 7. The insulation panels 112A, 112B can include an edge with male and female connecting portions 1 15, where the male and female connecting portions 1 15 are configured to connect with respective female and male connecting portions 1 15 of the other insulation panel portion in an interlocking manner. It will be appreciated that the connecting portions 115 may be formed of any shape or structure which allows for a robust connection of the panels portions 1 12A, 112B.
Figure 7 also shows that the apparatus 100 can include a plurality of interconnecting members 130 for connecting the first and second panels 110, 120. The interconnecting members space the first panel 110 from the second member 120 as well as assist in coupling neighbouring insulation panel portions 112A, 112B as will be discussed in more detail below. As shown in Figures 2 and 3, the first panel includes a plurality of channels 160 which tight fittingly receive and retain a first portion 135 of at least some of the interconnecting members 130 and a second portion 136 of at least some of the interconnecting members 130 is adhered to the second panel 120 as shown in Figure 7.
Referring more specifically to Figure 1, each interconnecting member 130 has an elongate body wherein the first portion 135 and the second portion 136 of each interconnecting member 130 are separated by one or more arms 132 which define the space 105 between the panels 1 10, 120. Each arm 132 includes one or more grooves 139, wherein each groove 139 is configured for supporting a reinforcement bar 1 100 thereon as shown in Figure 11. The grooves can be located along opposing edges of the arms to ensure no-specific orientation when the interconnecting member is engaged with the first panel 110.
The first portion 135 of each interconnecting member 130 includes a pair of first plates 135 and the second portion 136 of each interconnecting member 130 includes a pair of second plates 136. The pair of first and second plates 135, 136 are connected via a pair of arms 132. The pair of first plates 135 are interconnected via a first cross-member 137. In addition, the pair of second plates 136 are interconnected via a second cross-member 138. At least one of the first plates 135 slidingly engages, as shown by arrow 400 in Figure 4, with one of the plurality of channels 160 of the first panel portion 112A of the first panel 110 and the other first plate 135 slidingly engages with one of the plurality of channels 160 of the second panel portion 112B of the first panel 110, as shown in Figures 5. Each of the first plates 135 includes a tapered protruding portion 140 forming a ridge which protrudes therefrom for assisting the respective plate 135 to slidingly engage with the respective channel 160. As will be discussed in more detail below, each of the second plates 136 also includes a ridge 140.
Each channel 160 of the first panel 110 has a shaped cross-sectional profile, as shown in Figures 2 and 3, which corresponds to the profile of the each first plate and the adjacent portion of the arm 132 as shown in Figure 8. In particular a first channel portion 161 extends orthogonally to a second channel portion 162 of the channel 160. The channels 160 may be evenly distributed along opposing edges of the panel portion 112. Each channel 160 of the first panel portion 112A is aligned with a respective channel of the second panel portion 112B when joining the first and second panel portions together such that first plates 135 are received in respective channels 160 of the respective panel portions 112A, 112B as shown in Figures 4 and 5. ^
The first panel 110 includes a plurality of dovetail protrusions 163 and recesses 167, in the form of dovetail channels, on an inner face of the first panel which rests against the building material when poured. The dovetail protrusions 163 and recesses 167 allow for some of the wet building material to fill the recesses as mould about the protrusions such that the first panel is retained to the building structure once the building material solidifies. The first panel 110 also includes a plurality of dovetail protrusions 164, in the form of dovetail channels, which are provided along an external face of the first panel which are configured to support render thereon. The dovetail protrusions 164 also similarly assist in retaining render upon the external surface of the first panel 110. The external surface of the first panel 164 also includes a plurality of index protrusions 165 which indicate to an operator where it is suitable to cut the first panel to create an overlapping configuration as shown in Figure 10 for panel structure 100B.
Referring to Figure 6 there is shown an example of the interconnecting members 130 being attached to a second panel 120. In this particular example, it will be appreciated that the second plates 136 of each interconnecting member 130 are adhered to the insulation panel via an adhesive 170. The second plates 136 can include a flattened profile having a protruding ridge therefrom similarly to the first plates 135. The second panel 120 is then placed against the second plates 136 provided with the adhesive to form the panel structure, as shown in Figure 7. The second panel is pressed against the second plates until the ridge 140 of the second plates 135 contacts the surface of the second panel 120. This configuration ensures that a uniform spacing is achieved despite the use of the adhesive. The second panel 120 assists to retain the plurality of first panels 112A, 112B in position relative to each other and to hold the panels 112A, 112B in place against the pressure of wet concrete when poured, as will be discussed in more detail below.
The insulation panel 110 can be made from polystyrene foam, the second panel 120 can be made from fibre cement, and the interconnecting members 130 can be made from plastic, preferably recycled plastic. However, as will be described in relation to Figures 15, 16 and 17, the second panel 120 can be made from plastic in another embodiment. The apparatus described herein can be pre-prepared prior to construction or on site. An example method for constructing a building structure by using the panel structure will now be described with reference to Figures 9 to 14. The following example will be described for constructing a basement level of a building structure, however, it will be appreciated that the method can be used for other building structures. As shown in Figure 9, starter bars 910 can be cast into a slab 920 at appropriate centres to suit the engineering of the building. A liquid membrane is painted 100mm up the starter bars and for the width of the panel structures 1 0 to define a damp proof course. The panel structures 100 can be set out by flicking a chalk line to define the inside face thereof. Following this, a plurality of frames 900 in the form of a wall brace scaffolding system can be positioned on the chalk line. According to one specific example, the scaffolding system 900 can be drilled into the slab 920 with an 8mm tungsten drill, 60mm deep, where the 8mm screw bolt can be inserted into the hole and with a 13rrim socket and rattle gun, in order to set the screw.
The starter bar safety caps can then be removed as the panel structures are installed, wherein a bottom opening of each panel structure receives therein one or more of the starter bars. An inside face of the corner panel structure can be cut vertically to accept the adjacent panel structure and then simply lifted into position over the starter bars. Referring to Figure 10, a panel structure coupling 1000 is adhesively attached to an edge of the panel structure. In particular, the panel structure coupling 1000 has a Ή shaped profile, wherein a first mouth 1010 of the panel structure coupling receives therein an edge of a first panel structure 100A, and a second opposing mouth 1020 of the panel structure coupling 1000 receives therein, as shown by arrow 1040, an edge of a neighbouring panel structure 100B. Bonding foam can be used to mount the panel structure coupling 1000 to the second panel of each panel structure. The H-mould can be removed later and a recessed edge join can be set and taped ready for a preferred applied finish.
As shown in Figure 9, the panel structures 100 can be made to any suitable height of the floor level, including to specific floor lever RL's. Thus, for example, various panel structure 100 heights such as 3.6m, 3.3m, 3.0m and 2.7m can be achieved. The inside face of a panel structure 100 can then be simply cut to suit the engineered slab thickness and to suit any transfer beam thickness. As shown in Figure 9, the height of the panel structures 100 can define voids in the walls of the building structure, such as doors and windows 930.
As shown in Figure 9, brackets can be located and installed around the wall brace scaffolding 900 such that the panel structures 100 are attached to the slab 920 via the wall brace scaffolding 900.
A bottom edge of each panel structure 100 which substantially rests against the slab 920 can then be sealed with foam, or the like. The foam may expand and seal any discrepancies between the slab level 920 and the bottom edge of the panel structure 100. Furthermore, laminated pip planks can also be installed on the wall system scaffolding 920, as well as 100 x 50 LVL hand rails into steel loops provided.
As shown in Figure 1 1, horizontal reinforcement bars 1100 can be slid within the joined panel structures 100 as per the engineering requirements, wherein the grooves 139 of the interconnecting members 130 support the bars. Furthermore, vertical reinforcement bars 1200, as shown in Figure 12, can also be installed, prior to installing vertical corner locking bars, or the like. As shown in Figure 12, concrete can then be poured into the space within the void 105 of the joined panel structures 100. In this particular example, the concrete specification is 32mpa minimum with maximum 10mm aggregate at 180 slump, and concrete is pumped into the panel structures 100 with a 50mm rubber block fill hose. Initially, the concrete is poured around the joined panel structures 100 such that the concrete level 1230 contained within the void is at approximately 300mm above the slab level 920, as shown in Figure 12. In the event that the joined panel structures 100 define an enclosure, as shown in Figure 12 and 13, the concrete can be continuously poured around the wall line in a clockwise or anti-clockwise direction. Notably, concrete may not be poured over any openings at this stage.
Once the initial 300mm of concrete has solidified, concrete can be continuously poured in the same direction at 900mm high passes, as shown in Figure 13, and spaces under the window openings can be filled without pouring concrete over any openings. This process may continue around the wall line in the same direction with the first 1200mm solidified, and in the same direction at 900mm high passes. Notably, the window and door head lever can be filled and the process can continue around the wall line in the same direction until a desired height is reached. The cement is then left to dry and stabilise forming the wall 1400 of the building structure as shown in Figure 14.
A horizontal coupling and aligning system (not shown) similar to that of the panel structure coupling 1000 can then be installed to the top edge of the panel structures 100. A suspended concrete floor system (not shown) can also be installed. Once the floor form work is in place, the vertical wall bars 1200 can be safely bent into the slab area as per the engineering details. Furthermore, bar chairs (not shown) for the lower and upper re- enforcement can also be installed and concrete slab can be poured as specified to the correct RL level of the H-mould. Thus, the building structure can be prepared for the installation of the next floor level. It will be appreciated that the method described herein may then be repeated a number of times to build a multi-level building structure. Referring to Figure 15, 16 and 17, an alternative second panel 120 is discussed which can be used for the panel structure and construction method. Referring specifically to Figure 15, the second panel 120 includes a number of slots 1510 to tight fittingly receive a portion of the arms of the interconnecting members 130. The slots along opposing edges are aligned. The spacing between the slots 1510 is generally equidistant and are evenly distributed. The end slots 1510 are located toward the ends a distance which is approximately half of the distance between slots 1510 such that a tessellated pattern can be achieved as shown in Figure 16 such that the slots are still aligned when a panel structure 100 is formed. The second panel 120 is generally made from rigid plastic and is able to be reused for constructing a number of walls as will be discussed in further detail. A first face of the second panel includes a ridged surface 1520 to provide strength to the panel. The opposing face (not shown) can have a smooth surface.
As shown in Figure 16, a portion of an arm of an interconnecting member is slid through one of the slots 1510 of the second panel 120. The plates 135 and the guide ridge 134 rest against opposite faces of the second panel 120. The panel structures may be constructed on site in a tessellated pattern as shown in Figure 16. The ridged face of the panel 120 is orientated externally such that it rests against the concrete when poured. The concrete may then be poured as discussed previously. Once the concrete has dried, the plates 135 that rest on external surface of the second panels 120 can be snapped off using a splade 1700 having a shapened edge or similar as shown in Figure 17. Once the plates 135 are snapped off for a particular second panel 1500, the second panel 1500 can be removed from the concrete wall. The splade can then be used by an operator to snap any protruding portion of the arms 139 which extend from the wall. The. second panel 120 can then be reused for constructing another wall of a building structure.
It will, be appreciated that the presently described panel structure and method can provide numerous advantages. Examples include less carnage costs, cleaner sites, as well as easier installation of services, plumbing, electrical and data, and vacuum systems, which can be installed off the critical path and hence with minimal structural damage to the concrete wall. Furthermore, the panel structure and method described herein can provide a wall system which has superior energy efficiency, lower HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Condition) costs, is faster to build, lighter to handle, and satisfies AS 3600 engineering standards, occupational health and safety requirements, and is recyclable. These are described in more detail below.
In one particular example, it will be appreciated that wall formwork is generally expensive due to site labour, management and resources, quality control of a factory product produced, fixing of insulation, formwork as a single operation, the difficulties in adapting formwork on site, etc. In contrast, the panel structure and method described herein can be inexpensive.
Additionally, cutting formwork to size and around beams, windows, etc on site is typically cost intensive. However, the panel structure and method described herein can lend itself to be adaptable on site as the panels are fibre cement outside and polystyrene foam inside, which can be easily cut.
According to another example, the provision of service ducts and chases is difficult, involves multiple trades, can be costly and is prone to mistakes of incorrect placement and/or omission. However, with the panel structure and method described herein, these can be easily cut on site into the polystyrene.
It will also be appreciated that craneage is also generally expensive and for wall formwork, this may require street closures and associated traffic management costs. However, due to the lightness and easy handling of the panel structure described herein, craneage capacity and time can be reduced.
In addition to this, if there are late design changes in construction, the cost for construction will generally increase. However, the panel structure and method described herein can allow for the panels to be site-adapted immediately prior to the pouring of concrete. According to another example, conventional wall formwork construction is normally on the Project Critical Path and therefore tends to govern the speed of construction of a project. Thus, the panel structure and method described herein can provide offsite construction of the formwork, which can decrease the time spent on site and the time on the Project Critical Path. Thus, with the panel structure and method described herein, cutting formwork to size and around beams, that is, generally the offsite and onsite operations can be quick and easy. j
Furthermore, service installation (such as plumbing, electricity, etc.) is often on the critical path. However, with the panel structure and method described herein, service trades can be more readily installed due to the ease of cutting into the panels. Additionally, it will be appreciated that the provision of service ducts and chases is difficult, involves multiple trades, can be a Critical Path activity and is often prone to errors such as incorrect placement and / or Omission. By using the panel structure and method described herein, chases, ducts, etc. can be easily cut into polystyrene panels on site.
The panel structure and method described herein can also provide, according to a further example, safer occupation health and safety (OH & S) standards. For example, for prefabricated wall formwork systems using steel internal framing, steel members frequently have sharp edges that are an injury hazard to hands and legs. Additionally, prefabricated wall formwork systems typically uses steel internal framing, and it will be appreciated that steel represents an electrical hazard when electrical services are embedded. However, the method and panel structure described herein, generally does not require the use of steel components.
Furthermore, it will also be appreciated that it is sometimes the case that an electrician and , plumber may have to be working in the same place at the same time, or within the vicinity of each other, if the project is on the critical path. Thus, the speed of which chases, ducts and penetrations can be cut by using the method and panel structure described herein can provide an advantage as traders can move more quickly, with less exposure to other traders. Additionally, traditional building materials and components typically require heavy lifting, with consequent high risk of back injury to workers. In contrast, the components of the panel structure described herein are usually lightweight and can be easily lifted.
Furthermore, timber formwork when stripped and awaiting removal, has high injury risk from nails, whereas the panel structure described herein generally does not require the use of nails or the like. Further still, projecting starter bars are usually a hazard in construction, however due to the speed of the presently described method of construction, exposure time to projecting starter bars can be reduced. According to another example, heavy equipment usually with electrical leads or air hoses is typically required for extended periods at height and in crowded work areas. An advantage of the panel structure and method described herein can include that power tools are not necessarily required. According to yet another example, the presently described panel structure and method can provide environmental advantages. Thus, for example, the panel structure described can incorporate insulation as a part of the formwork system and can satisfy any regulatory requirements for energy saving insulation. In one particular example, HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Condition) running costs are usually high and use large amounts of energy involving high carbon emission. The panel structure and method described herein can work to reduce HVAC requirements. Furthermore, building sites typically generate a lot of waste material, whereas the panel structure and method described herein can reduce the production of waste material. In further example, it will also be appreciated that wall measurement and pricing is complex and time consuming. Thus, in an example use of the panel structure and method described herein, before a builder has a contract for the construction project, a part of the system can be computer generated. Furthermore, as previously discussed, any late changes can be easily dealt with, where late design changes are usually difficult to cost accurately, those costs are difficult to control, and persuading stakeholders of the magnitude of these cost increases and time delays can be difficult. It will be appreciated that the panel structure and method discussed herein can be accommodated more efficiently. It will also be appreciated that systems requiring commitment at the design change may not be trusted by stakeholders as they fear being locked into the design too early before competitive tenders can be obtained. In contrast, the present system and method does not generally require commitment at design stage, as it can be used as formwork on generic AS 3600 designs.
Additionally, as cranes for hoisting wall forms typically occupy scarce site space, the system and method described herein can minimise crane usage, which can result in substantial reduction of scarce management resources. Further still, wall formwork storage typically occupies scarce site space, whereas the storage requirements for the panel structure described herein are minimal.
According to another example, wall formwork entails a high labour to materials cost ratio, making costs difficult to predict and control. In contrast, the system and method described herein has lower labour costs and the material cost can be accurately determined in advance to construction.
Thus, the above-described system and method can provide, for example, lower total construction cost due to manufacture to a standardized system in a factory environment, inclusion of insulation, light components, and a system that can be easily adjusted, altered, and worked on site. Furthermore, insulation is integral with the formwork which can also provide further advantages as described above.
The foregoing describes only some embodiments of the present invention, and modifications and/or changes can be made thereto without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention, the embodiments being illustrative and not restrictive. In the context of this specification, the word "comprising" means "including principally but not necessarily solely" or "having" or "including", and not "consisting only of. Variations of the word "comprising", such as "comprise" and "comprises" have correspondingly varied meanings.
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|Clasificación internacional||E04C2/34, E04C2/284|
|Clasificación cooperativa||E04B2002/8688, E04C2/044, E04B2/8652, E04C2002/046, E04B2/8641|
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